Channel: Yasir Qadhi
Series: Yasir Qadhi - Seerah
Shaykh Yasir Qadhi picks up the topic of the various letters and emissaries the Prophet ﷺ sent to various rulers after the battle of Khaybar.
The first letter was the letter to Najashi which was a message to accept Islam giving the emperor the promise of Allah forgiving his sins and encouraging him to come to the religion of Allah.
The second letter was sent to Caesar, the emperor of Rome whose name was Heraclius. The Prophet ﷺ wrote to him to submit to the will of Allah and if done, he would be safe. Otherwise, he would have to face the wrath of Allah in one way or the other.
The next letter was sent to the emperor of Persia whose name was Khosrau bearing the same message as the above.
Benefits of these letters:
- Every single letter that was sent to a foreign land resulted in the conversion of that land to Islam which was the ultimate divine Qadr of Allah.
- The response of the rulers are of theological significance for us.
- It is not haraam to imitate the norms of culture and western customs as long as we conform to the Shariah of Islam.
Bismillah ma Rahim al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala Sayyidina Muhammad wa ala alihi wa sahbihi edge Marina Mabry so we finished about a little high bar. And now we're going to take the next segment of the Sierra, which is almost always discussed after the Battle of Claybrook. And that is the segment dedicated to the letters and the emissaries of the Prophet system sent to the various rulers. Now, what must be kept in mind is that these letters were not sent all at the same time. Rather, there are various letters that have been sent. Some scholars have documented over 25 letters that the process of them sent. And the problem comes obviously, each one of these letters
is not worthy of an entire, you know, hour long lecture. So what typically the earliest scholars of Sierra have done is to just dedicate one chapter roughly about now to all of these letters. And the realization is that look, these letters are created different times, and they were sent to different people. And what are the lessons that can be drawn from these letters? And why is it discussed right now, because it was around this time, after who they be probably even a little bit before hybrid where the letters began, but it was after who they be, and continued all the way up until the death of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. And therefore, we will also follow this methodology and
talk about some of the main letters and some of the benefits that we can derive from these letters. And the first of these letters, which we have already referenced is a letter to the joshy the letter tuna joshy. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam sent him a letter around this time. Now this is not to be confused with jaffas dialogue. Jeffers dialogue took place more than a decade ago. jaffas dialogue, literally a decade or in fact, more than a decade, probably 13 years have occurred. Since Java has emigrated. Java has actually returned now, and the Battle of labor right. So perhaps the letter came when Jeff Aranda, and the group had already left Abyssinia and the processor and
sent him a letter and told him that from Mohammed Abdullah to Najafi, the emperor of habashi, that inviting him to Islam, telling him what is the Islamic belief about Isa that he said that I believe in Isa as the Messenger of Allah as his rule, as the Pure Word that was given to him. So he summarized the Islamic teachings of Isa and then he said, a slim to slim, accept Islam, you will be safe. And he concluded this letter by the verse of Allah and Milan, are people of the book come to terms that are common between us? Yeah, hello, kitabi tolo illa collimating Sawa and Ben in our beta Come, come to terms that are common between us that we worship Allah alone, and that we don't take
ourselves as Gods besides Allah. And this was clearly the most successful of all of his letters, because as we know, then a joshy accepted Islam. Now, there does appear to be some ambiguity. When did the Najafi accept Islam? And Allah knows best but a lot of people assume that he accepted Islam when Jaffer gave him that well, but the fact of the matter if he had embraced Islam back then, why would the process of send him a letter now after her debut, and therefore, what appears to be the case that Naja, she was sympathetic to Islam, but he had not actually embraced Islam. The joshy was open to Islam. And therefore one of the very interesting things we noticed in the letter tuna joshy,
unlike the letter to kisoro, and the letter to the Caesar and the sense that an emperor, then a joshy letter does not have any threat at the end, that if you don't accept, then all of the sin of your people will be upon you. Whereas in the letter to the emperor of Rome, and in a letter to the emperor of Persia, both of these Emperor's they got this dire ominous warning at the end of the letter, if you do not accept, then you shall carry the burden of all of your people on the Day of Judgment, whereas Najafi seems to have been spared this particular clause. Why? Perhaps because the process of knew he was just needed a little bit of a push, he's going to be accepting Islam. So the
joshy, as we know, embraced Islam. And in fact, according to a poverty according to a poverty, Ninja, she actually sent his own son to respond to the letter, and he sent his son with 60 members of the habit, and his son's name was Otto Ha, ha ebin. us hammer because his name was awesome. I remember the Joshua's name, the Joshua is a title, the negus The joshy is a title and his name was hammer or asuma. And this is his son Otto Ha. So according to autobody, he sent out to her with 60 delegates
To give him gifts and to announce his Islam and to ask or to request or to say to the process of that if you want, I am also willing to come to Medina, if you want, I will come to Medina. But according to Waterbury, the two boats drowned and all of the people died. And so this delegation ever came, but the Islam of Naja she obviously was known to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and two and a half years later in the ninth year of the digital when Naja she passed away the Prophet system on the very morning that he passed away, he announced to the Sahaba the very morning National Agency isn't Abyssinia, the same morning. The prophets of Salaam said Your brother has died
in Habesha, Your brother has died in Abyssinia and let us go pray janazah for him, so the one and only time that janaza salata, Allah law was prayed without a body being present. The one and only time when genocide was prayed was one that Joshua passed away. And that leads to the whole controversy and Phil, when his genocide Allah prayed, and the correct opinion appears to be when a person dies and nobody prays janazah where he died. This seems to be the strongest opinion that janazah is prayed salata aloha is prayed for those who their janazah is not prayed for them, so then the Muslims and other localities will pray for them. In any case, this is the famous letter to the
Najafi. The second most famous letter is the letter to Caesar, Emperor of Rome. And we already mentioned this in some detail, but there's no you know, how are you repeating all the details because it has been more than two years since we mentioned this letter. So there's no problem and reiterating some of the details. And this letter is reported in Bahati and Muslim so it's a highly sought authentic ID. And it mentions the letter that the processor sent to the Caesar now, who was the Caesar of his time, the Caesar of his time was heraclius and heraclius. reigned from 610 to 641. c heraclius was the emperor of Rome at this time. And heraclius by and large is viewed in a very
favorable favorable light by both Muslim and non Muslim historians. heraclius has a very glorious reign, and He is credited with major victories, especially against the Persians, the sassanids. And of course, sort of the room predicted this right sort of the room Alif Lam memory but to room fee at an early woman, by the way, who served with a wonderful builder in Sydney, and I went over the story before that the Romans had suffered a great defeat at the hands of the Persians. And Allah mentions this in the Quran. Because what had happened was the Persian Emperor, hostile, hostile upper is called hostile purveyors Co Op aurveys had launched an attack against the Romans, and this has
lasted 1520 years, and this attack hospital had managed to conquer most of Iraq, Mesopotamia, he had conquered Syria, he had even conquered Damascus and Jerusalem. I mean, this was one the Persians were ruling Jerusalem, not the Romans. So the Persians had conquered Jerusalem and the Persians had conquered, had conquered Damascus, and they even made their way into parts of Egypt. And it seemed as if the Roman Empire was on its last leg. Then what happened Allah revealed in the Quran Alif Lam, Meem holy battle room the other night all the way home member ideas Allah be him say he will grissini Allah says in a few years, the Romans will gain the upper hand. And when this verse came
down, obviously the Romans were on the brink of defeat, maybe even their civilization would have been wiped out almost. But what happened heraclius managed a very brave regrouping of his troops. And he launched a counter offensive and he regained almost all of these lands up until in 628 c and this is one of the processes alive. The verses come down and he's alive in 628. See heraclius reaches the capital of the sassanid Empire. And this is the famous city of who knows.
testify on us fantastic on the English name is Ted to testify in Arabic, this whole Isfahan right and to this day is 400. By the way, it has the ruins of that massive palace beams going I don't know how many 90 meters into the sky like massive beams and palaces. So Irakli is laid siege to the very city of the assassinate Emperor. But there are you know, fortune fortified walls you cannot get through and eventually hospital, the the emperor of the Persians, he has to flee for his life from the city. And he dies A few days later, his son actually does a coup d'etat and his son who throws son takes over and hospital dies a very brutal death. We'll talk a little bit about that today as
well. And his role we know exactly when he died. He died on the 27th of February 628. And this is we'll talk about this in the seventh year of the digital and this is in the process of his life. All the
This is happening, right heraclius gains the upper hand whose role is killed, he is deposed by his own son in a coup d'etat. And this occurs when the processor is alive. Now, back to the story heraclius heraclius was a great warrior. He was a political leader. And he was also very learned in Christian theology. Unlike most emperors of the time, heraclius actually was a scholar of Christianity. And Islamic sources mentioned this, right. Christian sources mentioned a number of incidents that clearly indicate that this guy knew what was what this was all about. He understood theology. And perhaps his most famous issue of theology is that he tried to bring forth a, a type of
compromise between the two major factions of Christianity of his time, he wanted to bring about unity amongst the Christians. And the two major factions of his time were the monocytes and the Diouf sites. Now this is before, you know, this is before Catholicism and Protestant Christianity is literally yesterday. We're talking about 1500 years ago here, right? In those days, the two major branches of Christianity were the motofest sites and the Diouf sites, and to this day, the the Kabbalah and the historians are one version and then Catholics and Protestants are the cops and the historians of Iraq. They still are the mono sites, sorry, they're the diopter sites, excuse me. And
then mainstream Christianity, which is Catholicism, and Protestant and Orthodox Christianity is the other side. So Caesar or heraclius, attempted to combine these two theologies, and believe it or not, he actually brought forth a new theology that was kind of halfway between the two. Right? So he wanted to bring about a compromise that would allow both factions of Christians to unite. However, no matter he might have been a great politician. He clearly was not a skilled theologian, because anybody who knows anything about theology knows there is no compromise when it comes to theology. There's absolutely no compromise. It's my way or the highway. And so his new theology was neither
accepted by the monocytes, nor by the Diouf asides, and so it kind of withered away. And that theology, which also has a name, is it mono, let's take I forgot this fancy name for it. But the and the whole issue, by the way, is over Jesus Christ, what is he? And you know, by now, I've said this so many times, the primary controversy of early Christianity for the first four or 500 years is over, who is Jesus Christ? What is he? Is he God? If he's God, then how it is related to God himself? Is he co eternal? Is it the same substance, different substances, the same will to wills, and all of this was the the the discussion for all of these hundreds of years. So heraclius tried to
bring forth a new theology, and it lasted for a while, but neither group will compromise so it kind of dwindled away. But the very fact that he's doing the shows what that he understands theology, he is sympathetic. He knows what the controversies are. Now, as for the letter of the process of to heraclius it is mentioned in a lot of detail, so he has a body that the Prophet says that I'm sent the LLB LLB to the governor of Basra pause here. Where's Buster? What is Buster? Who can tell me? No, I told you this. So clearly, three months ago, south of Damascus, this is not Basra. This is Basra. Right. There was no city bus, sir. When the process is there, Buffalo was made by the Muslim
armies after they conquered it. All right. Any reference of Basra, which is how it's pronounced in the Sierra literature is to a small town south of Damascus. Okay, and it still stands to this day. So the process of them and basa was an Arab town with Roman culture. Right. So it's Arab, but it's the very fringe of the Arab peninsula. And so they are Christian. And the culture the language the you know, the the currency is all Roman. So whenever the trading expeditions would go north, they will trade at Basra. Right, because that was where they would go right. And she thought it was safe. This is Basra. So they would go to Basra. And then they would trade and then they would come back
down to MCC. So the process of them sent a letter to the ruler or the governor of Basra so that he will send it to this user. And it's so happened that heraclius was visiting Jerusalem at the time. Did the Prophet system know this? Or it was a coincidence, we don't know. But most likely, it was a coincidence. So the process of sent a letter to the Emperor through Basra and Basra because it's just very short from Jerusalem. It arrived very quickly in Caesar's hands, and Caesar was in Jerusalem. And here we began the narration from Abu sufian that Abu sufian narrates this inside body and I mentioned this detail in detail. I think I did mention this narration right, a long time ago,
the conversation between Abu sufian and Heraclitus. I'll quickly repeat that very quickly, because we went over it in detail that Abu Sofia narrates that he was trading in Syria pause in Basra. It was trading in Syria in Basel.
When a crier comes out and says, you know, you are being called to Jerusalem, so they march to Jerusalem, and he doesn't understand what's going on. Lo and behold, Abu sufian is called to the presence of the Emperor himself. Right. And this is an amazing story. Abu sufian from koresh is now standing in the palace of Caesar in front of the Emperor himself, what a auspicious occasion. Right? And Caesar calls him and all of the Roman dignitaries are there he calls his Arabic translator, and then he translates these questions to Abu sufian, that the whole group is there. Most likely there were some other tribes as well, non Porush Arab tribes, because this how the groups went. And so I
was asked, sorry, heraclius asked all of these Arabs, who is the closest in relation to you, to the man that claims to be a prophet. The only oroshi is Abu sufian. And Abu van is like a third cousin twice removed your third cousin once removed, I think so obviously, fan says I am the closest relation, right. I've also found it's been over a year, and the process has been washing, they go back literally three generations, and it's the same person. So a booster fan says I am. So heraclius says sit in front of me. Now this is amazing. It shows us heraclius his wisdom heraclius knows that all of these people are enemies. He knows these people don't like the Prophet, he knows they're
still pagans. How do you extract information from an enemy and prove it to be correct? Look at heraclius his tactic. And this clearly shows this was a wise and an intelligent ruler. heraclius used them against themselves. And he divided the group into Abu sufian, who's sitting in the front and the rest of his colleagues sitting in the back. So Abu sufian cannot see the rest to the by his back is to them. And he says to Abu sufian, I will ask you a series of questions. And he says to the group behind Abu sufian. If Abu sufian lies motion to me that he's lying. Now obviously one of the motion, he'd get a prize, it gets some money, he'd get honor. Right. So Abu sufian was forced to
tell the truth. Because he knows if he lies, somebody is gonna snitch on him, right? Somebody's going to rat him out. Somebody's going to say that he's lying and then a booster fan will be exposed. So he said, Well, ah, he had not been that I was afraid that my companions would accuse me of lying. I would have not spoken the truth because at this time, he's not a Muslim. I will Sudan will accept Islam. When does he accept Islam? conquest of Makkah. So this shows this incident takes place around seven h right this incident takes place in the seventh year of the hedgerow. So he asks Abu sufian What is the status of this man amongst you? How is his family? I will soufiane says he
belongs to a very noble and good family. He asks, has anyone in your society ever claimed to be a prophet before him?
of Lucifer answer's no. He's the first man we didn't understand what his prophet until he began preaching that he's a prophet.
Were any of his ancestors kings? No.
Do the noble and rich follow or the poor and the downtrodden, the poor and the downtrodden? Are they increasing day by day or decreasing? They are increasing.
These converts when they convert? Do they eventually give up and leave the faith? Or did they do they remain in the faith? They remain in the faith? No more? Did they remain in the faith? Have you ever accused him of lying?
No, we've known him to be an honest man. Does he break his promises? No, he has not broken any promise. But right now we just have a treaty with him. Which treaty
are they be? And we don't know what he might do. Abou soufiane says this is the only thing that I could squeeze in.
Right? We don't know he might break it. That's the only thing you could squeeze in. We don't know what he might do. Have you ever had a war with him? Yes. What was the outcome of that battle? Sometimes he wants sometimes we want but
right sometimes you want sometimes we want? What does he command you to do? He commands us to worship Allah and Allah alone, and to not worship anything that our forefathers used to worship. And he ordered us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste, and to have good relations with our relatives. So heraclius then explained every one of his questions. He said, I asked you about his family. And you replied that he belongs to a very noble family. And in fact, all of the prophets of God come from noble families and their peoples. I asked you about anybody else. If you had claimed to be a prophet before? You said no. If the answer had been Yes, I would have thought this is just a
fashion a fad that people have invented. Now he is the other person. It's cool to be a prophet. Right? But you're saying nobody before him said that. He's a prophet in your society. I asked you if his ancestors were kings, you said
know, if his ancestors had been kings, I would have thought this is a technique or a tactic to get his kingdom back. Politics runs in blood. Once you or your family have been in politics, look at the bush dynasty. Look at the other dynasties here, the Kennedy dynasty, once it's in your blood, it's in your blood. Right? So heraclius says, If there had been politics in his blood, I would have thought this is just a technique to get people behind him and to regain his kingdom. But you said he's doesn't have kings in his ancestry. I asked you whether he's ever accused of telling lies before about money and, and gold and silver? And you said, No. So I wonder, a person who has never
lied about gold and silver, about money? How could he lie about God? Now this is amazing here. heraclius, the caffeine is giving Abu sufian the machinic dour
saying, You're saying he's an honest man, he's never lied or cheated or betrayed your trust. He hasn't lied to you about gold and silver, now you expect he will bring forth the biggest lie. And that is the lie about God Himself doesn't make any sense. heraclius said, I asked you who follows him the rich or the poor. And you said the poor. And this is in fact, all of the prophets of God, the poor accept their message before the rich, right? I'll just pause here anything that attracts rich people, right? Any type of methodology or, or other ologies without mentioning names here that attracts the elite and the rich, something is wrong.
The truth is always accepted by those who have nothing. And the rich and powerful, have the most to lose by the truth.
And that's why even in this land, which group has the largest converts, it's not the rich and powerful, right? It is those that are socioeconomically of a lesser level, they're the ones who have converted more. And that's the reality. heraclius says, I asked you whether his followers are increasing or decreasing. And you said they are increasing. And this too is the sign of the truth that the truth always gains more followers. I asked you if anybody left his religion, and you said never. And in fact, once faith enters the heart, it can never leave the heart after that. No, there was just a sign of a man. Right? It's a sign of a real true religion, that when a man enters the
heart, it will never leave. After that. I asked her whether he has ever betrayed you. And you said no. And the prophets of God can never betray or break a promise, I asked you what he ordered you to do. He said that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone, etc, etc. And these are all the marks of a prophet, then heraclius said, If what you have said is true, then he will very soon occupy this very space under my feet.
And we knew from our scriptures that God would be sending somebody, but we didn't expect it to be from your race.
You see, they didn't expect the Arabs to bring forth the religion of Ibrahim again. They were expecting it from the hood. They were not expecting the promised one or they weren't expecting the one that is predicted to come from the Arabs. And and then he says if I could reach him, definitely I would go to him and I would wash his feet, etc, etc. And then he rightly is called for the lecture to be read after understanding the context, right? So notice here again, the wisdom and foresight, he wasn't hasty to open the letter. He's getting a letter from somebody who claims to be a prophet. Let me find out who is this man? So he sends for Abu sufian Let me find out the context. Now he
opens the letter. And of course, the letter is Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim from Mohammed Abdullah, he was truly he Illa Huracan out in more room to heraclius the emperor of Rome, as slim to slim, accept Islam you will be safe. As slim, you take a low introductory model attain accept Islam, Allah will give you a double reward. And if you reject Islam, then you will be committing a sin, and the sin of the scene will be upon you. Now at the scene is a word that has caused problems for our classical scholars because it's not an Arabic word. And most scholars have interpreted the scene to mean the peasants, meaning the folk, the common folk, if you refuse the truth, then you shall bear
the blame of the common folk, that we'll get back to this word later on. But remember, it is a de scene. And then he recited the same verse of Adam and Milan come to a common term between us the same verse added around verse 64. When heraclius finished the letter, this is also fencing. There was a great human cry in the Royal Court, and we were told to leave his gathering. I mentioned to my companions as we exited, that the matter of
In a B capture event A B capture was a derogatory term for the Prophet system, he said I was a fan is not a Muslim now, and it's been a V capture is a very derogatory term. And it's something that is said out of gesture out of, you know, a bad nickname, The matter of it being a V capture has become so big, that the ruler of the bundle us for the Romans is now scared of him.
The matter of the Prophet system is now so big that the ruler of Emperor is now scared of him. Then Abu sufian says, That was when for the first time in my heart, I realized that this matter, Islam would eventually prevail. And this was the first time Islam entered my heart, after 20 years of opposing, now in the Palace of the Cesar Abu sufian says, I realized this is beyond my control. Right. And I've also found, therefore any reluctantly, he converted, he did convert reluctantly towards the very end. And there is no question that, as we say this, we don't mean to disrespect, but as a loss as those who convert at the end, after the conquest or not like those who convert
before, and it was soufiane. So those who converted at the very end, and even then, there was some reluctance, and it took a while for a man to commit to his heart. And we will talk about that when we talk about that. Now, we also learn that the prophet SAW Selim
sent a letter to the Caesar, when he was kept in the Battle of a book. So most likely, then this is a separate letter, some have said it is the same letter, but most likely, this is a separate letter. And it could be the same because we really are not sure of this. And in the Muslim Imam Ahmed, we learned of a very interesting footnote to this incident that is not mentioned in body. It's not mentioned in body. And that is that Abu heraclius responded back by sending an emissary to the Prophet system, he found an Arab from the tribe of tunnel. We don't know his name, but he is called the one from 10, all at an auction. And this is called insular literature. The Hadith of the Tanuki
had to turn up, we don't know his name, just a man from tunnel. And he found an Arab that he trusted and the Johor Christian Arabs. And so he handed a letter to him. And he said to this penalty, that I am actually sending you as a spy, basically, the letter is just a ruse, I'm sending you as a as a as a an iron lookout. It's a spy. And I want you to monitor three things. Number one, does he mentioned the letters that he sends to me and to the other kings? Does he mentioned the letters Is that something comes up in his conversation? Number two,
does he mentioned the night when my letter will be read to him? See, what is his response? There's a question in there, does his response mentioned the night the night day and night, the night? And number three, see if he has something strange on his back? Hot amendable.
So that, you know he came. And the profitsystem asked him, Who are you? He said, I am a man from the north and the Caesar has sent me. And the process of him said that you should embrace the religion of your forefather Abraham, Abraham, you should become a Muslim. And the man said, Let me think about it. I'll think about it, you know, and here is the a letter from Caesar. So the Prophet system did not even open the letter. And he just had a conversation with the tunnel. And he said in that conversation, the nucleus reporting so the whole conversation, we don't know. But the nucleus remembers certain things. He said the process of them. I sent my letter, my letter to kisoro, the
emperor of Persia, but he tore it up. We'll talk about this in section three. Right now we're talking about letter to Caesar. The next section is the letter to kisoro. I sent my letter to kisoro. But he tore it up. So a law will tear his kingdom up. And I sent my letter to the Caesar and he protected it Haffield haha. So Allah will protect his kingdom.
So the tunnel he said, check one, first check, right? That by sending the letter to the Caesar, and protecting it, so his kingdom will be protected. Then he opened up the letter, and in it, the Caesar asked him a question. And that question was, your messenger told us that your book describes the Quran describes a heaven that is as broad as a sorry agenda not to have an agenda that is as broad as the skies and the earth. Jen Nathan, Aloha. Cosima, what your outdoor ASMR watch, we'll all right. So the question is, if gender is as big as the skies and the earth
Where according to religion is jahannam?
This is the question. And the Prophet says and responded Subhana Allah, for aina lelo either Akbar Allah
Subhana Allah, you're asking Allah to outwit him, where do you think the night goes when the day comes? So he responded to the question with another question. And the question had the term laid in it for a lady with the alcohol in the house, so that I know he said, check to number number to check as well. Right? Then he stayed a day or two waiting to see if he could, you know, look at the back of the processor, but obviously, how is he going to see the back of the processor because he's wearing a shirt. So finally the tunnel, he says, Okay, I'll go back and tell him I saw two of the three signs, right. So he went through the process. And when he said that, and he's not a Muslim at
this stage. And he said that, oh, Mohammed. So Sam, I will now go back to the Caesar, and I'm leaving to go to return to Him. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, Wait, he turned around, lowered his shirt, and said, Go and tell your Caesar what you have seen. So he showed him the third sign, which is the heart to manure. And so the man returned with all three checks. So clearly from our tradition. Now, obviously, I don't need to tell you from the Western tradition, these details are not mentioned, this is from our tradition, right? From the Western tradition. It's actually pretty amazing that the reigns of the Caesar and heraclius and all of these incidents match
up perfectly, right. But the Western tradition does not mention any of these letters, much less the details of theology, whatnot. Obviously, this is from our tradition, and the Western tradition does not have anything of this nature. But from our tradition, we learn that the Caesar, then realized that this is true. And Buhari then returns to the narration of Caesar now, this story of the Toluca is not mentioned in Bahati, and you need to understand it to understand the next bit so Bahati actually has two stories. And you would think it's the same story, it's not the same story. These are two separate stories. The first of them is also found in heraclius. The second of them is
heraclius. Pretending to embrace Islam. They these stories don't happen the same day, they actually happened maybe a year or two apart. So the second story takes place after the nuclear incident, is that clear? Right, we add that incident in the middle, then we get to the the the the story that is mentioned in Bahati. And the story goes as follows that, that heraclius was the head of the Christians of Rome, and one of the narrator's mentions that one heraclius one day woke up. He woke up in a angry or in a sad mood. And some of his priests asked him, Why are you in such a sad mood? heraclius said that I have seen a dream. And my astrologers have foretold a very evil Omen a very
evil sign, and that is that a leader has appeared of a new people. This leader will challenge me a leader has appeared of a new people, and these people circumcised themselves, these people circumcised themselves. So his visitors, his ministers, his senator said, What is there to worry about? The only group that practices circumcision are the hood and go and send another, you know, problem, another irritation, go and send another, you know, command and decree. And of course, anti semitism has always existed in ancient Christianity. And I've said this many times as well. We as Muslims did not know the meaning of anti semitism up until recently, right. Historically speaking,
anti semitism has been a uniquely Christian phenomenon. And it is impossible for the Arabs who are Semites to be anti semitic, because that will mean they're against their own peoples. Nonetheless, the point being that this issue of irritating the the Jews are putting more restrictions on there has always been a theme of medieval Christianity. So his visitors, his minister said to him, not visitors, visitors is a Muslim term, his ministers who senators are set to him, why don't you just send another rule upon the you who would make them clamp them down upon them do this and that, and before the rule could come before Caesar could enact such a rule. The LLB arrived in his court.
There he hail kalbi arrived in his court with the message of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, and
the heraclius said, Go check. Is there hair circumcised or not? Now, the Arabs, by and large, did not circumcised themselves. This was something that began in Islam. By and large, the Arabs did not circumcised themselves, right. Some of them did. Some of them didn't. It wasn't a custom that was amongst all the Arabs. And so they here LLB was examined by the guards of Caesar, lo and behold, he's circumcised. And that's what made heraclius really concerned that something's going on here. And heraclius then wrote to a letter to a friend of his in Rome, and who was you?
Even more knowledgeable than heraclius. Most likely This is john the fourth, who is later to become the Pope. This is my theory, but alone knows best. JOHN the fourth later becomes the Pope of the Catholic of the world. It's not quite Catholic at this age, but the Christians. And so heraclius writes a letter to somebody we don't know his name in this era to somebody in Rome who is more knowledgeable than him. And
Buhari does not mention, but it is my theory that it is this man who writes the three signs to heraclius, this is my theory, take it or leave it, that these three signs this man writes to heraclius, that go test the profit with these three signs, then heraclius sends that annual fee with these three signs that he comes back and it's all check. So then he realizes this is the one. Now Bahati continues. That
was when he got the trophy back. Basically, it continues that he called all of the senators into the room, close the door. And then he announced to them, what do you think of our to say that this messenger that has come, I embrace his faith? Now obviously, by this time, the Roman Empire is the bastion of Christianity, and they start bolting, and they start saying, There's no way you're going to be our Emperor, if you live, you know, the faith of Jesus, etc, etc. So they find the doors closed, and iraklia says, I was just testing your faith, I will always be true to Christianity. And obviously, this whole story is only found in Muslim sources. It's not found in the Christian
sources. And so heraclius basically does not to accept Islam, and he dies upon his faith. Now, actually, he dies somewhat of a miserable death, there was a coup in his own palace, eventually, this is after the ending of Islam. heraclius was alive when the Muslims conquered Jerusalem. The prediction that he said, he saw it happen, he said, and they will rule this land under my feet, and less than seven years. And this is amazing. We've said this many times before, that these massive empires, right, we're literally, you know, conquered by literally a bunch of Bedouins from the desert, coming out of the desert without the arms, the weapons without the military techniques. He
is speaking from Jerusalem surrounded by, you know, the Roman Empire goes for another 300 miles. And he says, If what you're saying is true, eventually he will control this land. It wasn't eventually it was seven years from when he said that he's still alive. He sees the carving up of the Roman Empire, Damascus, Syria, Jerusalem, for those now Philistine, all of this goes to the Muslims and then Alexandria within a few years, as we talked about, right, all of this goes. And then of course, assassin is a whole different story. And we're gonna talk about them right now. So this is Caesar. How about the emperor of Rome now the emperor of Rome, sorry, the emperor of Persia, the emperor of
Persia. His name was hospital, his name was holstebro. And he had titled of upper wheeze, upper wheeze. And this upper wheeze is commonly referred to in our cultures, especially in Pakistani and Indian culture as part of his, but his actual name was ARPA with ARPA, which may be offered with, but it is now made into purveys. In our culture, anybody who's called Parviz this is where it comes from. Any professors in the audience know professors over here?
Pervez Musharraf, okay.
So the President of oxygen is named after the assassinated ruler.
He's no longer the president, so many coup is happening. I don't know, I don't keep track of Pakistani politics anyway. So and this upper with this horse Rob range from 590, to 628, and 628. And he was the last of the great sassanids kings, the last after him, the sassanid Empire never regained its glory, the very last emperor of the sassanid Empire, the great Emperor, there were some you know, minor skirmishes a few people after him. And then within nine years, the assassin Empire literally imploded right after in his own lifetime, having conquered almost half of the Roman Empire. Imagine khusro upper Viz was the was the emperor who conquered Damascus who conquered
Jerusalem whose forces entered Egypt. Can you imagine this man's might, and he saw the Empire crumble before his very eyes, and within less than a decade, the sassanid Empire was wiped off the face of this earth as if it never existed. And why did this happen? Well, from our stories is very simple. Obviously modern historians have their theories here and there, even though really no matter what, whether you're a believer or not, there's no question it is an amazing amazing, amazing event of human history that this mighty civilization empire that was threatening the very existence of Rome 10 years ago, right literally disappears Bane actually yet in World War Haha, it disappears.
Within a few years, and it completely implodes and crumbles, and it be embraces Islam, so much so that Zoroastrianism is no longer practiced in the lands of zoroaster. And the mighty fires that were lit and all of this all now helaas You know, it is now gone, that mighty Empire, it embraced Islam, and it became under the role under the rule of the Muslims. Now, holster operative is, as we said, rules from 590 to 628. And historians by and large Muslim and non Muslim have painted him as a very cool Emperor as a very lustful, sensual Emperor. It books of history mentioned that he had a harem had him, of course, it's not it wasn't called the Haram Haram is an Arabic word, it that he had a
harem of 3000 concubines, and he was a person given to sensual pleasures, and people hated him for his cruelty. This is a hospital, and the process of sent him a letter through the ruler of Bahrain, because Bahrain behind at the time of the process, and wasn't just the island, it was actually more than the island, and he sent up the Libyan huzefa, to the ruler of Bahrain to pass on the letter to Applebee's and October he mentions the text of the letter Bismillah R. Rahman Rahim, from Mohammed, the Messenger of Allah to holstebro, the emperor of the Persians, peace beyond those who follow the guidance. And these are who are the people who follow the guidance, those who believe in God and His
messengers, and testify that there is no god other than Him, and that he is unique, having no partners and that Mohammed is a slave and messenger. And I call you with the Tao of Allah with the call of Allah, for I am the messenger of Allah to all of mankind, to warn those who are alive, and to establish evidence against those who reject. So therefore are slim to slim, the same phrase, except Islam, you will be safe. But if you refuse, then you shall have the sins of all of the Medusa on you. Right, as the leader, you have a double responsibility. Now the Emperor was a very arrogant person. And when the letter came to him, he scoffed at this letter, and he mocked the messenger, the
Messenger of the processor, and he tore up the letter in front of his face. And when the news reached back the prophet SAW sent him this hadith is in the process of them said that he tore up my letter, Allah will tear his kingdom up every tearing Muslim Oh, Kula mama Zack. And that's an emphasis that as he told my letter up, so Allah will disintegrate his kingdom because of the disrespect that has been shown. And the Emperor sent a message to one of his other governors by the name of Batman. And Batman was also a governor, but not from behind. But then was a governor more towards the what would now be the not the fatality side, but more on the Yemeni side, like more on
the southern coast, right. So and Batman was more trusted to him then the Emperor than the than the governor of Bahrain. So he sent a letter to Batman, and he said to Batman, go send me some spies. Sorry, send some spies to Medina. And find out more information about this man. And if you're able to physically bring him back to me bring him back. I mean, what arrogance to people they're going to go and bring back the process of when the horatia fell, but you see his arrogance but definitely bring me back news about this man. So by then chose to have his trusted emissaries and their names were Baba way and hora Casa Baba way and Hassan and they went to Medina with a letter and the letter
was just a ruse. It's not anything important. The point is to get some information about the Prophet system about Islam. And when they arrived in Medina
they were terrified because they knew they were spies and they you know, and if they were caught, they're going to be trouble. They were terrified. And the process of them said, wait and come back to me the next day. I don't want to get the letter right now come back to me the next day. The next day the two emissaries came and they brought the letter again and the process of didn't even open it and he said Go back to your rub your rub meaning Batman because they called the we in Islam are not allowed to call Rob any our you know, but they call their their their Emperor's Lord. They call the rulers Lord. So go back to your rub
and tell him that my Rob has killed his Rob his Robin
Hood through his rock, do you go back to you know, this is definitely a play on words. You go back to your Rob. There Rob is Batman. Right? And go tell Batman, you're Rob. That my Rob has killed his Rob meaning hospital and that
his son has taken over now
The two were completely in shock. And they went back to bother without even talking about the letter anything. They went back to Boston. And by the time they got back, they discovered the news as well, that in fact,
hosts row upper with host Rob Pervez had fled from testifying from us for Han and his son. Yes, the joke. His son had performed a coup d'etat had executed a coup d'etat. And his son had sent an army to actually
imprison his father is very common in the old times people would kill their own fathers and brothers with physical power to imprison his own father. In the meantime, yes, the judge offers a peace treaty with the Romans. So the Romans go back, they don't actually conquer testify. So heraclius goes back, and is the George murders his own father. He kills his own father in a very cruel way. He starves him to death for five days, and then in dungeons is a very cruel death. And is this just the way they used to do things back then, I guess. And Western sources mentioned that this incident happened around 28th, February 6 28. See, the killing, of course, it all happened in 628. See, and
this corresponds exactly with when this might have been happening, possibly in this era, and that is jumada oola, of seven, H jumada, oola of seven, ah, and for those who deny the car or deny ahaadeeth these types of things, I mean, you cannot fabricate this type of stuff, the precision to get it down to a right date, you know, you know, the monkey head these people, right? You know, the people, you cannot possibly fabricate these things, because it's very, it's impossible to bring it down, that while the emissaries are there, and the process of them says, My Lord has killed his Lord today, go back and find out. And that's exactly what happened. That in Juma the ruler of seven h holstebro met
his death. And exactly as the Prophet system predicted that within a few years, Allah literally disintegrated the kingdom of the sassanids as if it never existed. And such an implosion has rarely been seen in the history of mankind, where a nation collapses, for no clear reason. Obviously, if you can't find if you don't know a reason, you'll have to find some and modern historians, they, they say there was this there was that but in the end of the day, I mean, these intrigues happen all the time. They're not the end of kingdoms, military victories, and that for 350 years, the Romans and Persians were at each other's throats. neither of the two disappeared, right? Anyway, the
Muslims came and within eight years testified became Isfahan, which it is to this day, and the entire province, the entire lands of Iraq and Iran and Afghanistan and Pakistan, which is what the Sasson is controlled. All of them came under Muslim lands, and this is predicted by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Now what happened to Baton, what happened to the two emissaries when the two emissaries returned, we learned from one of the small treatises, written by a board with a possible SLM one of the early authors 234, C, sorry, 24. He dies, he writes a book about
taxes and juicy and whatnot. And he has a paragraph there, which actually is a part of the serum. And he mentioned that when these two people came back and told them what the processor had told him, so but then realized that this man is a true prophet, by then embraced Islam. These two emissaries embraced Islam and large groups from the area, that area of Yemen, which would be the eastern tip of Yemen, the eastern that what is the Roman area, what is their main area, they embraced Islam, and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam then sent them another lecture after the embraced Islam, and he told them about the rules of jizya. And he said that if anybody accepts Islam and prays and fasts
and whatnot, they are a part of the believers, if not, and they remain a Jew. So there were more Jews in that area, then let them pay the jizya. And that is fine. So this is the story of kisara. And by then, there were other letters written as well, and we'll just quickly go over two of them and then conclude, and of the most famous of the next batch of letters is the letter to more cultists and more focus is more focus is the title given to the governor or the ruler of Egypt. More focus is a title just like kisara is a title and Nina Joshua is the title more focus as a title, and more focus is the title given to the ruler of Egypt and his name was George Yvan Mena. And the
process of wrote him a letter and we don't have in any authentic narration the actual text of the letter, we don't have that. But we do know that mo colcrys was polite and he sent back gifts
And he sent back cloth and he sent back Doodle, which was to become the mural of the Prophet system. And he sent back Maria and her sister, Shireen or CD and, and Mario of course is only able on him and so he gifted these things to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and the Prophet sallallahu wasallam said is said to have remarked that the hubby's referring to more focus the hubby's has protected his kingdom by his politeness, basically. But Allah will not allow his kingdom to last. The Hobbit has protected his kingdom for the time being. But Allah will not allow his kingdom to last. And the process of also sent letters to the governors of other areas which are now in Roman.
And he sent
us the famous us he sent him to what is now Roman, and the leaders of Roman also embraced Islam, he sent letters after the conquest of Mecca. So Roman embraced Islam. And then after 200 years, Roman became an embargoed country. And that's a separate story that they bought these came into government after 200 years, until that date has been evolving. And he also sent letters to other tribes as well. And scholars have listed over 20 such letters
to various provinces within Arabia, the more important ones we have discussed, and then the rest, we don't have to discuss each and every one, one of them being to maceda Malika, one of the being to the bundle hanifa. And they said the Bono hanifa said, we will accept Islam only if you share power with us. And if you give power to us, then we'll embrace Islam. And the process responded back to him that in the albala unit to harmony, Sherman, everybody, the earth belongs to Allah. And Allah will give it to whomever he pleases. And as you know what happened with them, say them after this. Now some of the benefits we can derive, I'm going to call it we'll call it an evening. Some of the
benefits we can derive from these letters, first and foremost, long term goals, long term goals. Also, most of these letters did not have any immediate major impact, except for Naja, she really that was the only one that really had a significant impact. And even that, by the way, it was significant in that Naja. she embraced Islam, but his people did not embrace Islam at the time, only in a job she did. And that's why there was no Jenna's over him when he died. Right. So there was no major political impact from these letters. But the fact of the matter is that there clearly is the intention to make the message of Islam a global message. And that's really the key point here. That
it is amazing that within one decade of the profitsystem, writing these letters, every single land that he wrote a letter to was within the lands of Islam.
There's no land that he wrote a letter to, except that in less than a decade, that land was incorporated into the land of Islam. And this is an amazing reality that the process is indeed aiming global. And so what's happening here is that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is making the Islamic Republic with Islamic empire, an international nation, a nation or an empire or public that is now worthy of dialogue worthy of exchanging ambassadors with kisara, with, with Caesar with Najafi, this is now becoming a civilization like all other civilizations. Also, just as we notice whom he did send letters to let us also notice whom he did not send letters to. No doubt,
everybody knew that there were civilizations beyond the Romans and the Persians and beyond the habashi. These were the three major areas he targeted. Everybody knows beyond the habit. sure there's a whole continent of Africa. Everybody knows beyond the Persians, there are the Chinese scene and whatnot, but the process of did not send them any letters. Why? Well, because there's no direct contact with them. There's a pragmatic approach here that concentrate on those that have dialogue with the Muslims and the Arabs. Now, another interesting point here is that clearly, the response of the rulers has some type of theological wait for us. Look at what the process and I'm
said to get through. He tore my letter up a level tear his letter up. Look what he said to my focus, because he was polite to me, Allah will keep his kingdom. Look at what he said to the Caesar, because he preserved my letter, Allah will preserve his kingdom and look at what the Caesar said to Tanuki does. He mentioned the letters of
the kings that he writes to? So clearly, there's something theological that we have in our tradition about this regard. Another interesting thing, look at the letters themselves. Each letter is just one paragraph, very short. very succinct, very to the point. It's not drawn out intensive theology. Each letter begins with Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim. So this is a sooner that we should follow in official letters that we write, each letter begins from so and so to so and so. This is part of the etiquette that is now
Standard and the process of is utilizing it. Min Mohammed Abdullah rasulillah illa. so and so. So he mentioned who he is, he mentioned who he is writing to. And each letter explained the message of Islam in five sentences or sometimes four, simple to the point. Islam is one God worship Him is very simple and to the point. Notice as well that
each letter is catered to the one that is being written to, the letters are not all the same. So the letter that he writes to
the joshy, and to the Caesar has the verse of other Emraan in it.
But the letter that he wrote to kisara did not have any verse in it. Because kisara is not alikat up. And the verse in Allah and Milan, is about Nikita, right. And in Joshua's case, he explained to him what he believes about Jesus Christ, I believe Jesus to have been born of a virgin birth. And so he's explaining Christian theology to the joshy that this is what we believe. So this is another interesting point as well. Also, one very important point for us here is that when the process and wrote his first letter to the Caesar, he was told
the Emperor's do not accept letters from other rulers, unless the ruler himself, stamps it and seals it with wax.
So you have to seal the letter with wax with your stamp, and then the other ruler will open it so that it is very clear, nobody has read it in the middle. Okay, so the processor was told that this is the international diplomacy. These are the laws of writing letters to international and an international matter. What did he do, we all know what he did, he made a ring for himself, and he ordered wax to be poured, and then he put the wax on the dust, he sealed the wax on the letter, right. And this is a very simple evidence to show. There's nothing at all about imitating the norms of modern culture.
There's nothing wrong with how others do business that we follow their norms. There's a few people that still, oh, we have our own Islamic culture, by and large, is not necessarily Islamic, meaning we're allowed to be broad minded disregard at tickets, mannerisms, dialogue, cuisine, clothes, all of this is open. And therefore in the process of hurt, look, there is a new way I have to do it in this manner, he actually did it in that matter. And notice as well, he addresses the people with their highest titles from the Prophet Mohammed sysm, to the emperor of Rome, in the Lima room, to kisara alvim, the emperor of Persia, and he's giving them their honorary titles. And this is
something again, a part of the etickets. Also, one of the fifth point to be derived here, that from the letter to the people of Roman
it says in that letter that take jizya from the juice.
And this clearly shows there is a controversy in the form of I have to have the mme say that jizya can only be taken from Nikita. So in an ideal Islamic land, you can only have alikat urban Muslims, but the Hanafi madhhab. And most of the later Maliki's, they say no jizya can be taken from anybody.
And of course, the Hanafi is definitely needed this rule because they ruled over Central Asia and they ruled over India and Central Asia and India had plenty of non Nikita. Right. And so, they definitely needed this role, but the evidence is clearly shows that this position is a stronger one, because the process of is writing to the people of Oman and Medusa are not alikat up
Medusa not Nikita and yet Judah is to be taken from them. So, this clearly shows that it is open juja can be taken off in an ideal Islamic State user can be taken from any entity. Now, final point, remember I said that the term ADC Yun or de cine has brought a lot of discussion in classical Hadith commentaries, and the reason being that ad scene is not an Arabic word. And if you look at any commentary or body people are struggling, What did he mean by a DC unity scene and most people say he must have meant the peasants and the masses. However,
in our times or recently I will has another way the famous scholar from India will have done an interview with a very famous scholar in Ireland Rabbani, he actually has an interesting opinion and this opinion makes a lot of sense to me. He says, a DC Yun means the followers of a nice and Elise is the Arabic of areas
and areas is a very, very famous or I should say infamous
As Christian theology, who died 336 ce II and areas preached a very different version of Christianity than other early Christian theologians, and areas preached a version that I'm not going to say it is Islamic because it is different, but it is far closer to the Islamic notion of Jesus. Then other notions for example, areas believe there was a time when there was no Jesus Christ, there was only God. And Jesus then came into being later on. Clearly, that is not what mainstream Christians say. Right. And the area's heresy became so widespread that when Constantine embraced Christianity, the first thing that they needed to do was to get rid of this area's version of
Christianity. So what did he do? Constantine, and this is very basic knowledge all of us should be aware of this. Constantine called a International Gathering of Christian bishops from around the Roman Empire. And they gathered together in the city of Nicea. Not nice. Nice, nice is a different land.
nicea nice is in France, nicea isn't I think modern Turkey nicea, and it is involving Turkey and ISIS and modern Turkey. And in nicea in the year 325. They debated for weeks on end, and they came forth with a creed.
And the main point of the creed was refuting
who areas and the areas heresy was made official. Anybody who believes in the doctrine of areas is a heretic meaning of Malta is a cafe. And he's not allowed to live here. So areas was exiled, and areas fled down north. And ne and in in the Nicene decree, it says anybody who has any books of areas shall be burned at the stake and be killed. So the writings of areas have almost become non existent. And all of the information we have about him we have from his enemies. And we don't know for sure exactly what he said. But clearly, his teachings are much closer to Islam than any other version of Christianity. Right. And the fact that the Prophet system is writing two and a half
centuries later, referring to Christians as an EC Yun, right, the followers of areas is very profound. It actually demonstrates that the Prophet system it is as if he is saying and and by the way, I think this is the correct opinion, by the way, because at ECU is not a term for peasants in the Arabic language, it soon is not an Arabic word. And our classical scholars had a lot of trouble. What is this word? What does it mean? And a DC Yoon is exactly what you would call an Arabic the followers of Adios. Exactly what you would say is ediciones. The followers of, of areas and, and in fact, early Christian, early Muslim books they write about Christian heresy ology they mentioned
really soon, but they don't make the connection that that's what is mentioned in Bahati. And one of the reasons that I think this is really the correct opinion is that if you look at the letter to kisara, to hospital, the profitsystem said, If you reject, then the sin of the Medusa will be upon you.
And this parallels exactly what is in Caesars letter. Because if you understand at least soon to be peasants, then that doesn't match what he's written to coastal you guys following. Whereas if a DC Yun means Christians of a certain type that would match what is being written to what's wrong. And it is as if the Prophet system is saying that look out of all of the groups of Christians that when the process came, the area's heresy had almost died out, but it's still alive. There are still people that follow areas, and there's small pockets. And it is as if the process of is saying that look, the dceu are the closest to Islam.
And if they hear my message, and if you allow them to hear my message they will embrace. But if you deny my message to them, then the group that will for sure convert, you will be responsible for them on your Nokia.
And this shows us that at a time when no herb in central Arabia would have possibly known of a DC universe as mono for size versus dial for sites. Our Profit System is fully aware, and he is writing about the DC Universe. And just to give you an idea about how close Islam is to areas and the belief of areas,
Peter the venerable, who was Abbot of Clooney, and who was one of the most famous Christians of the crusades, very Christian theologians of the Crusades. And Peter the venerable is also the first Christian to ever translate the Koran into a romance language into Latin, the first person to ever study Islam academically in order to refute it, and to translate the Quran into Latin around 1250 or so. This is Peter the venerable Peter the venerable is a very famous person all Christians who know medieval Christianity have heard of Peter the venerable
Peter the venerable writer, refutation of Islam. and in it he says that Mohammed Salim is the successor to areas so amazing that when he studies Islam, Peter the venerable says that our profits are some he is nothing but a successor to areas. So he sees in our theology, echoes of areas, his theology, right. And that, of course, is the Islamic tradition position that Jesus is not divine or the Son of God that Jesus was, you know, created at a particular time. And then, and he has all the honor that he has as a prophet and the human being now areas where he might not have been exactly like that. But no doubt he does not believe in the divinity of Jesus, the way that the other
Christian groups believe in. And that is a very interesting point, the final point 10 seconds quickly, sorry to disappoint you, but all of these pictures that you've seen of letters of the process of them, these are all not authentic, the actual letters of the process and have not lasted to our times. That's just not possible to have done the writing material. They're written on parchment, they're written on leather, they would not last for 14 centuries no document from that time has lasted on parchment it's not going to and there is a there are books that have you know, Muslim books that have these pictures. These are all you know, they're not real, our processing
those letters have been preserved in memory and in the context, but not the actual physical letter that along with anything from the time the process neither his clothes and his shoes, nor his ring, nor anything and all that you see here and there, sorry to disappoint you But no, it's not going to last for you know, 14 centuries these are things that are of a you know, cloth and whatnot is not gonna last for that long. So these are not authentic and with this inshallah we will start for today, and next week we'll talk about omotola Koba, and what happened when the process of him fulfilled his promise to go back to their own world and