Fiqh of Fasting Part 2
Channel: Sajid Ahmed Umar
File Size: 23.56MB
Rahmani Raheem al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa salatu salam ala rasulillah Allah Allah, he was a big marine barakallahu li comb, I pray, it was a beneficial break, and inshallah we'll continue for the next hour inshallah and hopefully we'll cover the subject matter intended for today, just before the break, we were discussing the definition of fasting in the context of the Sharia in greater detail and we began discussing the meaning of the statement in a specific time. And we said that that specific time refers to true dawn to sunset and we gave the evidences that specified true dawn being the time for when the fast starts. And we said that Allah subhanho wa Taala has permitted one
too fast until this time, and it's not a praiseworthy practice, in my humble view of those who announced the event earlier, or in fact, give our timetables that stop people eating 10 to 15 minutes before the actual time that Allah subhanho wa Taala has set for a person to eat before beginning their fast in the same breath, we must say that and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best This is a preferred view, wha hoo tada lm that when we are eating and for example, we hear the event whilst we are eating then at this point, we should not swallow that which we are eating for now the time of fasting has begun. And from the outset, we know that the fasting starts and when the fast
thing starts following anything is impermissible. inshallah, this will be our discussion tomorrow, what breaks the fast right, what entails the fast being broken, is it something that enters our bodies from our mouth or does it can it be something that enters our bodies from other areas and so on and so forth, inshallah, this will be tomorrow's discussion. So in the same breath as we discussed, not starting the fast early, we should not let the fast start late as well. We should stick to the instruction of Allah subhanho wa Taala Allah and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best with that brothers and sisters we move on to the next part. She's the time of fasting and then time
of fasting is when the sunsets and the evidence for this is the statement of Allah subhanho wa Taala from atmosphere Emma Elaine then complete the fast until the evening and the evening begins when the sunsets and the sunsets at the time of Maria. The evening begins when the sun sets and the sun sets at the time of mother absorb losses at masama. Elaine, after he says mineral fetcher describing when the fast begins, he says then complete the fast till the evening and this is a what is entailed by the fuqaha statement when they say that this specific fasting happens at a specific time, then the squat is say in a specific way, in a specific way. What do they mean when they say these different
muscles are in a specific way. They mean by this barakallahu fee comb, the concept of abstaining from food and drink and satisfying your desires. When we speak about desires. We're talking about the innate desires, the sexual desires, because we have different desires we have the desires of our bellies, which is food and drink, right? And we have the desires of our private parts. So when one fasts, the Sharia instructs us to stay away from the desires of the belly, as well as the desires of our private parts and this will be understood when we look at the evidences of what exactly we are we staying away from and what are the evidences that substantiate why we are actually staying away
from something so as for eating and drinking then as we discussed in Isaiah 187 from Sora to Bukhara, Allah subhanho wa Taala says, or kulu wash Morocco eat and drink right until fudger then after that our system the atmosphere in LA so the stated in this ayah is that eating and drinking is permitted in the evening had to be an alcohol hi Tula toe min height in the middle for the fact that Allah subhanho wa Taala has described the time that one can eat and drink until this is stated. What is the implied the implied is that once this time ends, then that which you are allowed to do is no more allowed no more permissible. Right? This is how you understand the ayah there's nothing in the
Quran that is redundant. Nothing if Allah subhanho wa Taala mentions a lot of a specific time for his ama form and whatever this understanding or the implied association between you and the text is something which is required, and something which the Sharia intended, right, as we will see later on. So whenever we read and even when we read the book of an author, there's the specific or the stated and there's the implied if I say standard, the stated is for you to stand and the implied is that you shouldn't set for example, right and these types of understanding the correspondence understanding or the positive understanding, or the negative understanding and so on and so forth.
These are things discussed by the scholars have a solution.
Help us work with text better in this particular context. Allah subhanho wa Taala permits us to eat until fudger. Why until later, because after surgery, this has to mean that after fudger eating and drinking is impermissible, otherwise, they would have been no reason for loss of Hannah who Allah to say until further mean alpha major, it would have been no reason the fact that Allah stipulated the time means that after that a new rule applies and what is that rule? The opposite of what was permitted before that time, so eating and drinking was permitted until that time. Thus after that time eating and drinking is not permitted. Also, in the head, Ethan Pudsey, the Prophet sallallahu
alayhi wa sallam said that Allah subhanho wa Taala said, that Allah subhanho wa Taala said, that all the actions of the son of Adam, are for him except fasting, this is for a line Allah will reward it. And Allah subhanho wa Taala, in this hadith is yet
yada, who was yarrabah, who was Shahada? And this is clear, Allah subhanho wa Taala. Allah is describing the fast Allah says, the fasting is for me and I will reward it. What is this fasting he leaves his eating and his drinking and his desires, right? For my sake, Allah subhanho wa Taala says he leaves his eating, and his drinking and his desires for my sake, that's the fastest for me, and I will reward it right and this is happy to provide time and time again, this hadith has four key implications. The scholars have used this hadith to substantiate this particular point, this point pertaining to this concept of eating and drinking, being from that which one should abstain from, or
being from the Islamic fast and that which one should abstain from from fudger until sunset, then he said that also from our abstention should be staying away from satisfying our desires, the sexual desires. And what is the evidence for this? Well, first and foremost from the headings that we just discussed, where Allah subhanho wa Taala said, he leaves his food and his drink and his desires for my sake, the desires of the belly, and the desires of the of the private parts have been left for the sake of Allah. And as I said, this hadith is amazing because this should teach us a wisdom from the wisdoms of fasting, right? When we fast, we actually teach ourselves that we are able to stay
away from heroin. How, because for one month, we can stay away from heroin, which is harder to do, right, which is hard to be staying away from halal or haram.
People are still thinking they don't know.
It's all the same, and allows us to add meaning a person is it's harder for him to practice how long Why? Because he knows there's consequences. And he's weak, and he practices it. But it's much easier for him to practice harder, because this is 100%. Harder, meaning it's more difficult for me to stay away from halon. Because this there is no consequences. It didn't highlight there is no consequences. So you telling me to stay away from that way. There's no consequences if I do it. This is more difficult for a person. Right from harm. It's more harder. Why because you're doing it but it there's a there's this, there's this cloud on top of your head that you are going to answer for
it. Allah subhanho wa Taala does the grave is the punishment of the grave. This punishment in this world the law might take away Baraka from our earnings from our food from our drink, from the happiness of our lives, maybe the respect of our children. And we know what the sellers used to say that they would see the effect of their sins even in their animals. So Pamela in the behavior of the animals when they when the animals wouldn't behave right, immediately, they would start revising themselves, what did we do that has caused the situation to befall us? Right? I think we we shared this discussion before, when we discussed the pseudo use of there are many a time when our children
become rowdy, we start blaming them, and we pointing fingers as parents, but we don't know that there's three fingers pointing back at us. That it's something that we've done that's created that this is it, something that we've done, fix yourself, and that will become fixed. Right? So here, we learn from this Hadith, Allah says he leaves these things for my sake, meaning he spent one month leaving halal, this means that he can leave home for the rest of the year hamdulillah. If you can stay away from that, which is harder, surely you can stay away from that which is easier that which has penalties applied to it. The Sharia has helped you stay away from Haram. Right? By telling you
about Johanna. If you understood Gangnam, you'd understand how hard it is to do harm. Right? That's when asked the question we're getting confused. Maybe we haven't understood jahannam as well. Yet, if you understand the reality of the hereafter and the reality of disobeying Allah subhanho wa Taala. You'll understand how difficult it is to do harm and understand how easy it is to do heroin and understand how hard it is to stay away from heroin and how easy it is to stay away from her up. So if you can, in one month stay away from this means you have it in you. You have the abilities to stay away from harm. You have to believe it in yourself that you can change and you can reach the
optimum and you
can become better. You've proved it to yourself by experiencing the month of Ramadan Allah holy hell, this Hadith, Allah shakaal Hadith. avi Mercado, this hadith has great lessons from a silky perspective from a development perspective. So this hadith teaches us that from the things we need to abstain from when the scholars say a specific manner, his food, drink and marital relations or obviously appeasing our sexual desires. Now Allah subhanho wa Taala says in his book, or hidden elecom Laila to see me refer to Allah and he says, like him, yeah, and he ob halochem. Yeah, and he made permissible for you, ln FCM during the evenings are referred to ill and he said, he comes
spending time with your wives, meaning satisfying your desires. Now what do we say before we said there's nothing extra in the Quran there's no redundant mentions in the Quran? Well, he has nothing in the Quran is redundant. Everything that Allah subhanho wa Taala says has a meaning and this verse that Allah subhanho wa Taala has said Layla tassia this is this is my home worth the implied from this ayah what is the state of the state it is the night is permissible for you to satisfy your desires with your wives The night is permissible for you to satisfy your desires with your wife, this is the stated what is the implied that the day is impermissible for you to satisfy your desires
with you is not correct. This is the implied right and we get this implied is based on the reality of this earth. This mentioned this time span mentioned here ln atmosphere, Allah mentioned it for a specific reason. And this is how the fuqaha worked with the text. And this is how they funded and contemplated the texts. And this how they deduced rulings right for us to understand what is expected of us and from us May Allah subhanho wa Taala grant us the understanding the IP. Now when we look at this definition, and we say that the scholars say as part of the definition is fasting in a specific way. And we spoken about physically leaving food and drink and satisfying our desires,
then we need to understand that there's two dimensions to the fast. There's the physical dimension, which we've been discussing, and there's the spiritual dimension. When you complete the physical dimension, the obligation of fasting that day is lifted off you.
You don't have to do a power. But there's a spiritual dimension which we should look after as well. And this is known as the physical command. The Sofitel
was effective command, right? This is the complete form of fasting which entails you getting complete rewards. And this particular film refers to fasting in a way in which you leave saying immoral statements and practicing immoral deeds while fasting for the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said men men lemmya their own azura zurriola melebihi, Felisa li la hija de la parama, who was that the person who doesn't leave immoral speech and forge speech and evil actions, then Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and his drink. Right. So when we talk about specific in a specific way, that it's it's the it's a specific attention from a specific person in a specific
time, with a specific intention in a specific way, the specific way, as it includes leaving, eating and drinking and satisfying your desires in a specific time span. It also entails leaving what harms your spiritual self and the spiritual fast. And this is something important because many a time we fast the month of Ramadan, and the day of eat comes and we the worst human beings on the face of this earth. And we've seen this in our communities where the Dr. Reid comes and people elements in our community are celebrating read in a manner worse than even the non Muslims where we don't even look after the rights of our neighbors. And we create noise pollution, and we drive our vehicles up
and down the streets with loud music and everything, which is an Islamic is happening. In fact, I've read some reports when Muslims leave their towns, when they do have read comes because of the harm and hurt that the Muslims caused to them. I mean, it is right and this happened. I was in the UK last year for eat. And these were some of the mentions in the newspapers. Right? And this is a real disgrace really to ourselves, we will never ever disgrace Islam, for Islam, Allah subhanho wa Taala will protect we are only disgracing ourselves, and we are answerable for our own actions. What we sow is what we will reap. And there's a day of becoming a day in which we will all be responsible,
right? So the question begs to be asked how is it that we fast the month of Ramadan and Allah says fast the month of Ramadan, so perhaps you may attend taco and we fast the month of Ramadan? And on the day of read, there's no sign of the code? How is it possible? How is this possible? It's possible through fasting in the month of Ramadan ridding yourself of the physical obligation. But as your physical side fasted, and you felt hunger and thirst and so on and so forth. You weren't blessed with the rewards of the fact that nurtured and fed your soul. So panela when the body starves, the soul is fat.
Look at this fast as we physically start for the sake of Allah we are spiritually fed. And as we physically feed ourselves we are spiritually hungry.
And this is well known. The closer we attach ourselves to the dunya. The more distant We are from the asker. The more hard our hearts become, the more difficult it is for us to concentrate in Salah or to when we read the Quran or to when we hear the Quran or feel a form of regret when we disobey Allah subhanho wa Taala This is what happens. Right? Allah subhanho wa Taala Allah says in Surah Allah and Allah and the lady in ermine, when Tasha boo boo
as a man and Huck, that has not come for those who believe to fear Allah subhanho wa Taala because of the Quran that has been revealed and the instructions that have been shared in truth, whether it's a coup Luca la Vina otro kita macabre Paula la casa Kuru Allah subhanho wa Taala says, Do not be like those who came before you, where they became a victim of time in this dunya they prerogative became the dunya how much I can earn, how much I can enjoy Me, myself and I selfish, not selfless, stingy. All the qualities of shaman, they thought they were going to live here forever. So they live their lives as if they wanted to build empires. The waking and the sleeping was me, myself and I
it's all about me. No one was ever angry for the sake of Allah or happy for the sake of Allah. They were happy for the sake of themselves, even if they disobeyed Allah. And they were sad for the sake of themselves, even if that was a means of obeying Allah. Right? Allah says don't become like those before you follow Allah He will admit they became a victim of time focus at home. As they attach themselves to this dunya the spiritual side became dead, their hearts became hard.
Work Kathy Roman, who fasciae Cohn and many, most of them were sinners.
Understand this, that Allah subhanho wa Taala, the old wiser Buddha is that he will General has given us a time in the year every year to rejuvenate ourselves to have to create that link to the article.
Because we spent our entire 11 months feeding the body not looking after the spiritual.
And here Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam teaches us how to fast in the complete way where you fast physically as well as spiritually the spiritual fasting is feeding. And the physical first thing is being hungry. So panda Allah Subhana Allah, but if you're going to go back bite, Ly, carry tails, speak about so and so and so on and so forth, then all you've done is wiped out those rewards that feed your soul, thus you stay hungry. Thus on the day of greed, it's a real day of poverty, you become attached the dounia as never before, and you become worse. We know when a person has a fallback, they have an addiction, and then they take off something and they remember they do it
slowly, isn't it why because then there's counterproductive responses and results which are even more severe. You take someone off they say cold turkey, very few people come off something cold turkey but when they go back, they go back even worse. Right But when you come off it in stages, this is one month they have come off food and drink and so on and so forth, but haven't come with that which builds them and makes them complete. So when the the barriers are lifted, what happens? Everything is if Allah do and don't be responsible, may Allah subhanho wa Taala protect us I just wanted to cite this because this is important whenever the scholars were very complete Mashallah, in
the explanation and in their teaching, and when they say specific way, they're talking about both dimensions, the physical as well as the future now by Baraka calm so this is what we have with this. Let's read what Abel Kodama has to say fasting Ramadan.
Fasting in Ramadan is mandatory upon every sane adult enabled Muslim now so the Kodama, Allah says fasting in Ramadan, the name Ramadan, remember we teaching the text of the scholar? We teach in the texts? He's written a concise book, we opening up the book, right? So we've taken we've taken a long time opening up with discussing the words of the scholar scholar says fasting in Ramadan. What is Ramadan? The name of Ramadan, as the scholars say is from rumba from Ramallah and this refers to excessive heat, excessive heat, and it denotes a color that we see when we look at ash. When we look at ash this grave bent color this is what rumba means. And they're different as to why Ramadan is
called Ramadan. So some of the scholars say that Ramadan is called Ramadan because it's a name from the names of Allah subhanho wa Taala. And there's a weak Hadith that alludes to this. Some scholars say that it's because Ramadan burns our sins, and there's another weak Hadith which alludes to this, some of the scholars say because it burns the south and it brings it into the right frame. So it burns those links which were linking it to that which was wrong, which was the dunya and brings us into the correct frame, which is that balance between the dunya and akhira some
scholars say and perhaps this is the most correct opinion is that when the monks were named the month of Ramadan happened to be during the extreme summer months meaning the months where there was extreme heat, right, somebody might argue that it probably was at this time of the year, right when we experiencing extreme heat and thus, it was given the name of Ramadan and Allah subhanho wa Taala. Allah knows best now, the author says fasting in Ramadan, he doesn't see fasting in the month of Ramadan. And the reason why I say this is because the scholars have discussed this in the book. So is it permissible for you to say Ramadan without saying the month of Ramadan? Is it permissible for
you to just say Ramadan by itself, without saying the month of Ramadan, and the fuqaha have stated three views regarding this? The first view is that it is makrooh and disliked or severely disliked, if not haram and this is the view of the Maliki's. It's disliked or severely disliked to say Ramadan without saying, Ramadan without saying the month of Ramadan. The second view is the view of the majority of the scholars and that it is permissible to say and amavasya without having to say Shahada without having to say the month of Ramadan. And the third view is the view of the chef you must have been that is that it is permissible for you to say Ramadan, if people listening to you
understand in context that you referring to the month of Ramadan, these are three views of the scholars the correct view is definitely and Allah knows best when we say the correct view. This is what seems clear. Livia, Tara Jelena whatever Allah has made clear to us, is that the correct view is that is permissible to say Ramadan just as it is permissible to say the month of Ramadan there's no issue with this. And the evidence for this is the statement of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam when he said he said, Ramadan, right he didn't say that definition Ravana sorry, the Ramadan in the Hadith where he says that when the month of Ramadan comes or when Ramadan comes when
the doors have wide open and the doors of jahannam are shut. Now, as weather was mine read the author saying he said fasting the month of Ramadan is mandatory. This is the ruling regarding fasting the month of Ramadan if somebody asks, Is it Sunnah? Is it Mr. hab? Is it mubasher? What is the ruling regarding fasting this month? Is it for Kiva meaning if some people in the community fast then the other people don't have to fast? What is the ruling? He says it's mandatory? It's why'd you Why are you blind? It's compulsory upon everybody who fits in that criteria specific individuals that we discussed. It's worship for them to fast the month of Ramadan. Now what is why do you mean,
why'd you means that this is a binding command from the law giver. And it entails rewards for the one who practices it. And the person who doesn't is liable to being punished we say liable to being punished. Why? Because we know that if a person dies upon Emma and and Islam then they end is Allah subhanho wa Taala on the day of karma, it is possible Allah subhanho wa Taala could forgive them. In sha Allah, Allah insha Allah for Allah if Allah wills He will punish them. And if Allah wills He will forgive them. This is the price for the one who dies upon Islam and Amen. But as for the one who dies upon Cofer and share them in the wild, I have a shabby way of doing a delicacy Masha. Allah
subhanho wa Taala does not forgive the one who died associating partners with Allah subhanho wa Taala they end his punishment and doom and the hellfire. We have also Hannah who Allah protect us all. I mean, so the author cites here that fasting the month of Ramadan is mandatory. And the evidence for this is in the Quran for Allah subhanho wa Taala and Surah Baqarah says yeah, you have Latina Manu. O you who believe katiba le camassia a 40. The LA Coliseum that the month of fasting has been made compulsory upon you has been written up for you as an obligation has been made compulsory upon you come equity by Alan Levine Amina publikum, as it was written for those before
you so katiba here as the scholars of OSU will say we may enter Florida as become foreign and watch if something set and there's no choice in the matter. As long as you qualify. It's upon you to to submit to the will of Allah subhanho wa Taala. And evidence for this as well is in the statement of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam when he said Boolean Islam, Allah humps that Islam has been built upon five pillars and one of these pillars he states, fasting the month of Ramadan, and we know that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said sumali at he was at that fast. It's a command fast when you cite the crescent. And this command denotes that the practice of fasting is
compulsory. The author then says upon a sane, sane,
sane, adult unable Muslim. So this is compulsory upon a sane and we've discussed this because we said this is from the conditions of being Micallef. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said the pen is lifted of three people as we discussed. One of them is a child until attained the age of puberty and the other is a person who is mentally ill until they attain a sound mind. This was also described, the profits of Allahu alayhi wa sallam said the pen is lifted off this person then adult we discussed what adult means and then the author
This is Abel Muslim and this refers to a person who's not terminally ill or experiencing an illness that fast will exacerbate and so on and so forth and insha Allah, this we will cover in detail perhaps tomorrow beaten the lady to Allah now, a child.
Now, I mean this we discussed earlier and said that the analogy here is based on Salah, where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam commanded the children to be guided towards Salah from the age of seven now. So, the next section is determining when Ramadan begins fasting becomes mandatory when one of these three occurrences happens number one the completion of 30 days
now, so now after the author has taught us what is Ramadan who is Ramadan compulsory on talking about all the preliminary matters the author now moves on in a very systematic way to teach us when Ramadan begins but now that you know who Ramadan is compulsory upon and you know fasting Ramadan is compulsory The next question that comes to your mind is okay when is Ramadan, so in a systematic way the author now moves on to explain to us when Ramadan starts. Now as you and I know, the end of the month is understood.
When two things happen number one is when 30 days of the month
30 days of the month I experienced right. And the next is when witnessed the crescent on the 30th night right before the 30 of the day we witness the crescent which teaches us that tomorrow is not the 13th of the day but rather the first day of the next month. These are two well understood phenomenons the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said Shahar Kava Kava, right, which denotes 29 days or Shahada, which you know, 30 days. So in the action of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he taught us that the month can either be 29 days or 30 days. So this is what the author has cited for us here he cited for us that which we know, let's read the second and third, second,
you've mentioned the sighting of the crescent moon.
And then the third point, the presence of clouds on the night of the 30th of October, that prevents the siting of the prison. Now, the presence of clouds on the night of the 30th of a ban that prevents the sighting of the crescent. Right. Now, this is something which we may have not heard of before that hold on a second, are you are we saying that when the 20 or the 30th night arrives, if it's cloudy, we say that the month has ended.
And the next day is the first because it's cloudy. This is not something which you've heard of. And this is not a famous view amongst the fukuhara. It's a view famously attributed to the humble method. It's a famous view of the humble method. And it's also said to be a view of some of the Sahaba like Omar Abdullah,
Abdullah bin Omar, Abdullah and Houma that this was the view that on the 30th night which is Laila to check that the night of doubt, and the day of doubt comes after the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said whoever fast the day of doubt has disobeyed a bell Qasim has disobeyed Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the person who fasts this day because the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said let them lead to a demon Ravana beyond what are your main meaning don't bring Rama one day forward or two days forward. So we were encouraged not to fast the end of sherborn as if it's the first of Ramadan. So the scholars have differed in this particular matter upon two views
regarding this particular concept. When we experience the 30th night and there's clouds, do we say the next day is the 30th day or do we save the next day is the first the majority of the scholars say in this particular context, the next day is the 30th day.
And this is what we know the moon was not cited. So tomorrow is the 30th day, right we hear there was atmospheric conditions there were there were issues obscuring the atmosphere. The moon was not cited from avanti starting the day after tomorrow. We've had this many times. The humbling must have is that if there is anything obscuring, if there's rain, if it's cloudy, if it's dusty, if it's hazy if it's foggy, and there's any element that obscures you citing the moon, then the next day is Ramadan. Why? Because Ramadan is a very important month and just in case the moon was there, and we didn't cite it, we say just in case for the month, and this is against what the majority of the
scholars have said the humble is have evidence for this. It is based on their understanding of a hadith by so they cite as evidence, the statement of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, which was reported by Omar Abdullah and Houma and this hadith is in the city, where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said in Houma, La Jolla, that if it's cloudy, if it's hazy if you are prevented from seeing the moon, * do rula. Now this word either
can have more than or has more than one meaning. So we say it has left
This term is very general we need something that explains it for us to understand what is the context intended here, right. So if we say, one from the meanings of other is to restrict something as Allah subhanho wa Taala says 1 million Sani dama patella hora boo *a de la responder Allah restricts his his sustenance uses the word photogra Allah, Allah restricts his sustenance. So, from the meanings of God that is to restrict So, they say that under here for cadoola who means restrict the month means make the month 29 days. So, pipe Yes, we agree that other could mean restrict, but what is the evidence here that you are using to pinpoint this particular meaning to pinpoint this
particular meaning. And the reality is the evidence actually alludes to making the month 30 days not 29 for in another Hadith also reported by Abu huraira rhodiola Han and also reported by even Omar Abdullah and Huma, the hadith of Ibn Omar Abdullah and Omar says for an obeah alikum Camilla data Chabad philosophy that if it's clouded them complete the month of shabbiness, 30. So this hadith explains what other means in the other hottie. The previous Headey, which we cited the previous headings, which we cited, which was evidence for the ham bellies, and those that follow that particular view, they said the head it says when it's clouded * guru, and guru from the meanings
of Guru is to restrict. And this means restrict the month that we in now, if you if I tell you to restrict a month, will you make it 30 or 2929. So say this is our evidence. The other scholars said, Look, hold on a second here. color here could mean restrict and he could have other meanings it could mean to count.
Right? meaning to measure, what evidence do you have to say that color here means to restrict? So they say we have evidence, which teaches us that had to be here doesn't mean restrict, rather, it means to measure the month up to its end. What is the evidence they say in the site, we have a hadith of Abu hurayrah, the Allahu Akbar. And we have the Hadith of the Brahma the same even Omar who use it this hadith which you've missed, you haven't understood it, he has the the explanation, we have this Hadith, which states for accumulated data, Salafi, right familiar in the Shabana lesson in another
lesson in the hadith of Rama, which means complete the month at 30 days, if it's cloudy, then complete the month as 30 days. They say these two ahaadeeth teach us that other here means measure the month to its full, it doesn't mean restrict the month to 29. So we have a general term and we have an explanatory term. So we take the explanatory Hadith, and we carry this general Hadith upon the explanatory Hadith for us to understand them in total, because we know there's no contradiction in the shadow of the Sharia in one Hadith is not going to say we restrict the month and another Hadith tell you to complete the month, it'll be confusing for the McCullough. Right. So we
understand that which is more clearly stated, based on that which is clearly stated, even when we speak to each other, we say that look, yeah, he, you know, my speaking pattern. If I say something not clear, understand it in light of what you know of my style of speaking, then you understand what I'm saying, this is something that happens right? Between assonance and Miss understanding happens sometimes you know, you're working together, and you're a person who's always praising your team member and acknowledging good work in one day, you come down hard on somebody and he becomes depressing. The day I come down hard on you judge it in light of the days I praised you. Right? That
it doesn't mean that I'm coming down on you today that you're a total write off and you're gonna be fired. No, today dictated that this kind of pressure was placed on you, but it doesn't mean it's the end of the world and you write off No, you got to judge this in light of that, that today you've made a mistake and you can improve from it. So this is normal, even in our daily lives in our daily speech patterns and Allah subhanho wa Taala Allah knows best. So this is the view of the humble amount of investment. Kodama Rahim, Allah has cited it in his book, because he is predominantly having money. So he cited this particular page or this particular point to say that teaching the
valuable Elmo teaching the layman who's learning that, you know, the beginning of the month in one of three ways, what is the first way completion of Shabbat? What is the second way? The moon being sited? What is the third way according to the humble is, if the 30th night is cloudy is the 33rd is cloudy? We can also say that,
from an Islamic principle perspective, using the Islamic principles that we judge the month not to have ended. Why? Why because certainty is not invalidated by doubt.
And what certain that we in Chabad and was doubtful that the moon might be there or it might not be there. It might be there. That's doubtful. We don't know. This doubt does not cancel out the certainty. The certainty is that we still in chabanne, the norm is we
Finish a burn until 30 days unless we see the moon that's an exception. Right? So if we don't see the moon, what certain is we studying Shabbat for us to say that in case the moon is there, let's say tomorrow is the first of Ramadan doesn't. It doesn't fit the criteria even given the Islamic principles of fit which means that Lydia Tara Jelena that which Allah subhanho wa Taala has made clear to myself and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best is the view of the majority, that if it's cloudy on the 30th night, we wake up the next day having our breakfast and continuing as normal. We don't wake up the next day fasting as if it's the first of Ramadan and Allah subhanho wa Taala rose
basically, yeah. barakallahu pie in the sky. It is very important. By the way, the CFA lay a sudo Bishkek this applies to every aspect of our life in business. In our daily lives. For example, you make Hulu for the Hawk, and you pray aza
and with that, whoo. And then by Marie, you doubt whether you your widow was invalidated or not happens. Did I break my booth or didn't die? Subhanallah? I can't remember.
So what certain? Certain is what that you paid? Sir, isn't it? That? Did you pay us sir? Yes, I did. Are you certain? I'm certain? Did you have a new predecessor? Yes. Are you certain? I'm certain? Now you have doubt whether you have true I have doubt. Doubt does not cancel outside. And as far as the Sherry is concerned you are upon?
And the opposite alike. If you made without follow her, and you broke you remember breaking your window before acid and then the time of us hurricane? What certain is that? You don't? And then you said Did I make my Uzu after I broke my toe or not?
You start doubting? What do we say? What's the last thing you said in about say the last thing I'm sorry about this, I broke my heart You don't have right now make you because that Satan, and we don't cancel out that certainty with this doubt. This is a very important idea in this area for us to comprehend and understand and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best. Now, if one Muslim alone sees the present, he should fast now. If one Muslim alone sees the crescent he should fast. In this short statement, the author discusses the condition of a person who sees the moon and his testimony is rejected. This can happen. Right? Your name brother.
jihad, Jihad sees the moon and he comes through the coffee and the coffee says I'm sorry, testimonies rejected but God knows that my two eyes are the healer. I know that today's Ramadan
what should you do?
Should brother Jihad fast? Or should he wake up eating with everybody else? Because obviously everybody else is going to be eating because the father did not announce the month of Ramadan. Why because his testimony was rejected. His testimony was rejected. So the author in here his view, Rahim Allah is that this person is expected to fast Why? Because he is certain that the month has started. He is certain that the month has started now, where the woman is asking, Is this the view of the majority of the scholars? if my memory serves me, right, it is what law? I need to revise this but if my memory serves me, right it is and there is a second view which states that he should
fast with the majority because of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, Of someo masamune when he tried to commune with Tarun but how kameyama the whole that the fast is when everyone fast and read is when everyone celebrates read and the day of high is when everyone celebrates that particular day. So they cite this as an as evidence that he should not fast if his Testament is rejected, it's not the day everybody is fasting. This is a view. But I have to read up on this first let me get to the meaning it's the exact answer is not appearing to me right now. But what I do recollect is that the whole am metallian is the view of the masses of the scholars. That person who
sees the moon and his Testament is rejected he should fast because for him he said in the month of Ramadan has started in the month of Ramadan is a pillar from the Pillars of Islam. This is what they've cited. inshallah, I will revise this and perhaps tomorrow we can touch on this further now. If he is trustworthy people should first based on his statement now if he is trustworthy, if he's trustworthy, people should fast based on his statement. What is trustworthy mean? The scholars have described trustworthy as a person who does not perform the Cabal. And he's a person that does not continue with the supplier. And he's a person that stays away from haram to the best of his ability.
So Hanna, look how, look at the people that were available at the times when these books were being authored. They were people like this, right? They were people like this panela that people would go out site the moon come and give their testimony and they would be people of a credible nature. They weren't people who practice any cabana if they didn't have any rebar practices. They were people that were not continuous with the supplier the moment they did it immediately they stopped and so Toba and repentance from Allah subhanho wa Taala
And they weren't known to be people who continued in any matter even if it was from the small matters, right? So this is a credible person. Now the question might come up, someone might say what about in our time? Yeah. And if I say that Zimmerman or calella, er, the time has become corrupt, and good people are few credible people are fused, the people who go out to witness the moon and the presence of the healer is few from amongst them who are credible, what happens here. And the scholars have discussed this in the books and specifically, when discussing the rights of a bed and the rights of Allah subhanho wa Taala, Coca Cola open a bed, and they say, in this particular
circumstance, we take the statement of the most appropriate center and avoid these two words, it seems like it's a paradox they can go together, you take the testimony of the most appropriate center. What this means is that let's say there's a person who is being tested with drinking alcohol or the other Billa. But he is known to be a person who never lies. Lying is something this person cannot tolerate. He is many things but he's not a liar, right? So this person, his testimony will be accepted. Now, what we also learn from the statement that if he is trustworthy, meaning one person, people should fast based on is fast. So we learn from this that the month of Ramadan can enter with
the testimony of one person. This is the view of the heaven many men have been This is the view of the chef humans have. And this is the view of urban Kodama Rahmatullah LA and that is that is why he has cited this particular view in his book that if one person witnesses the month of Ramadan, then the month of Ramadan has begun, and he cites for this the hadith of Ibn Omar Abdullah and Omar when he said Tara and NASA Hillel, people went out to see the moon for Africa nebia sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and he writes, and I told the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam that I saw the moon farmer, so He fasted Ramadan Nast BCM and he commanded the people to fast. So they say, based on this, the
sheriff series and the hammer is Rahmatullah here, la him. They say that based on this Hadith, we see that it was the testimony of one, right. However, this is a long discussion between the scholars because it goes back to the strength of the body. And this concept of joining between the body where we have other heartbeats, which clearly stipulated at Lane shahidi, which clearly stipulates two witnesses, right, and we know by default that no month begins, except if two witnesses
say that they saw the healer or the testimony of two witnesses is accepted. This is the norm for every month of the year. And now we find out from the author except Ramadan. According to the Malik is every month of the year Kuta. Maliki say it has to be two. According to the Hanafi zafra de la jolla, la him. One person's testimony is acceptable only if it's cloudy. However, if it's a clear sky, it's not accepted. We need jump on the air as they say, there has to be. There has to be it has to become a well known concept that many people saw the moon How can it be that a group of people went out, the skies are clear and only one person saw the moon, they won't accept that testimony.
However, if it's hazy, then they accept the testimony of one as we find le cassani in a day or scenario mentioning in detail regarding this concept of accepting the testimony with one or two people according to the Maliki's it has to be two people pipe in summary, in summary every month of the year, last 30 days, if it lasts 29 days, it can only be so if there's the testimony of two credible people, that is for every month of the year, except for Ramadan, according to the ham bellies, and according to the chef series, and according to the head office, if it's a hazy sky, except for Oman, in this case, the testimony of one will be enough to denote the beginning of the
month, and Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best. So this is what Mr. Kodama here is stating. Kodama is stating that his view, which is the humble, he must have views as well, is that one person's view is enough. Now, there's also another discussion as to what if a female sees it? And this goes back to the concept of whether your testimony that you saw the moon is, however, a statement or Shahada testimony?
Because if it's testimony we know that from the rules of testimony, it has to be to males, right and in some other matters one male with two females as Allah subhanahu mssw.
For to the killer, woman, Oprah to why because one person can forget, then the other one will remind him, right? Right. So can a female been if she sees the moon, can we start fasting with her testimony? According to the humbling method? Yes. Why? Because the humbling method says the month of Ramadan can start with the statement of one, which means the testimony is mean bourbon, however, it's a statement. It's not testimony. We don't consider it a witness testimony statement. We considered However, it's a statement of somebody and the statement of somebody does not necessitate that statement being said by two people and Allah subhanho wa Taala. Allah knows best
Map testimony is a specific type of hover,
type of hover. It's a specific type of hover because it has conditions.
It's not like any hover, if I tell you a story, right, and if I give witness to there's a difference in the two types of hover, right or wrong. If I tell you a story, while I give you testimony, I say, I testify that this person is bankrupt. I testify that this person killed this person, I testify that I saw this person stealing from this person. It's different than when I say something to you as a normal story outside of the courtroom, for example, is this difference in testimonies, right? So just like a fast can be a fast but one fast can be wired up one fast can be. So the testimony which is considered Shahad is a specific type of hubbub. Because there's rules and regulations that govern
this testimony. Cover in its linguistic senses arm, it could be story related Yattaman and a cynical Kevin, as we know, as the scholars say, Hubbard Maya mill, St. Paul Khatib. It could be true, it could be false. Any I could tell you anything, I could tell you a story I could tell you about my trip to Chicago tell you about my trip to demo Oklahoma. But this differs to when I give testimony about somebody being bankrupt, for example, in the legal setting. For if it's a statement, then it differs from Hubbard the rules of his assets, the rules of Shahada differ to the rules of copper. By now, complete the sentence appears trustworthy people should first based on this statement, and they
should not stop fasting at the end of Ramadan unless it is based on the testimony of two trustworthy individuals. So he says that for us to understand the beginning of Chahal, there has to be to remember we said no month of the year begins except with the except unless there's 30 days completed or we have the witness of two people except for Milan. So at the end of Ramadan, which month is being looked at, shall what so shall while the original rule applies, which is to the scholars also say from the wisdoms is that fasting is not something easy for people. So it's not something people want to come out and say I saw the moon was the end something easy for people, many people want to
come out and say that we saw the moon so to start the month, the test and the statement of one is enough, but to end the month we leave it at two, this is some of the wisdom of the scholars have stated that Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best now, he should not break the class based on citing the crescent by himself. Now, we said earlier if you cited the crescent and his testimony is rejected. We said the author even Kodama said that he fasts, but he's able to put them essays at the end of the month, he cites the moon, which tells him that tomorrow is Sha one. And he goes to the coffee and the coffee rejects his cover his statement by what should he do? Should he make it eat
meaning eat? can make eat obviously, it is when everyone else does eat? But should he fast? Or should he eat? Because he knows that he has ended? Now I can eat? And remember, it's not allowed for you to eat on eat day. So what should he do? Right. So this is what what am I saying here? It will put them Rahmatullah here it is saying that if he sees the moon at the end of the month, but the testimony is not accepted, or the statement is not accepted, he has to fast. Why? Because in the first place, Shahar cannot be affirmed unless two people see
the crescent and he's only one person who's seen it. You understand the rulings are there's no contradictions. Actually, Abdullah smiling was understanding the wisdom behind the the scholars he's saying to people have to see the moon sherea has said two people have to see the moon, not one person. If one person sees the moon he knows but that's half knowledge through the instruction of the sherea sherea said two people have to see the moon for us to affirm the month has 29 days in the next month having started it's not enough at the beginning of the month. According to the method of human Kodama tala LA. He says if one person sees the crescent, it's enough to cite the month of
Ramadan having started so if one person sees it and his testimony is rejected to himself, that he doesn't need another person to support his his sighting. However, at the end of the month, the sherea has said even if you see the moon, it's as if you haven't seen it unless another person has seen it with you. So as we said, inshallah, as far as I remember, it,
was because the beginning of Ramadan, this regarding the end of Ramadan, this is also the harbor the view of the majority of the scholars or that he doesn't eat he fasts, right? based on the fact that the Sharia has nullified his sighting unless someone else has cited it as well. Number two, because of the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam Masato Komiyama if the rune and your father is the day everybody eats, there is the view of Imam Shafi Rahim Allah which says you should eat but
If he feels that people will look down on him for eating then he should eat in private. Or he should fast with the intention of fitter because he's not supposed to fast and eat day. This is a view of the chef you might have but the majority of the scholars Allahu Alem as evil Kodama has stated Now, does that mean okay I don't have the Allahu Island or sallahu wa Sallim wa barik ala nabina Muhammad wa ala alihi wa sahbihi Maria marine