Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 57

Tom Facchine


Channel: Tom Facchine


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Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam, Ashraf, an MBA almost

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Allahumma Allen that'd be my entire No, in fact, nothing that I love to know isn't an element of the land I mean, so that might be coming off a lot he would occur to everybody welcome to beginning classical Arabic Saturday morning and today also I remind you marks the first day where we are doing a

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our enrichment class, right which will be at 12pm. After this class should get a little bit of a break, and then we will do the enrichment class

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we've been talking about plurals. That's mostly what we've been going for.

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And in a previous lesson, I had mentioned that there are certain phonetic patterns that are regular to constructing the gym or taxi, the broken floor.

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And we had not explored them very much. But I made good on my word and I went and tracked down my notes from sort of classroom morphology class. And so we're gonna take a brief excursion just to give you a couple tools when it comes to trying to anticipate and form the broken plural. So this is getting into a little bit of morphology. So

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when it comes to

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broken portals,

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there are two types

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we have what's called

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try to make a kind of short here.

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okay, so we have this we're talking about the Jim Maru

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at Tech seed

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Okay, and it's my fault. I've been slipping with the slides and providing information for slides which I intend to get back on in the coming weeks in sha Allah so that we can provide that for students because that was very helpful. So gentlemen, it took seed we recall that this is one of the three types of plural there's the sound plural, and the broken plural, right. And the sound plural has two categories, sound masculine plural, and sound feminine plural. Well, the broken plural also has two categories. So these two categories are a little bit less important than knowing the two categories of sound, plural. Why? Because the two categories of sound floral are extremely regular,

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and predictable, right? They are things that are not necessarily tied to meaning but they are manifest on the actual word so when we take a word like most of them and we want to know how do we make a poor Oh, we know that we have to add goon and Muslimah we know that we have to add at right and so it's more about how the word will look and less about what it means the different categories in Gemma taxi and broken plural is the opposite. It has more to do with what it means and a little bit less to do with the actual form it will take because there are more exceptions. And what we mean by that is that in Arabic there are broken plurals that are used to refer to a number of things and

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that number of things is between one and nine Yes. So there is and this is called a Gemma rule

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of Kerala

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literally the plural of the few from Bali right off lamb lamb means few filler for the shudder on lamb.

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We could say is fewness or

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few general Ocula. Okay. And the other type of broken plural is called

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Jim all Castra

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and you should recognize cathro from Kathy, which means many.

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Okay, so, within these two categories of broken plural, okay, so Okay, so what's the meaning of General General Katraj? General Kathrada is basically 10. And up, I'm gonna write the arabic number 10 plus.

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Okay. Now, why are these categories less essential to know, than the other categories of sound plurals because these are not hard and fast rules, it is acceptable to use them interchangeably, right? You don't strictly have to use general kila. For something that's only between one and nine and number, and you have to use general kithara, for something that's 10. And above, however, if you go into high level Arabic literature, into poetry, etc, etc. This is where this kind of comes into play, you will find that these things are heated.

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More often than not, when they're not heated. Often in poetry, at least, it's intentional to kind of prove some sort of point, or illustrate some sort of defiance of expectation, or what was anticipated. Anyway, the other reason why this is not as important to know as our categories of sound plural, is that

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it is not is much, much harder to Okay, actually, there's two more reasons. One of them is that not every word has both a general color and a general Katra. Some words, they only have one or the other end. So obviously, you're going to use whichever plural, it has, whether it's one through nine or whether it's above 10. Okay.

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And then the last reason why this is less important to to know that so this kind of lesson is more for kind of students who are looking for something more challenging and advanced is that it's a little bit less regular when it comes to the phonetic patterns and the phonetic patterns are much more sprawling. Okay, so

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let's get into it a little bit.

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Between these two patterns, okay, you're gonna see why this is so vexing for

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people to learn. And to strictly adhere to.

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Between these two patterns,

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there are

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27 different phonetic patterns of the broken for

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27. Compared to one for the sound, the sound, masculine floral, and one for the sound feminine floral. Okay, there's 27 phonetic patterns for the the broken floral, splitting them up in between these two categories of Gemini, Ellen geminal, Katra. We find that four of them, and they're the ones that we're going to look at today, four of them, look at my I'm writing English numbers over here, my Arabic numbers over here, four of them belong to the geminal pillar.

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And the remaining 23 of them belong to general Katra.

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And have these general Khewra, we can break them down into two further categories.

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There is a type of plural in Arabic that's known as the plural of the plural, right? Yes, it's possible to have a plural word Pluraleyes the second time when you're trying to communicate something that is

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exceedingly abundant. Okay. So when it comes to the typical patterns of general Katra, there are 16 of them.

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Out of these one of 23

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and when it comes to the what's called

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general Gemma,

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the plural of the plural, then there are seven

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phonetic patterns talking about phonetic patterns. Okay. So essentially if you're looking for

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A strategy for memorization and apprehension and retention, you want to focus in on these first because there's only four of them.

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And then these because there's only seven of them. And then if you really want to tackle the rest of them, you would move on to the 16 and break them down. Okay, let's look at these for today. And then we'll get back to the book. Thanks. I don't want to spend all of our time doing this. But maybe for the next few lessons, I can just go into these things a little bit, because they'll help train your ear. And they'll help show you that yeah, there is some regularity to this thing that when we first learned it, it seemed like it was just completely irregular and nonsensical.

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Okay, so when it comes to the four patterns of genital filler, and strictly speaking, this is originally used for anything that is numbered one through nine.

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And we'll call them Ozanne. Right? There's the plural of wisdom, which is the term that's used in Arabic morphology for a phonetic pattern.

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Okay, we're going to bird's eye view it for a second. Number one, the first pattern we have is FA Latson.

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And we know that all phonetic patterns are always used with the verb for either

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to demonstrate your default example, F or de la, these are the key things right the there is an Hamza attack attached to the or added on I should say to the beginning of the word. The first letter of the root word has a sukoon. The second letter of the of the root word has a castle and the third letter of the root word has a Fatah. Okay, we're going to get into examples and rules after the second phonetic pattern of the Gemma tExif in the general Killa

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is F URL.

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So similarly, it adds a Hamza with the FAFSA in the beginning, and it also has a sukoon on the first root letter of the word. But it's going to be different in that it has no time on buta and it has a llama on the middle of the route letters.

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The third pattern

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is efile.

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So again, we have a Venza added to the beginning of the word. And again we have the first true letter of the root word

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has a sukoon. But this time we're adding an Elif after the middle letter

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before the final letter of the root word. And then finally, it's supposed to be a raga.

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The final

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phonetic pattern in the different phonetic patterns of the general Fila for Gemma ataxia is

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And if you like this sort of stuff,

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the patterns of phonetic patterns, then you are really going to like morphology, because studying morphology self in Arabic is all about the phonetic patterns. This is the kind of work that you do. So if you're if this is really boring to you, then maybe stuff isn't for you. But if this is really really interesting to you then there's this is a whole section of study of the Arabic language and one that I find fairly fascinating.

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can we think this one was Rocky the only one with us today? Can you think of any words off the top of your head that are plural nouns that exist on any of these four patterns before we get into the rules for how to derive them

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just curious.

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thank you for being honest with me.

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Okay, so

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maybe let me backtrack a little bit. What do we mean by a phonetic pattern? Okay, let's take a word.

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Bomb. Okay.

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Let's take bomb.

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Fire means good. Right? Okay.

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It's a noun. Good.

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It's not

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a person.

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It does not refer to a person. This is singular. We want to make it four.

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We know that we're going to be in broken floral territory.

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How do we know? Or how can we anticipate

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what the broken floral is going to be? Is there any possible way of doing that?

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Before this lesson? The answer was kind of like No. Or at least I hadn't shared with you. Any of the rules that would help you derive broken plurals if you can't. So if you came across a singular noun, you came across the arm, you wanted to know the plural of it, you wouldn't be able to guess you would have to go to a dictionary and look it up like Oh, okay. And you would learn that it is

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up imma

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I'll put a button.

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Now, what I'm asking you is, does this word of playing a tune

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correspond with any of these phonetic patterns? one through four? And the answer is yes, it does. Look, it's number one.

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Fr EE Latin Alpari. Mattoon,

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we have the Hamza added on the beginning, look at what has happened since the singular. The hammer has been added on the beginning. The second the first true letter of the word of the root word gets a sukoon. The second true letter of the root word gets an eye.

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And then we have a timer. Bucha added on the end, the Elif is not a part of the root word.

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Right. So that's the idea behind what we're doing. Okay, we're trying to look for patterns. And we're trying to discern what goes where, because somebody actually had asked in class, I was like, Well, how do we tell

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what the?

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What's it going to sound like? How do we tell if we come across a singular noun? What it's going to look like in the plural? Can we know? Is it regular? And the answer is? Well, yes. But it's complicated.

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Does that at least clearly communicate the idea behind what we're doing?

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I understand the idea of

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I think,

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because I didn't understand what is meant by you and many, I don't understand what

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these patterns on the left on the right you know the 1234 are these patterns of the singular form?

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These are These are patterns of the of the broken poor, sorry for that.

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Not being clear, these are floral patterns. So what is the what is this?

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What are the sorry,

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what will be the thing is, in this case, the singular noun is bomb

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is the noun, everything is a noun always sign, that's what I'm going to get to.

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I was just trying to jog anyway, jog your brain and see if just off the top of your head, you could recognize any formal words that corresponded with these four phonetic patterns. So I wasn't able to think to be honest, because I was a little overwhelmed with with the previous screen, and it's sort of fast. So I was still trying to absorb that. And so my mind was very focused on trying to understand that foundation before coming here. So I was trying to pretend you know, and to be honest, no worries, no worries. And thank you again for giving me feedback about that because the the intent is that it's understood.

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So essentially, essentially,

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I guess, let me backtrack. Again a little bit. So in English, okay. plurals are very straightforward. If we have a book

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and we want to say

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I have three of them.

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We simply add an s books. And even if we go up to a million,

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it's still just going to be at an S books.

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Right? Our tools for

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pluralizing words are limited to the s. If we want to communicate

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something else in English, we need to use other words, like a ton of books, right? We use like

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possession based phrases or things like that.

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In Arabic, there are ways of communicating the difference between three books and 100 books

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without using without saying the number.

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But depending on the phonetic pattern that you choose to pluralize, the singular noun. Yes.

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Now, like I was trying to say, and I've maybe said it too early is that this does not apply to every noun.

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But many nouns will have multiple plural forms.

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Okay, and many nouns will have some plural forms.

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That indicates that there are less than 10 of that item.

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And there are other plural forms

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that indicate that there are or we're talking about more than 10.

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And does this apply to both sound and token? No, this is only broken for only those only broken for? Yep, broken florals are the hard ones. Right? So sound portals are easy. That's why we kind of took them first.

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Broken Floros I'm like, okay, okay, well, delay delay going into the philosophy of it until later. Yeah, you have three Muslims and 300 Muslims and 3 million Muslims, it's always, always the same, mostly

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However, if I have three pieces of bread, versus 13 pieces of bread, versus 100 pieces of bread, I could use three different florals for each of those situations.

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Now, why I delayed teaching this.

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As I said in the beginning, first of all, it gets complicated, okay. 27 phonetic patterns is complicated. And I don't expect anybody to be memorizing all 27 of them.

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And the second thing is that it's not a hard and fast rule. Right, you don't have to use the plural form. For three,

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you can use the plural form for 13 to refer to three of the same object. It's not wrong in the Arabic language. However, if you ever desire Advanced Study in Arabic, yes, you will find that in the higher echelons of the Arabic language, these rules are adhered to when it comes to the plural forms that indicate between one and nine, the plural forms that indicate above 10, and then what's known as the plural of the plural, which refers to like a whole bunch, and it's not like a specific number, but it is supposed to emphasize

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that there are very very many of them. Okay, so that's the idea.

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I had broken it down the previous page, into what's called general color, and general category. Okay, so if we can reduce those, just the two categories, general color are plural forms, that, strictly speaking, refer to objects that are between 172 and nine, or we could technically say three, and nine in number. That's what these are. All right, between three and nine, these four right here.

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And the other category, the bigger category is the gentleman cathro, which strictly speaking, refers to objects that are 10 and up.

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There are 23 different phonetic patterns for that category of German ataxia of broken plural, so I'm not going to teach all those especially not right now. But since there are only four, since there are only four

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of the geminal Pinilla, the type of floral pattern that strictly speaking refers to objects between three and nine in number. I figured it would be interesting to look at the patterns and see how we derive or how we get to these patterns from patterns in the singular because there are rules and you are able to do

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derive them, you can, if you are so inclined, you could study these rules of morphology to the point where you could come across a singular noun that you do not know, the plural for. And you could successfully and accurately derive the plural form from that noun.

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So that's the whole purpose behind this little.

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sorry, no, I think I moved to thank you very much for giving me your feedback. Okay, so let's erase this.

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And let's look into specifics. So we're only going to deal with these four plural forms, which are all forms that, strictly speaking, indicate objects between three and nine in numbers. They are F or ILA, like opera Rhema, F roll

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efile and viola, or theater lesson, and I'll give examples, but we'll see from the examples that we can identify patterns in the singular and get to these floral patterns from them. Okay. So let me try to make this into kind of like a chart.

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Better that I use the,

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the straight line that they give me and try to draw a straight line myself because that will not go very well.

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okay, yeah.

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when it comes to the first phonetic pattern, s, are you Latin?

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What's that? Sorry.

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I think there's a word of either like,

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ah, yeah, either party. That's one of either. Very good, that's good. Let's see the patterns and we'll see what

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what matches up with them. So the first example we have is

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I'll use the example.

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Okay, so maybe I should write it in English because I think that'll be a little bit

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masculine nouns

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with a weak

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letter before the last letter.

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Okay. masculine nouns with a weak letter before the last letter, and

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it has four letters. Okay. So this would include our first example, like, fine

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it has four letters.

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And the letter before the last letter is a week letter by week letters. It's like today we alief Yeah, well, that's

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another example, the word for flatbread raw beef

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out of the fat, but I am up Arima.

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We also have the word for pillars. Okay. So for a pillar is removed.

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And it becomes mean to

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me, though. Okay. So you see how and this is nice because it uses all three weak letters. Well, yeah.

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So all of these words. They're masculine. They have four letters.

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And the penultimate letter is a weak letter.

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Effetre Yes. Thank you. Thank you. Yeah, F EDA is not. I was thinking about it. That's a wide. Yeah. F EDA accenting. That's, that's fantastic. Okay, let's add that there.

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Add for heart.

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F EDA hearts. Yes. Fantastic. So now we see look, you've got a pattern you if you've got

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Got a masculine four letter three conditions 123 masculine four letters week letter as the second to last letter the

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portal is or unacceptable plural is ILA and that communicates something between three and nine

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and it is permissible to use it for things that are more numerous than that

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the second type of word that in the that goes to this floral pattern is

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any word on the phonetic pattern found

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in the singular

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or Fiol.

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and okay so that on the aisle is okay, there's a further wrinkle here

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if V halfway with this

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if the last two letters are the same, okay, so what we mean here is that two so this has two conditions. One is that it's on the pattern Fiat or five and the second that the I nine have the letter meaning the middle letter of the root word and the last letter of the root word are the same

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example example. So we have Eman.

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It satisfies our two conditions here. It's on the phonetic pattern of the aisle. And the

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last two root letters are the same Meme Meme so the plural of Imam is in

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we add a Hamza there's the original Hamza, there's the meme and then in

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the same thing for

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so that would be a sin.

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Okay, and because in the plural form, you might be saying wait a second, that's not really exactly on the pattern f beta? I would contend yes it is. It's just that the lamb and the iron are the same letter and so we have a doubling we make it intuition CNN a sin

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Okay, that's enough for this one. So we have two patterns here. In the singular. If you come across words like these are words like these, you know that you can derive the plural pattern from them F isla.

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Okay, let's look at the next one F URL.

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So after all, the first type of singular word that goes to f URL is

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going to be better if I listed the conditions one by one, okay. So we have a three letter word in the singular

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two, middle letter is not week

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three, middle letter has sukoon

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so there was a fourth one there and the fourth one is that it's on the wasn't of that Lun.

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Right, so, if that is our, if that is our pattern in the singular, then we can derive a plural F.

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Akin, yes, very good. I can

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for this one as I can.

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So what we have here, for example, we have shall have the word shall which is month

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what's the plural of month?

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And this is actually a very useful example because Sha Sha one has a second plural, which indicates more than nine,

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which actually becomes very useful if you're talking to somebody, if you stayed in a place for five months versus if you stayed in a place for 12 months.

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If you're communicating between three and nine months, you would use ashbrooke.

00:35:27--> 00:35:42

And if you were communicating more than that, then you would use a different portal which we'll see later, shoot, shoot, but we'll go to that later. Another example and this is not as well known or used is Caliban.

00:35:43--> 00:35:44


00:35:45--> 00:35:58

we're used to the plural Keylab which is technically indicates more than 10 dogs if you want it to be very, very strict and only indicate between three and nine dogs you would use at globe

00:35:59--> 00:36:00

at globe

00:36:07--> 00:36:09

Okay, the second type of word that goes to this type of floral

00:36:11--> 00:36:22

it's kind of I had no idea that it would take up this much time to go over this list but it is kind of dense. Okay, is we have a feminine word

00:36:26--> 00:36:28

with four letters

00:36:38--> 00:36:39


00:36:41--> 00:36:44

a weak letter before the last letter

00:36:49--> 00:37:05

so it's different from up here we have masculine four letters, a week letter before the last letter is the same exact conditions as the arm and La leaf and the mood and for ad, except here. It's feminine. Okay, so we have example here

00:37:07--> 00:37:13

the draw right body parts that are there are two of them. The arms

00:37:15--> 00:37:16

the portal as the roar

00:37:19--> 00:37:21

we have on app

00:37:24--> 00:37:25

the neck scruff of the neck

00:37:29--> 00:37:29

I know.

00:37:36--> 00:37:38

And finally, the plural of your mean.

00:37:40--> 00:37:41


00:37:49--> 00:37:56

Now keep in mind that words, do some words have more than one floral. And so we're only talking about these exact

00:37:58--> 00:38:00

these exact phonetic patterns.

00:38:03--> 00:38:14

Okay, let's kind of try to wrap up with these. And we didn't even make it to the book that I analyzed. But honestly, it was when asked if it was very fitting because we have this is actually very interesting.

00:38:15--> 00:38:18

I mean, it's very interesting. The beginning was a bit

00:38:19--> 00:38:44

overwhelming, but no, it's been interesting. I'm really hungry. That's glad to hear I don't the last thing I want us to be going on and on about something that nobody was benefiting from. But for me personally as an Arabic language learner, I wish that I had been introduced to morphology sooner. And I know that's a common complaint amongst students of knowledge because morphology enables you to organize in your mind

00:38:45--> 00:38:51

the different phonetic patterns and break down something that seems like just this

00:38:52--> 00:39:09

unmanageable mass of, you know, broken florals and actually break it down into smaller chunks, which then can be kind of analyzed and learned at whatever pace Okay, so quickly let's go through just a couple examples of the other two so we have efile

00:39:10--> 00:39:14

there are two types of words that go down through this. So um

00:39:16--> 00:39:17


00:39:19--> 00:39:24

one, a three letter word that two

00:39:26--> 00:39:31

is on the wasn't that I'll write in a second and three

00:39:34--> 00:39:36

weak middle letter

00:39:40--> 00:39:41

any other examples and others

00:39:44--> 00:39:45

Okay, okay.

00:39:47--> 00:39:48

On the wasn't of

00:39:50--> 00:39:51

were we out here

00:39:52--> 00:40:00

that alone. Okay. So we see how sometimes with these, many of these conditions are the same, but they're just being it

00:40:00--> 00:40:12

exchanged are just a little bit different, right? These two sets of conditions were very, very similar. The only difference was that this is for masculine nouns. And this is for feminine nouns. Here, we have three letters, it's on the wasn't bad.

00:40:14--> 00:40:36

But there's a weak middle letter that's exactly like this type of word. Three letters, middle letter is not weak middle letter has a support. Okay, except with this example that this cannot. This is a weak middle letter, as opposed to the previous pattern where it where it was not a weak middle letter. Okay, so for example,

00:40:37--> 00:40:38


00:40:39--> 00:40:40


00:40:47--> 00:40:57

And this is a very helpful one, because bait has two different florals, one of them is this, if we're talking about houses between three and nine houses, the proper plural is AB yet

00:40:59--> 00:41:02

right? Whereas if we're talking more beaut,

00:41:04--> 00:41:09

which is a different pattern of the plural. Another one we have is bab.

00:41:11--> 00:41:12

AB Web.

00:41:14--> 00:41:15

Alright, these are some very, very common words.

00:41:24--> 00:41:24


00:41:26--> 00:41:26


00:41:30--> 00:41:36

or I'm sorry, that does not adhere to the, to the pattern. I think that's a mistake here. So but is the correct one? Sorry.

00:41:38--> 00:41:40

My my notes are a little bit cramped.

00:41:41--> 00:41:43

So s Webb

00:41:45--> 00:41:47

know that I think

00:41:49--> 00:42:04

in the portal, the portal is as bad for the poor is correct. But sebut does not adhere to the a condition. Like three letters. Yes, it's on the wasn't it's not on the wasn't bad on with a with a phone in the middle. It has a flat tire in the middle.

00:42:06--> 00:42:08

And it does not have a weak middle letter. The middle letter is bad.

00:42:11--> 00:42:18

So you're right, it is on that portal, but it's misplaced in my notes here as under this particular singular pattern.

00:42:28--> 00:42:37

Okay, and the second type of word that go that ends up in this type of Portal. We have the conditions are

00:42:40--> 00:42:43

gonna come in this category. Sorry.

00:42:44--> 00:42:45


00:42:52--> 00:43:07

No, no, no. Yeah. No. Yeah, it would be. It would be and I think actually that that's coming right now. Yes, it is. Yes. Here it is. Okay, so this is the second type of word, we have something that is made up of three letters.

00:43:09--> 00:43:10

And in the singular,

00:43:11--> 00:43:20

it is simply not on the previous pattern. Not on. And I think this is where

00:43:22--> 00:43:28

step up. Is, is properly included. Right. So step up to s BAP is one of them.

00:43:31--> 00:43:37

Yemen, edge, man, some of SML. Right? And then.

00:43:39--> 00:43:43

Yes. So this is exactly where it's written. So we're Oh no.

00:43:45--> 00:44:04

So this is a catch all category. Like basically, you see how the conditions are very, very sparse. Any three letter words in the singular, that is not on the wasn't found, meaning it does not have a support in the middle letter, then it can be paralyzed on to efile s Bab

00:44:06--> 00:44:17

FML and NAB, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. And there's many, many examples, but we're stretching over time here. So I'm just going to try to quickly refer to the last one.

00:44:21--> 00:44:22


00:44:23--> 00:44:24

we have a lesson.

00:44:29--> 00:44:30

And this is

00:44:31--> 00:44:44

an exception category. So in in morphology, we have something that's called semi NTSC. So the SC is something where there's a rule, all of these are PSE. You learn the rule, you apply the rule.

00:44:45--> 00:44:56

Summary is that's just the way it is. Right? That's like that's the way it's heard. That's the way Arabs have used these words. And so it's just exceptions. You have to memorize.

00:44:58--> 00:44:59

There's no hard and fast rule for

00:45:00--> 00:45:11

Yeah. Which is why we found a couple of words in here. So for example 50 handsome, right, that's one that we dealt with before right from Fatah.

00:45:14--> 00:45:16

And we have a little Mattoon from Ghulam.

00:45:22--> 00:45:26

We have clear cuts on what she has done which is one of the pearls of shade

00:45:39--> 00:46:03

and subject on the last one will be Sibley attune, which is probably one of the portals of probably. And as we said before, many of these words have other portals, but those of oral forms indicate more than 10 or they indicate 10 or more. So these plural forms, strictly speaking, indicate numbers within three a mind, although they can be using the same

00:46:05--> 00:46:05

of all

00:46:10--> 00:46:19

was this word she, she is that for me? This one over here. This is supposed to be a fall. So it's chi. Chi ha.

00:46:21--> 00:46:23

is one of the portals of shape.

00:46:24--> 00:46:41

Technically, if you're speaking between three and nine for you, and you want to impress your interlocutor, you can use FIFA and yes, that would be the most technically correct form and the one below the one below the English

00:46:43--> 00:46:48

All right. Yeah, that was Tip Get some from Sabi Sabi as a child.

00:46:50--> 00:46:56

Usually, it's used more in fifth discussion. Maybe you've heard of Serbian, Serbian is the

00:46:57--> 00:47:01

is the more common floral, and that's one of the plurals that indicate more than 10

00:47:03--> 00:47:04

but Savi

00:47:05--> 00:47:11

has a gym filler on the wasn't a Sybian.

00:47:15--> 00:47:27

Okay, we've already gone over and I want to give you a break until the translation session. So I will see you in a little bit in sha Allah Tada is Acoma Salaam Alaikum