Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 17
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 42.94MB
Let's get right to it.
I'm going to do a brief well as this cooperates, I'm going to do a brief recap of making a possessive construction
and in Arabic
then we're going to
everybody with me
I need to remember to open this in
our point next time because this is not responding
Okay, now we do this. Here we go. All right, does that so construction?
We said that we were talking about some concept called the genitive case. All right.
Now, what's the genitive case used for the genitive case is used for three things. By the way, the genitive case is called an Arabic measure ruler, and it is represented by a castle. In English, you have the luxury of not knowing all these things about cases.
Because for the most part, English doesn't, it doesn't affect your English at all, well, and Arabic, knowing these things does affect your ability to speak in Arabic. And so we're understand, this is why we go into these things. The Genitive Case is used for three things, all of the having to do with the relationship between two or more nouns.
Whether that relationship is one of place, something's over on top of underneath something else, whether it's a relationship of time before or after something else, or if it's a relationship of possession, that thing is mine, that thing is yours. It's his pen, it's her pen, and so on and so forth. In English, we have two possible ways to make possessive constructions. The easiest most common way is to just slap that apostrophe S on the end of any noun. Abdullah's book, the book belongs. So Abdullah, yesterday's newspaper, a newspaper is from yesterday. But even in English, we have a second way it's a little bit more formal, using the word of the prophets of Allah, a friend
of mine, and so on and so forth. So if we're in Arabic, we have no equivalent to apostrophe s, it doesn't exist. So we have to lean on the second way. And thankfully, Alhamdulillah this translates pretty much one to one, from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. So we're going to keep the same order.
In Arabic as the order that we use in English here. If I say
a the prophets of Allah, who is being possessed, and who is the one possessing the one being possessed comes first the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and the one that is doing the possessing come second prophet of Allah, we're going to take that pattern and we're going to make a factory of possessive constructions and just do one after another after another until we get used to it. We're going to have a lot of practice today with that inshallah Tada.
So here is our example key tabel law here. Okay, so we have the order down, because the order comes directly from English, it shouldn't be too foreign to us. However, there's a couple other things that you have to pay attention to, namely, the endings of each of these words. Key taboo, Allah He,
which things are fixed and which things can change.
The first important thing to realize what is fixed is in the one who's possessing in this case, in this example, Allah is always going to have a casserole
It's always going to be Maduro in the genitive case. Okay? Allah He it's never going to be Kitab Allahu it's never going to be keytab will law ha ever, ever ever because this casserole on the end of Allah tells us in Arabic that Allah is possessing the noun that came before it.
Without that casserole, the sentence means something completely different.
Okay, that's the first thing that has to be there always. The second thing that has to be there always is not the Bama in key taboo, but the fact that there's not two of them.
Okay, it's never going to be key tab Wooten nor is it ever going to have a leaf lamp. That's what is fixed and constant about the thing that's being possessed. Okay, it has no le flam. And it has no tenwek it is definite. It is mowdy FIP. But it is definite by virtue of it being possessed by the second part of the construction. So it can change from Bama to effects had to cancel out depending on our sentence. It could be keytab Oh, he, it could be keytab.
Or it could be Kitab Gulai. But it is never going to have a flam. And it is never going to have a 10 Wayne, it's never going to be keytab Boone will law he Kitab N in law, he No No, never, never never. These are the two absolutely fixed things about possession.
The first one has no 10 wean and no le flap.
The second one, it's going to be Medrol in the genitive case, where that is represented by a casserole in this particular example. And all of this is just a summary of everything I just said, what can be changed and what can't. Very, very good. So any questions about that before we get back into the book? That's the big idea. We're going to have two people reread the
the dialogue in the first chapter. Because our questions that we're going to answer today are is a comprehension exercise it's going to ask you to follow along and to understand what's being communicated in the dialog. So any questions conceptually about what we're doing here with possession? Before we go to that
everything else is just vocab.
If you understand the idea, it's just about vocab and getting accustomed to it.
Okay, just like in Nikka I'll take your silence as acquiescence and
Let's see Let's have a center eid and let's have a Yes sir. Can I have
let's see, can I have
the same family? Can I have most and be salaried? And can I have Syrah be acid
Kitab madein has a year yes zero
law has kita boo me then
Nikita Abu Mohammed in
a landmark to be
good not good.
Enough to imagine
Bill Wood there they see.
Good. Allah Max V moda VC they kind of were testing you there because they didn't tell you what's on the shed the Avila but here it's more than a VC good job you got
Harlem woman had yeah Lee you
either got a mole Rossi
with a DC sorry
Dana happy but to moderate it. Or mother racy?
that'll be excellent work. And we had discussed all the new vocab last time. If anybody is unsure about anything
You can pop a message in the chat
so now we're gonna go down the list with comprehension questions. Oh all right. Number one let's start with lesson
a Nikita Aina gettable Mohammadi
Mohammed Mohammed Yes, it's gonna get tricky now because they're gonna take away the Hydra cats. Good.
And the answer
am I supposed to answer or she is or are
you just handle number one and then I'll move on to Saira for number 203 honeck Very good
we have the question up here we just find it in the dialogue at Nike tavern well Hamlet in yes sir had answered cool Island McCabe want to know that we use Lulu him or he I should say for a book book is masculine
in the Arabic language number two, Saira
and I keep Abu Omar
yes good word. And you like the example I'm loving. Good
and what Oh, who
must have been would they really see?
Very good. Oh, let me have you translate that by the way. I'm just gonna just add more difficulty on to syro or
wears a Mars book.
it is on top of
it is on top
principles. Desk table. Very good. Yes. Only slight thing to to tweak is that more than to be seen as teacher rather than principal but percent correct. Most important thing is we're you've got the possessive construction and the preposition and that's the most important thing. So yes, it is on the teacher's desk. Fantastic.
Okay, number three I don't
hyena have been battle motherless. Very good. Last
receivable. See? That's
good. And what's the answer?
Here, that'll be fantastic. Now give me a favor of translating the question the answer
Oh, I don't know the meaning of the potty. Sorry.
Maybe you can get a paper bag. That
that helps. Yeah, where
we are as teachers back.
Okay. With the resist teacher, right.
Here, here Tatel. Mata, Mata B. Do you know what that means?
Oh, it's under the table.
Now the folder
so tack on preposition meaning under right that was a new vocab word for this time. Notice how here is used for Habiba have diva tone
has a timeout water just like the feminine proper names Khadija twin, Khadija two I should too, right?
And so on and so forth development too.
And so the pronoun that's used for it has to correspond keytab was who? How Kiba was here. Here. Tactile victory. fan tastic. Good work. Next up. Oh, that's all for comprehension. That's okay, because the next exercise is a little bit less difficult. It's going to focus on pounding into your head, making these possessive constructions. Boom, boom, you're going to get used to making the first one without any flavonoids and weed the second one in the
case and then Genitive Case Manager rule. Okay, so they're going to see the instructions. LD fairly Kelly Mehta. Wala Ila 3030. Okay. You don't have to know what that means yet, but that's something to aspire to add the first word to the second what they mean is elderly with possession. Okay, add it in a possessive construction are two examples here we have key tab one,
a book, and we'll have Medellin Mohamed. So we're going to put them together in a relationship.
What what's the nature of this relationship? It's a possessive relationship. The book is going to belong to Mohamed and so key taboo is going to drop its 10 Wien and just keep one Bama key taboo, more hammered in, it's going to change more handmaiden to Mohammed in because now that Mohammed bin is the possessor he has to be Maduro, he has to be in the genitive case. Second example over here. Notice how it's a little bit different. We've got two columns, first column proper names, proper name goes to the genitive case, but it's still has 10 We, over here we have MEK tebboune l Muda. Resume
because the noun is a common noun, teacher, the teacher and not a proper name. It's going to have a leaf lamb in front of it. If it has a little lamb in front of it, it is going to only have one Holika even though it's in the genitive case mechta will model receipt instead of Mecca ghoul muda Resene right and then it has a leaf lamb and so our normal rule applies it cannot have Tenley question in our chat box. We shouldn't do them all as metaphor. Yes, I want you to do every move off the first word in every pair as metaphor with a Londoner. Don't worry about next level is to get used to when they change cases but we're not there yet. So we're on to brother to me and can you
handle the first example for us? Read the two parts and then read them together in a possessive construction.
Column one for me done.
And then for possessive, the Columbo permiten fantastic excellent work brother sigh Excellent.
soon and then with the possessive is going to be
B to C
so be to add this in
as well it's an easy to translate that's okay while we're when you translate this one what does that mean? Together
of how best I think you said I think the sound cut out but you said the house of on bass and that would be correct. Right? Or a little less formal English
on bass is happening
everybody hearing me because it just popped up that my my connection is unstable. Everybody can hear me
I can hear you might have cut out for a second but oh, good now. Okay, excellent. We're moving right along. Ah, someone from the shake family. Third example.
Good button earlyon wolffer to Earline excellent work. What's that mean?
awesome. Somebody else from the shake family Excellent.
Dr. Owens II don't Duff the crew so he didn't
say so it's
so it's not book is fantastic. Good job. Mr. Ross. Can you do the next one
I forgot about when dealers mean the loan yeah soon. And then it will be min min dealu ya see ring? Yeah, yeah. See? I forgot man dealers
No, that's Mr. Sorry, I forgot what multiverse
mean deal is not a very commonly used word. It can mean a handkerchief or a piece of fabric.
Oh, yes. Is handkerchief. Very good. Excellent. Okay, going back to the top.
Sometimes the order of participants changes on my screen. So that's good. It'll keep you on your toes. Next one out on
me soon a modern
can we sue a Marvin
Mouse shirt as the great job to me Mexico
City run holiday soon, which will be selling through Holiday Inn.
I think it's holiday bed. Yes. Excellent work on its butt.
Fantastic. Okay, now that's all using proper nouns. Okay, we had hammy done soon, or Lee noon, and so on and so forth. Now we're going to shift to doing common nouns. Right? They're all going to have a leaf lamp before them.
There's a difference of opinion as to the word Allah, whether Allah is a proper name.
So it should be over here in this category or whether it is derived from L ILA. No God.
This is an old difference of opinion between the natural Yean the scholars of grammar, from what I recall, COA says that Allah should be over here as a proper name. Because if you do certain things to it, it doesn't behave as if it were a normal Elif lamb before whereas other scholars and apparently the author of this book has taken the opinion that it is a derived from Al Isla
but in Quranic causes the bottom right, are we talking about?
The name of Allah?
You're talking about the last
letter correct Allah Who?
Because what I'm referring to is the first part of the word. Right. The question, historically, is just do a little bit over here. Is
is the name of is a law the word a proper name
a lot? Or is it derived from
El Paso plus e la isla meaning God?
Right. So el Isla
did though God and Isla historically eventually molded into a lot. So it's talking about what's going on here on the front side of the word. Whereas CoA and many other scholars of grammar say that No, it's just a lot.
And the evidence that they use is actually something we learned in this in this chapter. When you use Yeah,
okay. We learned that if you use Yeah, sorry, this is a tangent but you know, for those who are interested, if we say yeah, Mohamed
then we change it from Warhammer dune to Mohammadu.
Well, there's other little funny things that happened with you. So if I want to call upon Allah's name, a rough man, at least lamb rough man.
If I put Yeah.
Then I dropped the Elif man I say, Yeah, rock man. I don't say yellow rock man. And I don't say yeah, I'll rock man. Right? And so simple way argues that if Allah were truly derived from El Isla, then we would not say yeah, hola.
But we would say yeah Isla
because we would delete
we would omit the first part of the word.
But we don't do that at all.
Did anyone not give the evidence that in the Quran for example, if you look at ISIL corsi it has it, I mean, if you look all through the Quran, like when it says For example, the Sheikh Mohammed of Allah, there is not a mean mentioned there. Ah, I see what you're saying. So.
you're because what you're implying is that
This will be evidence for this side over here. Because it has.
Yeah. When? Ah, yeah, that's a very nice. I mean, I'll be completely honest, I haven't really like gone deep into this particular issue. I recall when we studied Alfia Malik the explanation by even a theory that it was mentioned in passing, right, I haven't read, you know, a ton of research on this issue, but I found it was interesting when I first came across it. And that's a really, really good card counter argument. So anybody who's who's following along, so the counter argument would be okay, yeah, sure. We might say yeah, Allah instead of Yeah, Allah, but it's Allah who is not Allah hood.
And if it were a proper name, then it should act like a proper name Allah hood.
Ah, and similarly also when we when you start as it could see, we started as Allahu, but in Iowa, we say Muhammad Rasul Allah, we say Mohammed on there. So in the Quran, it seems to be used that way. So that's very good. That's evidence for the other side. Like most classical differences of opinion, each side has evidence and that's why it's a classical difference of opinion. So we see that the 10 Wien seems to indicate that it would be a proper noun, or sorry, excuse me, the 10 the lack of 10 we would seem to indicate that it's derived from a Leela. Whereas how it behaves when we put yeah before it seems to indicate that it would be a proper noun. And this is exactly why they differed
back to the we parked the car and went down to the water. Now let's get back on the road.
So we're here in the land of Elif lamps.
And so now what you're going to have to do the only thing that's different is you're putting them together in the same way. Okay, the first part of the month is going to have no any plan no 10 ween is going to have a bone and the second half
is going to have Alif Lam and one cancer because it has a plan
so it'll be instead of Mac seven l moda so Mac table model we see
next volume order received
excellent so going back to the top
I don't know you please do the first example
Mr. Han, Albay to
key houses key
Exactly. In idiomatic English we would say the house key but exactly literally the house is key with the house very good. Next up to me
Doug cannon tanjiro And it would be
to candle duck cannot taggi Intuition Now what does that mean?
That would be the
D like merchants store. Excellent. Good job. Brother sign the next one.
Bayton L. L. Mohan diesel
by Atul Mohan DC
I don't think we've had an MO handy so Yes, correct.
No, but I think it means engineer right now.
So for everybody who wants to child be a doctor or an engineer this is one of the important ones to learn. How you can tell your child in Arabic
to become an engineer. Very good. So it would be what
the engineers house yes. Good job. Okay, so after the shake family the following one
is mon el wala do a small wallet. What is small? What are the so the boy's name? Yes, fantastic. Is it
good? Okay, I'll leave this for a later date. Okay, next one, someone else from from the sacrum?
Will kita will he get Keita will he? Yes
Yes, fantastic. Yep. keytab Oh law he Oh, that lets me go on a touch weed tangent. So what is it? Eat Allah He? Allahu right? We have rules with the cleaning of the lamp. And we were talking about this just the other night actually, when you have Allah
lamb, typically is a letter of Turkic, which means that you pronounce it, Leila. You don't say La la la. No, no, no. That's not how you pronounce the Koran. The exception is the name of Allah.
Okay. Even then, not always. Sometimes you're going to say hola. And sometimes you're going to say Illa
How do you tell? What's the rule? It all is determined by what's the letter that comes before it.
I'm going to write an X there.
If the letter that comes before the name of Allah is a fat tau or Obama then you're going to make this dark Bay to La he Bay to La he keytab o la he who Allahu
Allahu Allahu Ahad Allah Who summit
however, if the letter before the name of Allah has a casserole, then this will sound brights with telethia
this me laughing You can't say this me law he No no. This mean
so that's your potential lesson for the day. Good. Next up Masada rocks
at Bobby who
been did Bobby know been been to OB? Yes. Very good and translate that for us.
The doctor's daughter? Yes. Fantastic. Good job. So now we have two out of three of the Holy Trinity of professions.
Please pardon my jokes. I hope I'm not offending anybody but Well, I love our engineers and doctors. We have Alamo Handys and a Bobby we have the engineer and the doctor.
Fantastic. And the last one let's go with Syrah.
Myth the one as
I say raw due to it will be myth the hosts
read. Now Saara saya T. Fantastic. You fought through it. Good job. If ta who say y'all are T and that is not an easy word to say. Really well. So what does that mean? Do you recall? I don't think we've looked at siara in quite a while.
You learned that word?
Car cars. Car? Yes. So a car two is the car. So what does the whole thing translate to?
Key? Yes, fantastic. Again, idiomatically we would say the car key right. But if you're going to break it down to a literal translation, it would be the cars keep excellent job everyone. Fantastic. We have these three words Elmo, Henley's engineer, Bobby doctor, and a car. Car.
Moving right along. Let's
so now love tos. And as you can imagine, now, they're going to take away all of the final endings and they're going to have you read
to practice your ability to put the correct endings on the words. So
I think no, not all of these, but most of these, the first word is going to have a Bama
and the one that is possessing is either going to have to have one castle or two castles depending on is it a common noun or is it a proper noun? So we left off with
rather mustn't mustn't Can you please read us the first example here?
Bubble model rusted model rasathi. Oh, they tricked you.
l Muda. Reese is the teacher and where do we teach?
Oh, yes, yes, yes.
Bable madressa de. Yes, fantastic. Now, how was four months and supposed to know that? There's only one one possible way. And that was the hints that they gave us right here. Look at how they gave us one. So in normal Arabic writing, if you pick up, you know, any typical book that's written in Arabic,
they're only going to include the How to cat that eliminate ambiguity. Because you're right, you're absolutely right. That it's possible. And in the chat, we say a teacher doesn't have a door or gate. If we could, you're right. But we could, if, for example, you're in a school, you know, you could say Where's so and so's door? Maybe the door to their office? It's possible. It's possible. It's not the first thing that comes to mind but as possible. So how do we know that this isn't a female teacher?
Moodle resettle. Right? And how do we know it's a school? The only possible way is if they spot us one of the hurricane. And so they give us the facts, which makes us have to conclude that it's madrasa and not muda Risa if if they gave us the llama, then we would similarly conclude that it was a female teacher, and well, that'd be so. So
definitely not at fault there because that's a tricky one. Good so he said Babel madrasa at Babel Madras at the door to the school or the schools door. Very good.
Going back to the top we have to me brothers. I mean, can you do the next one?
Sure. So the city
Hema Raju li excellent translate that for us the demands donkey That's right. There was a good nice ravine holder story in there. But for another time. I'm following one so
by to hire me Don't
But you don't have me doing
now. Okay, this is good. This is good. We need this. Thank you. Sorry. Okay. So if we say
if we say
have me doing
this can't exist in Arabic.
Why? Because this noun has no le flam and it has no 10 we
if we add a 10 when it becomes an incomplete sentence, it literally means a house humming.
Right? It's nonsensical.
A house hunting
what do we have to do to have it in order to make the relationship between them clear?
Now I get ready to hammer
out the endings, it's all about Arabic is all about endings. You change the ending you change the meaning. Right? The way that we know that habeas possessing anything is because it's in the genitive case.
If it has a bomber if it has a Fatah I mean something entirely different. We would never an Arab would look at it and would never think that any sort of possession is going on.
However, you throw a customer down they're like oh, it's his
that's how Arabic works very good. I'm glad that that happened. Because that that demonstrates the usefulness and knowing these you know, fairly abstract grammatical concepts and terms. So basil have you done is Hammonds house good shake family sofa mache family the next one
the excellent and what does that mean? Principles car? Yes, fantastic. And so what else from the next one? mean the loo a Marine? So a Mars handkerchief
rods next one
is smooth Ollie V.
Was that mean?
The students name
remotely on another class because we're almost out of time playing the rules behind the hammer philosophy and how to pronounce it when you don't have
SR I don't. Next one.
Bay to lie
and the meaning
Allah's house. Excellent
brother to me
FY Keita FY. keytab. law he Oh, they got you. They got you to me.
Oh man, they tricked them.
V. O fi kita bill.
So, I heard you know, honestly, I wanted to alert you to the danger but I wanted to see how you would do
not your fault. So yes, beautiful. We have an example and go ahead translate it and then I'll explain what's going on.
In the book of Allah. Yes. Fantastic. So what's going on here? Now we see in action. How the first half the month off. It doesn't have to be Obama. No, no, no. It can be Obama Kassala Pattaya. It depends on what's going on in the sentence. The thing that has to be constant is that it cannot have Alif Lam Nope. And it cannot have a 10 we never have to have these No.
So we have V Kitabi Lehi and because of that we changed the pronunciation of the lemon Allah to circuit B keytab in learning just like the de la he was fantastic great job last two and then we'll be done shall love other side
I wasn't made it
mean mean by till mean by telling them what data they see.
from the T from the teachers house. Exactly.
We can see we can make more complicated sentence call Raja mean baiting mother received he left from the teachers. Fantastic.
And finally someone from the shake family could you do the last one here
Bill model we see
Mark again about last word
would be with Edie.
To the principal's
you got it. You're right there
on the principal's desk.
On the principal's day. It was on the tip of our tongue
and you read it perfectly. Listen to how he said Allah mechta v, because it comes after Allah. Allah as a preposition it makes what comes after it, Maduro. Now we have a possessive construction. Guess what that makes what comes after it measurable. So you have Isla mechta being moody re on the principal's ducks. Something that you don't want to have your name on the principal's desk in spoken Arabic The question comes? Do they do ivam of the noon in mean Bates?
Not that I've experienced
from what I've experienced my experiences barely limited to passing through Jordan and being in the hijas Youngboy Medina most Tajweed rules are applied in the speech. So even like something like it evolved between men and the year, right. Like if you were to say may may have correct men, the other who's going they would not do that. They would say men Yeah.
Well, they probably wouldn't even say that. Right. So generally Tajweed rules are not implemented in in everyday speech.
And that is interesting. I never I never really took a second to think about it like that.
Because it is the interesting thing is that Tajweed Rules are made to make things easier to pronounce. But that doesn't always carry over into spoken speech. And that is interesting. Okay, homework until next class, your next exercise get read.
Just practice reading again. They've taken away some of the
Some of the HopCat so do your best we've got plenty of reading exercises there. And if you really want to benefit then I recommend that you write them you copy them down in a notebook as well. That will help you a lot
and then it looks like next class we're just going to be finishing this lesson because there's enough exercises to run over everything
and a review of Yeah, Okay fantastic. Anybody have any questions before we depart?
Okay, thank you very much everybody, excellent work and effort as usual. I hope everything is going well with your studies and may Allah put baraka and inshallah I'll see you next time so that might take him off to life.