Fiqh of Fasting Part 1

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smilla rahmanir rahim al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam O Allah Rasool Allah Karim Allah alihi wa sahbihi ultramarine Abed lamella and Milena Illa Allah antenna in nikka interlingual Hakeem Allahu Alem, NEMA and foreigner when foreigner Bhima lm Tana was it in our element watermelon? Yeah Karim Allah my Nana Ruby community million fat woman.

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woman left Scylla Toshiba woman. Woman Do you smack obeah sera la sirata mumble hi Ravi Khanna styrene rubbish. Lisa de or silly Emery Washington Odetta. melissani Yahoo Cali Salam alaykum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh All praise belongs to Allah subhanho wa Taala we praise Allah subhanho wa Taala we see colossal Anahata as assistance and we seek Allah subhanho wa Taala as guidance and we seek refuge in Allah, Allah azza wa jal from the evils of our souls and the adverse consequences of our deeds. Whomsoever Allah subhanho wa Taala decrees guidance upon them, none can misguide that person, and whomsoever Allah subhanho wa Taala decrees misguidance upon then none can guide him and

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peace and salutations be upon the final messenger Muhammad Ali Abdullah Saleh Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Indeed all praises belong to Allah subhanho wa Taala. For it is with his blessings that good begins and good becomes completed and indeed are sitting together here is from the blessings of Allah subhanho wa Taala upon us, it is from the blessings of Allah subhanho wa Taala upon us for we have not come together, except to learn from the inheritance of Muhammad Ali Abdullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, we come together to learn the rulings taught to us by our shirts, and in our area pertaining to matters that are not specific but heavily involved in our lives during a special month

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that Allah subhanho wa Taala has granted the aroma of Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and this is the month of Ramadan, which insha Allah, we will witness if Allah subhanho wa Taala wills in the upcoming days We ask Allah subhanho wa Taala to grant us life and to grant us a successful Ramadan and to allow us to see its end I mean, brothers and sisters given that it is the time is condensed and the topic is condensed. It's important that we kick off proceedings almost immediately that the book inshallah that we will be studying is on the to ship, a book written by Eben Kodama and Hambali Rahim Allah, Allahu LA, evil, Kodama Rahim, Allah is a scholar that needs no introduction, really,

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for he is somebody that indeed the oma regards as a blessing to the Ummah and he's a pillar, no doubt, in the world of fake, and in the world of him, and definitely a pillar in the humble method. If we look at many books that were written in the humble method after him, we find that these books were based heavily on El McNair, which is a book also written by even Kodama Bahama, who live in Kodama. And he seemed to have a great standing and understanding with regards to education. If we look at his compilations, we will end this this is deduced from his compilation. So for example, he has the book that we learned today, which is on the right, and on the left is a very summarized

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version, as you can see from the size of the book, this is all the chapters of the book, in this small little book here. And this is different to his 18 volume alimony, which is a discussion from a comparative worldview or standpoint where he mentioned the rulings. And he mentioned the view of the humbling method and probably the different views in the humbler method as well as the different views of the alcohol from the other mazahub. And then he acts as his own right, as a [???]y. And reaches a conclusion that he feels is closest to the truth in his opinion of him of a law. So he has on the 25th. And the scholars say this was clearly written for beginners, in fact, because it's

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heavily connected to the method. And even if he states a view of his own, which is not the method, then he states his view, without diving too deep into mentioning the differences in the method, firstly, or secondly mentioning, overwhelming evidences. In fact, there's very few evidences that even Kodama cites here it's right for the beginner who's studying to try and or it's a means of them having a form of founding in their journey studying. So they study one book properly and they don't have many views clouding their mind. Rather, they have a single view. And because it's based on the work of one scholar, there's no contradicting views because a scholar obviously basis he's used upon

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a particular issue or method, right or particular principles. So there's no contradictions and the student of knowledge covers it understands it, memorizes it then they have a good foundation now to move on to different work. So after that,

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He wrote a book called The lacunae. And the lacunae, the scholars say, can be regarded as a book for those who must have this book. Now it's a step up, because in this book, he wouldn't dive into the differences of opinion between the Maasai. But rather, he would start coming up with evidences to substantiate the points that he cited in his book. So here, he would cite it and not necessarily place evidence. In fact, you rarely would find evidences here. But in locally, he would expand further. And they say this was for those who haven't reached the middle point in seeking fit, but they were close to the middle. This was for them. And in that book, he would cite some differences

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of opinion in the method, but it wasn't a great phenomenon of the book. After that, he came up with another book called al caffee. And this book was for the middle class in terms of the effect of development and in it he would mention the views of the method we know the humbling method is famous for several views given the principle of him at the helm of Allah Mohammed Rahim Allah would he preferred citing of you have as a hobby for example, overusing pious or citing a hadith that was considered hesitantly re re, or in the context of the classical scholars of Hadith, which was very, but not that he has the latest colors considered it according to the latest colors, this would be a

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has an eerie, meaning it's weak but not extremely weak, he would rather use this type of Hadeeth over and above using, yes. So based on this and different durations getting to him, you would find him having several rewired several rulings or teachings to a particular view in the method. So in our case, Mm hmm. Kodama, Rahim, Allah would expand mentioning these views. And then later on, when the student became equipped with him caffee, then he has the 18 volume alimony. And it depends on the print that you have, the print that I have is in 18 volumes. And that is that brings all the magic together, and so on and so forth. But by this stage, a student has a good context in terms of

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their own development. And they have the ability to read other books without becoming a sort of led astray, or sort of confused and today we find this happening many a time we want to teach, and we want to teach it competitively, right? In fact, the other day, a brother told me that, oh, you're teaching the book of evil, Kodama, that means you only going to be mentioning the views of the humbling mishap. Right? And this is because this is what people have become used to that if it's based on a massive I'm not interested. But in the if we take things back a little we see that when we do study it comparatively, very little sticks. And this is from experience. Many of my students

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who go on and study things competitively, they still come back and ask me for the answers to questions that they've studied. Right? Because there's a lack of seen the acquisition of what's being studied even Kodama, Rahim Allah, he was titled more of a dean. The one guy that in religion, Rahim Allah because of his great delivery to the oma Allahu Allah. His name is Abdullah ibn Ahmed even Kodama and makdessi. And he, his title was Abu Mohammed his kunia was Abu Mohammed, just as we have good news based on our children, Abu Abdullah and so on and so forth, or Abu Abdullah if we, if we don't want to use the hikayat format, in the Arabic language, and it is said that his lineage

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goes up to Abdullah bin Omar probably Allah one who is the son of former kopparberg Allah and he was born in the year 541, after he Jorah and he was born in Palestine. And Palestine, as the historian say, became occupied by the Christians. And at that time, his family migrated to Damascus to share them. And this was when even Kodama Rahim Allah was eight years old. After migration to Damascus, he studied at home with his father. And he studied with the other missionaries in Damascus. And he his acquisition of physics started at a young age and hamdulillah. As you can see, he came from a family of him because he was learning from his father. And it was there that he memorized the Quran, as

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well as other concise works in fifth in Damascus, after he is his raha migration. And then when he was 20 years old, it is said that he traveled to book that with his cousin, and he learned some humbly works there. And from his teachers, there was a two other Gln Rahim Allah a name that we have heard many times so he learned with him as well as with other machines in this place. And as I said, honestly, if we were to sit and discuss the life of evil, Kodama would need all four hours of the time allocated to us for the session. He passed away, Rahim Allah in the 620 after hatorah on a Saturday on the day of April 5, on the day of reading, Allahu Allah and today we are learning his

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work and what we learn is a means of rewards for him, because this is a realm which he has left behind that is beneficial and inshallah you will teach it to others and they will benefit as well. Brothers and sisters, it's important before we also start reading the book that we state that obviously the audience is cosmopolitan and we are teaching humbly text

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It's not my intention here to share my own views or views in the matters that we're going to discuss. If I do mention differences of opinion, then at the end, inshallah, we will stick to what the author has said, Because remember, the essence here is to move out with something in your memory regarding the topics set and not confusion that something mustn't be confusion. With that said, it's important that we understand the credibility and the honor of the dilemma in our communities, those that live with us. So even if we discuss differences here, your reference is the scholars in your community. This course or seminar is meant to be a means of knowledge for those who require it and a

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means of light for those who are blessed to have their own scholars looking after the Islamic affairs in their communities. It shouldn't be that you hear a view here. And you take that as a view and contradict the reigning view in the community that you come from. Given that Allah subhanho wa Taala has commanded you to follow the people of Allah, Allah Vickery. And coming to latter element Allah subhanho wa Taala commands you to ask the people of knowledge if you don't know. So, as a lay person, your job is to ask the people of knowledge and your people of knowledge are those who live day in and day out with you. And they take care of your religious difficulties as well as your

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religious affairs. And they have more of a right than myself to their teachings being looked after by you. And indeed in it, there's a great muscle for this leads to a more unified approach in the communities that we come from. So the aim of this is not to undermine colleagues from any of the communities you come from or to put down the practices that may be practiced in certain countries, depending on the method whether they're Maliki or Shafi or Hanafi, etc. May Allah subhanho wa Taala grant us the understanding, inshallah he will read some of the text and then I will explain the text and at times I might ask him to repeat reading so this will be a means of you following exactly what

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is being discussed with Allah tala. So seeking Allah subhanho wa Taala assistance, let's move on inshallah we'll be reading of the text by so those who are listening online, you can visit the messy toccoa website which is [email protected] at TAQW And you'll find a small set of translated notes there for you to download and follow inshallah Tada.

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The first place to book of fasting,

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fasting in Ramadan is mandatory upon everything I was unable Muslim. Now Bismillahi Rahmani Raheem Alhamdulillah wa Salatu was Salam ala rasulillah. So here we have the author introducing this particular topic. And he starts off by saying the book of fasting, if we look at the books of the fuqaha, we find that they divide the books into books and chapters. And there's a wisdom behind this, if they are discussing a topic that has many, many subtopics under it, the title, the beginning of the discussion, a book and under that book will have chapters. So for example, when we discuss the horror, they don't call it the chapter of the horror. Rather, they call it the book of

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the horror, but underneath that particular book, you will have chapters such as the chapter of water, and the categories of water, and each chapter of golden silver utensils, and the chapter of Wu and the chapter of whistle and so on and so forth. They list a number of chapters and a book. However, if the chapter is specific and precise and discussing limited subject matter, then in that particular instance, they would call it a chapter like when they discuss the chapter of golden silver utensils that included a book why because even though there might be several rulings that are discussed there, however, the subject matter is precise, to the heading stated. So the author of

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metal La Jolla, LA, he starts off by saying the book of fasting, the book of fasting citing for us the information that's going to come after is split into different categories and chapters now.

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Ramadan is mandatory upon everything adult.

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Now, the author says fasting. Fasting in the Arabic language comes from the word pharma, your Sumo Solman pharma, your Sumo Solman. And in the English language, we can loosely translate this as an open ended abstention, you abstain from something and this is the meaning of the word in the Arabic language in the linguistic context, the word sown or abstention is considered open ended, meaning its connotations and implications are open ended. It refers to any time of any type of abstinence, whether you refrain from eating or abstain from eating, whether you abstain from speaking, whether you abstain from walking, all these things can be called song, all these things can be called song.

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And if we look in the book of Allah subhanho wa Taala in Surah

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Maria we find Allah subhanho wa Taala instructing Maria alayhis salam. When she is questioned by her people after giving birth to Isa Allah His solemn he instructs her to save for Holi in Nina virtually Rahmani sama that tell them you have made a vow. You have made a vow not to speak to anybody who can Lima Lima and see the meaning of which is you have made a vow to abstain abstain from what from speaking. So she says from today, I will never speak to anybody. Right. So Allah uses the word sowmya Soma, but this doesn't refer to the song that you and I know which we practice as an obligatory practice in Ramadan, and as a voluntary practice outside of Ramadan. Rather, this has

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open ended connotations in the Arabic language. For example, the Arab is well known to say La Lu soy, la Lu saw him meaning the horse, the horse has abstained from running the horse has abstained from from running, they say Halo cm on the horse has abstained from running so they use the word cm. So in the Arabic context, we find that this particular word has open ended connotations not specific, as we see in the Sharia context. And this is the same with all the names of rabada that we know. So for example, Salah, Salah in the Arabic language means

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it doesn't have the specific connotation that you and I know which is a set of specific actions that begins with the takbeer and ends with the destiny, right with that wirathu hareem and ends with PTSD. This is a specific definition of Salah, the Arabs used to use the word Salah before the Sherry I came down, but they meant by they meant Hydra. And this is important for a student of knowledge that whenever you read the book, understand the the tongue that is being used is the tongue of the Sherry are being used when the word is being said. Is it the tongue of the norm that's being used? Because in our norms, we have certain words that are specific to the norm. If we go somewhere else,

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and use that same word it means something else, or is it the linguistic tongue that's being intended? This is how you understand the messages behind the text that has been placed for us to read. So and the scholars have also did they have a chi that they say? Sharia ha Suman Alhambra, California, they say the Sharia terminologies or the implications of words in the context of the Sharia are more specific, right are more specific than the implications in the context of language, the linguistic connotation is far broader, like so here it can apply to a range of practices, but in the context of the Sharia is more specific. And it refers to the concept of as we will see in

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Sharla. Shortly in the context of the Sharia, it refers to this point of staying away from food and drink, and so on, and inshallah we'll discuss this shortly. One thing to discuss here, since we're talking about definitions, the author hasn't cited for us the definition of fasting, the scholars say that the definition of fasting is a specific abstention from a specific individual, a specific extension right now, you know why we are starting to define the fasting in Islam with a specific extension, because we're not talking about any other extension. It's a specific one, what is the specific one? It is one done by a specific individual with a specific intention during a specific

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time, in a specific way, in a specific way. Now, inshallah we'll break down this definition and cover it in detail now. Okay, so we say it's a specific abstention from a specific individual with a specific intention in a specific time and in a specific way. But, okay, let's take this in stages in Sharla. And as we take it in stages, the subject matter will come through beenleigh hytera. So first, the scholars say, a specific abstention. This specific abstention refers to the following it's an abstention from a specific individual. So let's discuss a specific individual. Our Sharia has taught us and as highlighted by the fuqaha, that a person who is required to fast is somebody

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who is called or deemed as a McAuliffe, and McAuliffe is that person that is responsible for submission to the will of Allah subhanho wa Taala and a person who will be taken to account if they do not comply, then they are liable to punishment, and if they comply, then they have rewards. The title of this person is a McCullough. This is what the scholars mean when they say it is the abstention from a specific individual. This specific individual is a Mukul. Now who is a McAuliffe a McCullough is that person, in which two qualities are present in this person. The first quality is that they have attained the age of puberty. This is the first quality of a macula and the second

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quality is that they have a sound mind.

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These two qualities have to be in a person

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Before the instructions of the Sharia, are applicable. And obviously, we discussing this from the Islamic standpoint, we know that a non Muslim, even if they have reached the age of puberty and they have a sound mind they abide is not accepted we discussing this from the Islamic standpoint that when a person is a Muslim, then for the fast to be correct, they have to be from amongst those that have attained the age of puberty, and they have a sound mind if they lose one of these two entities, then the pen is lifted, the pen is lifted, they are not considered responsible, they are not considered responsible. So the first point is Bulu, or attaining the age of puberty. How does one

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know that they've attained the age of puberty, the scholars have discussed this in the books of Enoch as well. The scholars have discussed this and they've cited for us those signs that denote a person having attained the age of puberty and some of the signs are shared across the spectrum between males and females. Some are specific to females. And some of these are points of discussion and difference between the scholars let's run through them very quickly. The first of the signs discussed in the books of IQ is a person experiencing what is called as a wet dream. When a person grows up, and they reach a stage in their life where they experience a dream, then the scholars say

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that from a Sharia perspective, they have attained the age of puberty. And obviously this differs from place to place, time to time, and so on. And they cite as evidence for this the ayah in Surah, new Ayah 59 we Allah subhanho wa Taala says why either Bella have an affair looming come and her Luma right, that when your children reach the age of puberty, but Allah subhanho wa Taala uses the word hello, right, which means a lamb, lamb refers to having seen a wet dream. So Allah subhanho wa Taala described puberty by describing something that is a sign of one understanding that puberty has been reached. So this teaches us the way the ayah has been put together with Allah subhanho wa Taala

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didn't mention the word Bulu. rather he Allah subhanho wa Taala mentioned the concept of attaining puberty, however, he mentioned it by citing that which accompanies puberty, which teaches us that from a Sharia standpoint, the Sharia considers a person who has had a wet dream to have reached the age of puberty. So this is the first point and this is the evidence for it. In fact, from the sooner we find evidence that the scholars have deduced this particular point as well, and that is in the Hadith where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said that the pen has been lifted off for three people or it has been lifted up for three individuals. And from these three individuals is a subby

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had Diablo, meaning the young person until he reaches the age of puberty in another generation, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said hedaya until he has the dream, which teaches us that the dream works hand in hand with the concept of a person having attained the age of puberty. The second sign that the scholars have discussed in the Book of Enoch, to show us that a person has attained the age of puberty is the growth of pubic hair. Now, this is a difference of opinion between the scholars, some scholars do not affirm it as a sign because they're not convinced by the evidence cited by those who are the evidence used by those who cite this as a sign. So we find for example,

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the Hanafi is Rahmatullah him, they don't normally attribute the concept of the growth of pubic hair as a sign of, of reaching the age of puberty, however, we have others like the Maliki's who use this as a sign and they have evidences and this is a long discussion, but not the discussion for us to have here. Now, the most important thing is that you have concept because this is an enlightening seminar. So as long as you have proof of concept or the idea is clear in our minds, and this is enough, by the third and fourth signs cited by the scholars, and these are signs specific to females, this is the sign of having menses, or becoming pregnant. These two signs are clear signs

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that a female has attained the age of puberty and this is a very important discussion why because as I said earlier, when a person attains attains the age of puberty, then they are responsible and they are quite answerable in front of Allah subhanho wa Taala on the day of paper, and the pen is recording everything, and they enter into Jana, and protection from hellfire. May Allah subhanho wa Taala make us all from the people of Ghana heavily relies on the practices that this person now takes upon himself or herself from this particular age. So in terms of menses and becoming pregnant, and these are Signs for females, now, there can be cases where a person grows up, and none of these

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signs are experienced. So what happens then well

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When does fasting become compulsory for them? When does Salah become compulsory for them? When does Hajj become a pressing factor in their lives, and so on and so forth, when do the instructions of the Sharia apply to them? Like it applies to everybody else, these are people who have grown up. And they are not showing signs of having attained the age of puberty. Well, in this particular context, the scholars have discussed this as well, and they have mentioned an age. So they have said that in the case of the signs not being experienced, then we look at age. So they all agree that age is the next thing to look at.

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However, they differ with regards to the age and this is with regards to different evidences as well. So if we look at the first view, they say that the age to be considered is the age of 18. And this is a famous view in the Hanafi madhhab. And I think brother Omar can comment more in terms of Turkey and the Constitution over there, given that they base a lot of the laws heavily on the the Hanafi madhhab. They've cited the age of legal consent at 18 pipe. So this is something that is mentioned by the scholars. And obviously we know that the Turks heavily practiced the Hanafi madhhab. And this is the famous view in the Hanafi method. And this is a view has been attributed to

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Abu hanifa Rahim Allah, and they say that his HD hat in reaching this rule was based on the fact that even our best or the Allahu anhu when he described the meaning of a should a person reaching their peak, he described it to be between the ages of 18 and 40. So because he cited the earliest year as 18 Imam Abu hanifah Rahmatullah highly cited this particular age, to be the age of responsibility to be the age of responsibility should the signs not appear before this age. The second view is the view and this is a view of the humble he must have, as well as the chef he must have been that is they attained the age of puberty at the age of 15. and recite for this, the hadith

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of Ibn Omar, Allah when they say that even Omar he asked the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam for permission to participate, participate in the Battle of effect when he was 14 years of age, and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did not give him permission to participate. And then he asked for permission to participate in the Battle of the trench 100 when he was 15 years old, and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam granted permission. So based on the stage, they said, that the reason why at 14 years of age he was denied was because he was not considered to be an adult, and at 15, he was considered to be an adult. So this was their evidence to substantiate their view. The

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scholars who didn't agree with this said that look, there is no clear instruction in this hadith to say that he the reason why he was denied and then approved was because of this concept of attaining the age of puberty. It could have been that the Battle of aura did not require people of that age and the Battle of hunger was a different situation where the battle was coming to Medina and everybody would have been affected. So it could have been that could have been the reason why the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam allowed him to participate in any case. This is the view predominant view of the share theories, as well as the Maliki's Rahmatullah here led him in saying

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that 15 years of age is the age of responsibility for those who do not see the signs. Then we have a third view and this is the view of Imam Abu hanifa Rahim Allah. And that is the view of 19. That is the view of 19. And this is the view of some of the Maliki's as well, and the site for evidence, the story of when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam went migrated to Medina and he entered Medina and he was building the masjid. They say that the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasallam used in the process of building and establishing the Islamic State, those that were 19 and above, and this is mentioned in some of the CCR books but requires more research. And it's definitely not a strong

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evidence, it can be refuted as the previous evidence was refuted, but Allah subhana wa tada knows best these are the three views mentioned. And this adequately teaches us the depth of the understanding of the fuqaha I mean, you and I, if we read these particular incidents, we would not have even thought of deducing from them. Right. The age of responsibility when the child becomes responsible or becomes an adult and is responsible in the eye of the Sharia. May Allah subhanho wa Taala shower mercy on the fuqaha and we Allah subhanho wa Taala gives us wisdom in Jenin once we discussing this concept of mocha left that the person has to be an adult and he has to be saying

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it's important that we say that a child, a child that has attained the age of tummies, the age of tummies, meaning this child has grown up enough to differentiate between right and wrong. The scholars say the majority of the scholars say that the fast of this child is correct. The Fast of this child is correct and this ruling is based on their Salah, because remember that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam commanded them to perform Salah at seven and to punish them at 10

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And the scholars say that this analogy between cm and between Salah is a correct analogy is a correct analogies. And this is the view of the majority I luckily had. The scholars say that a child that is able to differentiate between what's right and what's wrong, then this child's fast is correct. And the evidence for this is analogy on the Sala being correct. And this is the view of the majority of the scholars and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best. It's also important that we mentioned yet because Mashallah we have many adults who have children, that it is from the practice of the Salah, from the pious predecessors that they would encourage their children to fast before

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they attained the age of puberty, we know of stories, when we read this era of how they would let water boil to keep the child patient, the child would be thinking that food is being prepared, and would keep them patient until sunset, or they would make toys for them to play with. So this was the care, right, they didn't have the amenities that we have available to us to keep us in Oblivion, that you know, the stomach is hungry. And we're actually staying away from things today you have PlayStations and Xbox and the internet and television and so on and so forth. They didn't have that, but look from a parental perspective, how they were creating toys for the purpose, like to give them

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some thought, you know, allow them to waste time No, it was created for the purpose of of making them complete a greater agenda and that was completing the FAFSA cannot be allowed. So this is a lesson for the parents here from the way of the pious before us Rahmatullahi wa subhanho wa Taala grant is the understanding I mean, so this is what we mean when we say a specific individual, what's the next part of the definition. So a child should be ordered to fast when he was able to manage it. Now, a specific intention, I said that the next part of the discussing the definition that we had, the next part of the definition, is a specific intention. So fasting, or a specific abstention from

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a specific individual with a specific intention? What do we mean when or what did the scholars mean or hashmatullah. Here I lay him when they say a specific intention. Well, intention in our lives plays a role from two particular angles. First and foremost, it differentiates the bad from a norm, it differentiates a bad from a norm. Some people fast as an act of worship, and some people fast to lose weight. Right, they also fasting. But the first thing is to lose weight. Right, and others fast, not as a diet, but as a form of worship as a form of worship. So the intention is what differentiates and makes our act worthy of reward number one, and makes our act worthy of building

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our agenda and beautifying our agenda number two, and making our act worthy of making our scales of good deeds heavier on the day of dharma. This is what happens when you worship Allah subhanho wa Taala. If it's done with the intention of worship, we qualify for these presence in the hereafter. And Allah subhanho wa Taala blesses us in this world as well. This is the first angle that the intention assists us in the second angle barakallahu li comb is that the intention helps differentiate between the types of worship. So we know that fasting is of types, we have the obligatory fast, we have the voluntary fast, and even the obligatory fast, we find that the

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obligatory fast is of two types, the obligatory fast of Ramadan, which the Sharia has made obligatory upon us. And number two, a fast that we make obligatory upon ourselves when we vow to fast, right. So the intention differentiates between the type of worship that is being practiced here and when this call is the focus a specific intention, then this intention encompasses these two phenomenons and these two actions. So we fasting for the sake of Allah subhanho, wa Taala, the Islamic fast, Ramadan fast, and so on, and so forth, we specific in our intention. Now, it should be said here that when we say intention, it means having clarity in our heart, it doesn't mean that we

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have to say words, it doesn't mean that we have to say words, some people if they have the clarity in the heart, but they don't say the words they feel that they've lost the worship. And some people say the words without having clarity in the heart, and they feel they've attained the worship. The reality is the heart is the essence and place of the intention. It doesn't need words to accompany the process. But what's the next part, who's going to say the third, the next part of the definition

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during a specific time now, so the time of fasting is specific. This is what specific time means. And the time of fasting is from fetcher or true dawn until sunset, right, a person stays away from food and drink and satisfying their desires from from fetcher, Trudeau not from sunrise from Fagor. True dawn until sunset until sunset, and the evidence for this is the ayah in Surah Al Baqarah Ayah 100

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87 where Allah subhanho wa Taala says we're kulu Abu Dhabi and Allah qumola Hi,

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Mina hi Swati Minelli. fecha right so Allah subhanho wa Taala says and eat and drink until the white thread denoting the light of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread, meaning the darkness of night, then complete the fasting till the evening then complete the fasting to the evening. Now, the Sahaba different with regards to the fasting time. And the reason is that this part in the I A minute,

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walk over shabu, hatha tava Yalla como Hi, Mina hiatal Ashworth mineral fetcher this last part was revealed later, as stated by the scholars of Tafseer. So which means that the ayah a loose English translation would be an eat and drink until the white thread appears to you distinct from the black threat. Right. So what happened? What happened we find in the hadith of It even had him read the Allahu and saheliyon, sad robiola one where they did the HD hat. So we find mentioned of a Sahabi, who would tie a white thread on one of his feet and a dark thread on his other foot. And he would carry on eating until he could differentiate between the dark thread and the light thread. We know

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that he didn't have lights at that time, right? So when the sun would reach a particular strength, and obviously they could see so when he could see the white thread from the black thread, then he would stop eating and this is there is a view and this is an odd view. It's not an acceptable view. And even this difference of opinion between the Sahaba is not evidence because a consensus happened after because the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam when the news reached him, he explained it and Allah subhanho wa Taala revealed what clarified the ayah right and where Allah said mineral fetcher to explain that it refers to pleasure. So after this he had where there was a difference, a

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consensus happened at the time of the Sahaba. Thus, no one should ever tell you today that is permitted to eat until bow and a half, as some scholars said, an odd view saying that you can eat until the light of day appears, the light of day appears which is far later than later than the time of hygiene, nobody should tell you this, nobody should tell you that the time of fasting is when true dawn enters now it's impermissible for you to engage in that which is normally permissible for you to engage in. So this is what the Sahaba did and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam corrected this particular practice. Now the correct opinion obviously, as I've said is that the

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first thing starts from true dawn, and there are other evidences for this. The first one is that Allah subhanho wa Taala said in his book Min alfetta. So he it became clear, right, the dark light from the white light at the time of fudger. At the time of to dawn, we know that when the sun is about to rise, there's a false dawn and a true dawn. There's the reddish dawn and there's the whitish dawn and the scholars discuss this in detail, the scholars from the Sheree standpoint as well as the scholars from the astronomical standpoint and those who love to take photos and they look for those golden hours where the shadows are less they look for the astronomical Twilight as

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for those who love reading about photography, you see a lot of photographers having a lot of care and information pertaining to these phenomenons. I luckily had the understanding is from fudger based on the ayah in the Quran, also the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam told his companions, he told his companions we know at the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. We know that there were two events there was the other end of Villa, there was the other end of there was the design of VLANs which would happen and then after that, there was another event from a different event. There was another event from a different so the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said lay

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on the commune So who would come as albula that don't let the other end of beeler prevent you from your cell phone?

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And he said what kulu wash Robbo had you have dinner if and only Maktoum and eat and drink until you hear the advent of even only MK two who was the other one of the Allahu anhu so this is clear that the time for stopping is when true don't begins because in this hadith the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said for the hula you have then had the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said that for indeed he doesn't make the event or observe the event until fudger appears until he reappears. So this is clear from the sooner that anybody who says that you start your fast when it's when the light of day appears, we say absolutely wrong. This is rejected. There's no evidence for it, and you

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have no right to even use the difference of opinion at the time of course a habit for the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam clarified it. We have authentic hadith that has reached us and a consensus happened at that time. Also, brothers and sisters we know that Soho happens when at the time of Soho

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and the scholars say that Soho is during this

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Second half of the last third of the night. This is the time of the second half of the last third of the night. Right? So somebody who's eating when the when the light of day has appeared, you can't tell him or he can't say I'm having my support. This is breakfast. Right? This is breakfast as you and I know it right that we eat at seven o'clock, eight o'clock when the light of day appears. This is the time of Soho is at the the school. Eating happens at the time of Soho, and the time of Soho is the second half of the last third of the night. And Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best. This is a clear instruction hamdulillah we all we don't here today

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anybody saying insha Allah, that or any scholar that fasting happens when the sun has risen what will happen but this is information for you all as to what substantiates this particular position in the definition which says a specific time. So the specific time we said from true dawn to sunset, not from sunrise from true dawn till sunset, and we're given the evidence to substantiate this particular view. Now before we talk about the end of fasting, we should mention that sometimes we find that more than observing the event five minutes before the start of a job. And they say we're doing this to just in case as a as a Thea. So they end up making the event five minutes before

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fortune. In fact, in some countries, and I've seen this, there's some time tables that will tell you to hold ends at this time and further begins at this time. And there's two different times. So four ends, for example, at 350. And furture begins at 405 with 15 minutes between super ending and beginning. Right and they say they do this to say this is from the app. This is from taking preventative measures to ensure that nobody has eaten after the time of fudger has begun. And to be honest, this is this is a type of extreme I'm not going to say this is an extreme it's it's a type of extreme. Allah subhanho wa Taala de Lucia has set the time to eat until Frederick has set the

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time to eat under federal law says shouldn't be a practice he had in shortening this time, or lengthening the time of the fast, right. So we should be careful for Allah subhanho wa Taala has defined the time of the beginning of the fast and the end of the fast. Now, something I'm going to mention here, but we're not going to discuss it in detail. But it's important, especially for those coming from the UK. Because we know that in countries that are positioned in high altitudes, in high altitudes. There's this concept of perpetual Twilight that the country experiences during parts of the year. So for example, in the UK, they say perpetual Twilight happens from mid May to mid July or

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end of July. Right? perpetual Twilight actually refers to the sun not fully setting before it starts rising again from the eastern horizon. So it's setting in the West, but it doesn't fully set before we witness it rising again, in the eastern horizon. So basically, you could effectively say that the time goes from mohareb to failure without any issue no issue kicks in. It's always the time of muscle up. And we find this is a common issue in many countries. But we mentioned the UK because a lot of questions I know personally come from there. Ask about this, for some mesquite practice the 18 degree rule, which is the sun being 18 degrees from the horizon. at both ends of the day, we say

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the sun is 18 degrees from the horizon, or 18 degrees below the horizon, at sunrise, for example. So we know that we're talking about the sun before or before sunrise before the day starts, or the sun is at 18 degrees from the horizon after sunset. So we know this is 18 degrees after the sun has set. And this 18 degree rule is a common rule, we find the majority of scholars alluding to it and they associate this time to mark the beginning of fudger and the beginning of Asia. However, this is a matter that's been discussed from longer. And it's not a matter that we find over the 10s of years, the scholars coming together and agreeing to for some scholars use the 15 degree rules the 15 degree

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rule. And we find that some scholars have actually gone out to record the actual rising of the sun. And we find some reports saying that the sun was at the position of true dawn when it was 15 degrees, while others say 18 degrees. So even from a physical perspective, we find conflicting reports that makes it difficult for the olema of a particular country to come to an agreement. But what I will say brothers and sisters, I mean we don't want to deal with this. Now, this is not the point of discussion and it is a long one. What I will say is that we should follow the masjid in the event of nothing being clear to us in the event of us being lay men with regards to this time and

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not having the ability to understand the evidences and the ability to understand right from wrong. It's best for us to follow our messages because that's the place where your community prays in and that's the place where you

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Be able to experience her or Omar in a unified fashion in a unified fashion. But let's say the scholars of your community have different as well, you have a few messages in the area that you frequent. And there's conflicting views or even the message, you go to yourself, which has happened, we have one machine where the emails of the machine have different views. Some moms are saying start your fast at 1am. In the morning, the others are saying started at 2:30am or 3am in the morning, and you're saying, look, you know, I'm cool, if it's eating for two more hours, right? For me, it's, you know, that was take the easy way out, and so on and so forth. And this is a common discussion

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amongst the youth. In this particular context. If your Masjid has differing views, then we should use what the scholars of Rasulullah have cited as a means of us attaining some form of peace in the matter, and they say that we should follow in that particular circumstance, the most knowledgeable of the scholars in that area, follow the most knowledgeable of them. And if we find many of them, who are on the left on a similar level of knowledge, and they have differed than the scholars say that we should follow the most pious of them, the most pious of them for Allah subhanho wa Taala guides the pious One, two, a view that, and this blessing will not fall upon one that's not so

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pious, so they say follow the most pious of them, but if they are equally knowledge, and equal in terms of piety, and they've differ in terms of view, then the scholars say that follows the view of the majority, because the majority are more likely to have understood the correct ruling in this particular scenario. So if you don't have any understanding yourself, definitely follow your community. If your community has differing views, then look at the most knowledgeable of your scholars. If they all equally knowledgeable or similarly knowledgeable in your view, then look for the most followed the view of the most pious from amongst them, and if they are on a similar level

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of piety, then follow follow the view of the majority. And Allah subhanho wa Taala. Allah knows best

Fiqh of Fasting Part 1