Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 16
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 43.81MB
this one out of metal Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala schoffel MBIA. One more saline Lavina will put once you know Muhammad Ali he offered the Salah was for Taslima Allahumma and even though he may have found out and found that'd be my island Turner was either in the out of that I mean,
after everybody, welcome Saturday morning in New York time,
a good amount of snow outside. Perfect time to learn Arabic. We have one
remaining exercise from the previous lesson, talking about prepositions and we learned four prepositions probably the four most common ones.
So let's go to that and then we will spend the rest of the class talking about something completely new and exciting and different inshallah.
exercise before this, these were the four prepositions that we had learned feet, Isla, Minh and Isla
okay those are prepositions roughly corresponding to in, on, from and to or towards. So, the last remaining exercise we have in this chapter is about comprehending context. Okay, we have five different x or sample examples. And you will have to choose the correct preposition given the context to complete the meaning. So, I'll go down the list of participants Inshallah, starting with someone from the chef family. Could you please do number one?
Look at Abu
So translate that for us.
Book is on the table.
Yes. If you use the I heard you say men, if you said men, no. Okay, sorry, I was
very good. That's the most sensical.
Sometimes there will be there will be situations where more than one could be correct, right. Like for example, if you said feet, you could imagine a mechanism with drawers and that would be correct. But the most obvious as they said Al Kitab Oh, I'll McCabe the book is on meaning on top of the desk. Excellent work. Moving right along number two brother awesome. Could you do number two?
A balibo Phil firstly, yes, very good and translate that for us if you could.
The student is in the classroom.
Good job. Right so there might be rare situations there were some times where in Medina we had standalone classrooms that a student could conceivably be on top of the classroom but the predominant situation usually you're going to say a thought it will feel firstly is in side of the class. Good someone from the say it family can you do number three
not have honey, honey doing? You love
me be happy? Yes. and translate that for us if we could.
Hamid went to the you know, university. All 100% You got it? Yep. Having went to the University, and ILA is the most as the most appropriate preposition to use. Very good. Ah, let's see. Sister my son Ross. Could you please do number four
and halogen moody rule. Mineral mother assay mineral mother Assa T mineral mother rasathi. The principal
exited, exited from the class?
Yes, except one just small thing with translation. l madrasa T usually refers to the entire school. Right so, but yes, completely correct. Well read the suitable preposition
Call the moody ru mean because we have call Raja, as was said, to exit or to leave. And so when you're exiting or leaving, you're moving away from something. So the correct and suitable and appropriate preposition would be min, l, min, rasa tea and madrasa tea is a mouthful. It's not just, it's not so much an error on your part as it is that in Arabic, there are certain words that are built upon easier patterns of phonemes and some that are more difficult. madrasa T has an unusual amount amount of letters for an Arabic noun. And so it is a mouthful, so no shame in that.
Brother say can you please do number five?
they have more how am I doing?
Well, how am I doing? Mina? Seanie.
this is Alia. Ban philia. Ban.
Good, good. Good. So translate that for us. What does that mean?
I have a I have a I don't know what they have a means.
Okay, no problem. They have a means to go to go okay. He went because it is past tense.
Okay, I think I might change my proposition.
Now in sha Allah
that have that have that happened? Mohammedan
ILAs, Illa Seanie?
What's the rest? Failure bad.
So that means he left or he went sorry, not let not leave to go.
Now we have an interesting thing we have seen and what what is seen?
I was thinking that's the country China know
I don't know.
No. So it is a Lea ban. Sounds like a lot like Japan. Yes.
So now we have two countries here. So we're talking about Mohammed, traveling. All right. And you said they have a Mohamed
El acini. Bill your ban.
So that would mean that we'll have
to China in Japan
they have been Mohammedan ALSC in a while. Yeah.
But that's not an option.
Okay, if we're talking about if we're talking about travel, we're usually talking about someone went from some place to another place. Right?
Yes. Oh, okay. Okay. I think I think they have I don't
see any mini mini mini avant? Yes, that is correct. Or if we wanted to so he said that. How about Mohammedan? Isla? Slean emunah. Yeah, Ben. Okay. So in that sentence, it's correct. Mohammed went to China, from Japan. So we have a sense of where he left and where he went in the way that he because we normally save from first and then to second the way that brother sighs structure the sentence gives a little bit more emphasis upon where he was going. It would also be to correct to flip the prepositions and say that how about Mohammed? Mohammed, I don't mean acini from China, Eli Lilly abahani, from China to Japan, but both of those are completely correct. Good work. And everybody
read completely correctly. You guys are 100%
fantastic at making sure that the words have the correct endings. Everybody put the customer at the end of the noun after the preposition. And all we have here is a little word bank. For those of you who
could use a little brush up on the vocabulary, we had a madrasa two, which is the school.
Yes, a soup. Whereas assuming it's not Oh, down here is the market Correct? I will fell smooth the classroom. I'll have mammal which was the bathroom as a mirror
above which is specifically the toilet in the bathroom
a month back to the kitchen
I love warfare to the room al jam era to the university
a su the markets or these days the Mall as well earlier than Japan asleep you know China I'll Hindu
India I'll feel it be you know the Philippines
I'll move moody through the principal. And finally are nice and easy to verbs that we are training wheels that have
he went caught after he left does anybody have any questions about vocab, or prepositions or anything that we've covered so far before we move on to something new and different?
Okay, away we go.
We have reached lesson five congratulations, we're on page 28 out of this 251 page book. We're moving along at a nice clip.
We're going to take turns reading the exercise but first, I'm going to introduce you to the concept of what we're going to be talking about and what we're going to be demonstrating in this conversation
this class and please let me know in the chat if something's not coming up, because I noticed that when I
the slides at least in my browser, I should probably move it to PowerPoint but when I demonstrate it in browser sometimes the connection speed lags
we are learning how to make possessive constructions
okay possessive constructions how to talk about something that is owned or possessed or specific to somebody else.
In English, how do we make the possessive construction two ways.
Normally, we use an apostrophe okay, we say that that is I'm Douglas book
that is yesterday's newspaper
The Queen's English right you say
but we also have another way
to communicate that something is possessed by something or someone else. And that is using the word of
the prophets of Allah
a friend of mine
the Duchess of York and so on and so forth. So we have these two ways
in English of communicating when something or someone belongs to someone or something else.
Yeah, and notice that with the English
with these two different ways in English the order is flipped. Okay.
If I say for example, I say Abdullah's book
Who's the one who owns and who is the one who is own
Abdullah is the owner and the book is the thing that is owned okay.
But if I move to the example of Oh, the prophets of Allah,
ah, the order is the reverse.
The thing or person that is owned or possessed comes first
as the one that is possessing or in possession comes second.
If we go now to Arabic, how do we communicate possession in Arabic
we do not use anything like the
apostrophe construction does not exist
the only tool we have at our disposal is very, very, very similar to this
Second construction in English where we use up
for all intents and purposes, it is identical. That means that it's going to have the same order.
The noun that is possessed comes first, and the noun that is possessing it comes second.
Recall that it I had said before, that we use the genitive case, to talk about three things, all of which have to do with relationships between
nouns, what's the genitive case, it's measurable, it's having something with a customer 100 The first thing we said was
relationships of place. Right? Either
or relationships of time, men can be placed or it can be time, we haven't seen any examples yet, but we will get there.
Finally, the last thing that we use the genitive case for the case of meds rule that has represented by a customer is by talking about possession. Okay, so that's the relationship or the continuity between this lesson and what we have done before. So we're still going to be talking about things that get a kestrel at the end of them.
Now, let's look at an example that's familiar to everybody in Arabic. Okay, here is our example of the possessive construction in Arabic. Key taboo.
Allah He, okay, key taboo law he
that is our example that we're going to go back to for everything, the book of Allah.
Notice how it's in the same order as this literal translation. The first noun is the one that's possessed. The second noun is the one that is doing the possessive.
Okay, keep Tavo law he. But as we can notice already, there's a couple of things that are going on here that are extra things compared to the English and the English, you simply have to
worry about the word order, we have to worry about what is the proper
noun? How Toka at the end of the word, is it going to be alone? Was it going to be a customer is it going to be at that time
if you're looking for the terminology
of possessed and possessor in Arabic and Arabic grammar, we use mobile off okay, possession as an idea is called a Botha moved off is the thing being possessed and then move off LA is the one that is possessing. Okay.
The mold off is always going to be first and then build off ie les is always going to be second. The thing being possessed is always going to be first and the possessor is always going to come directly after
Okay, should I
get into that right now?
Okay, how do we make the construction okay,
we make the construction of the first key tab will law here the first thing that you notice is that the possessor is always going to have a castle
okay, this is what we were talking about. When we were talking about I'll go to this one yes is always meant rule. Okay. Then we'll often ELA the possessor is always going to be my drawer. Just like as if it had a preposition in proximity
keeps I will law heat. That's the most obvious thing that comes to our ears that we hear
when we hear this type of construction, okay.
The second thing is that we have the first word here key taboo.
In this particular example,
it has a Bama
In this particular example, he taboo is in the nominative case, but the mobile
of the thing that is being possessed does not have just one grammatical case. It depends on what's going on in the sentence.
If I say, had the key taboo law he, then yes keytab will be marked for with alarm, because it's part of the hub. Other motera kita who law he?
But what if I stuck a preposition before it? What if I said, Min Kitab Allah from the book of Allah,
then it would turn into mean, key tab be Lehi, yes, he tabby. Okay? So it's important to realize that whatever is the Hanukkah on the move off, the thing being possessed, it's not fixed, it can change depending on what else is going on in the sentence, the thing that is fixed, the thing that is constant is that there's only going to be one of whatever it is, is only going to be one VM, or one that have or one kestra There's not going to be two. Why? Why is that?
You can figure that out?
I believe because that's how you know whether it's definite oil, or indefinite. Fantastic. And also, we had another participant raise their hand.
And I think I'm guessing it was going to be a similar answer.
No, because it's especially like we know the book because it's his book or, I mean, so it's so specific. It's definitely not very good. So same as because it's not, it is definite. This noun is definitely,
if we go back to
what is what does it mean that a noun is definite? It means that the one that you're talking about, it's a specific one, you're not talking about the entire class of that now, you're not talking about any example
of that. Now, you're talking about one specific thing that has a specific identity. Way back when we started our class, we learned that we can communicate that a noun is definite by having Elif lamb in front of it. Right? Key tab one meant a book.
l kita. Who means the book the book,
right? And so that's the difference between indefinite and definite. Well, guess what? There's another way to make something definite and that is by possession.
If I say keep tabel law, he Allah's book. Can we say that that book is indefinite? We don't know which book the laws talking about? No, we know exactly which book Allah is talking about. I say Rasul Allah, He,
the prophet or the Messenger of Allah, it's no longer are also known. It's no longer indefinite, I don't know which one Rasul Allah He, the Messenger of Allah,
the one that we're talking about, is now Bates. Allah, He Yes, we can just think of all examples with Allah as the, as the possessor of the mobile phone, he they and we can think of a lot.
And so the first part, the thing being possessed, the mode off is marathon. It is definitely and so it cannot ever take a 10 week. It will never be key tab one. Key tab being key tab in nope, nope. Nope. It always has to be definite. So we see now, how to make the construction. We take a noun key taboo and we drop the 10 wean from that noun. And then we put the The person or thing that possesses that noun directly after and it will have a
keytab will law he beta law he?
Fee dini. Nahi you're looking for example, from the poor n
108 And NASA, you had a colonna fee. Dme levy F word.
Fi means in Dino law, he is what it normally would be but because it comes after fi it has
beefy da ne ley de la the path or the religion of Allah subhanaw taala
So, that's your introduction. Let's get into the text and we'll see it in action and then we'll plug up any misunderstandings if we have to.
So I will let's see let's go with two people from the shake family to read our exercise we need one side and one yes
okay I'll be say the
kita Whoo. Dean has
Yeah, yeah zero. Law has Akita will Hamilton
Wait, you want us to do the whole entire exercise?
Amen kita boo Mohammadi.
Aner de rue Amari Hua
Hua Ella McCabe Mohammed no Moodle,
Color Moomin has year Leu has a follow Moodle Moodle reason
her key tool model we see here
the tactile Mark, Mark Debbie.
Great job. Excellent work. And I love how even though we might not understand everything that's going on, all the reading was fantastic. So let's address some vocab that might be unfamiliar to you. So we have
TAFTA I'm gonna start from the end here. Tack that means under it's a preposition of place
means under. So which is why the word that's coming after it is Mujuru. Tasha next Debbie under the desk.
Happy Birthday is a bag. It can be a purse. But it also could just be a
bag that isn't specific to any gender.
Okay, column you guys know what column is? believe we learned that early on? Yeah. Yeah. is what's called a hot knee that, okay, it's basically something to get someone's attention. So in
older English, we would say,
oh, Ally. In modern day English, we would say hey,
right. It's something to get someone's attention. So it says
all over the Koran. Yeah. Are you Hello? Kathy rune, right? Hey, oh, you deniers are fake.
So it's used to address someone and get someone's attention. And it has specific grammatical rules. If you're really sharp, you will notice some things in this conversation. But we'll get into that after the main point, which is getting down the possessive construction. Notice how they brought an example like I gave you fee the Hola. Hola. Hola.
Next bill modal receipt.
So this is the first preposition that has a hammock. On the last letter. Are we talking about TAFTA? Yes.
That is correct.
TAFTA is still not me. Okay? It's not ever going to be takhti
but it is yes, good. Allah mean fi all have a sukoon at the end, that's a good point.
Even though they're all Miyun they're not reclinable they don't change their forms all of those previous prepositions that we had learned had been met neon Allah so cool, meaning that they're fixed with a sukoon or TAFTA is fixed with a fat
and I might be mistaken about that because now
I'm thinking about the core antigenemia t here. So just scrap what I just said this touch any attack data is not fixed. It's not it can be affected by gravity TAFTA is the original, and then it can be affected by other words, Inshallah, we'll review that and I def total amount then we learned that def total means notebook we had that before honeck honeck is a direction particle that means over there
and it's not specific to how far away it is, like we could say, Huneck like China, or we could say Huneck like across the room. Right? It's all relative depending on what we're going for.
Does everybody have these words so that I can either you can take a screenshot or have them written down and then I can move to the top half of the conversation
or I should say let me know if you need me to stay on the screen for another second.
And I'll assume that silence means I can scroll up
what kind of orders was that?
I don't know.
Off the top of my head. I'll have to look at that. Good question.
Okay, so we are going to let's see, was there anything in the first part
look at how they hit you with a question at first
It was a key tab will Mohammedan have is this Mohammed's book Yeah, yes. Oh yes.
The headache that will harm you did
okay, that covers everything. So that should be all the parts of all of the vocab.
Let's say a family.
Europe, one person being saved one person being asked
No, it's not me. Okay. La has a kita boo hyung Hi me doing Mohammed
Aina Kitab Abu Mohammed
who I love Mk V Hoonah.
NACA NACA aina. ductal Ameren
mark the be unmoved rec
column oh man had yeah early you
had that column. Colombo al mutairi See
ain't happy but mother wrestle
that'd be excellent work. Good job.
Clear on all of that stuff you pronounce everything very well.
Let's go to brother awesome be Sadie and brother say b Yes
A keytab when Muhammad didn't have that yeah, yes, you know
La La had kita will have medium
Aina Kitab la Muhammadan
Hua Hua I'll make TV Hoonah aka
Aina def to Amman who al
al marketability Moodle Moodle racy
column woman had yeah early you had high level Moodle AC.
I know hockey but only moderately see
here. My TV. Fantastic work done. Excellent work. So there's two things everybody now should know that you have to look out for to have the temptation when you're reading these sorts of possessive constructions compared to what you learned before. The first tricky thing is to remember to drop the Elie flam, right. We really want to say because we're used to the sentences we learned who I'll make Tabby and
Now that we know there's a word after letter B, we want to just tack it on for I'll mechta Will motor racing.
But that's incorrect because I have an early flam on my Mac tabby. And so that changes the meaning entirely, we will soon see what that means. Basically, a negative in modality, C is a noun and an adjective instead of a possessive construction. So the first tricky thing to train your tongue with
the first tricky thing to train your tongue with is to drop the LE flam from the mouth off from the first thing that's being possessed. The second tricky thing is to connect the two words, right? And that's something that comes later because I understand when you're first starting to read here, like neck Tebbe, as a modality, see, but the goal eventually is to be able to string them nice and smooth together. So you're saying next time beaten will receive call a modal modal VC happy, but will know that VC?
Very good question. Why does lamb have no Hanukkah in autumn?
Oh, right here, because it's assumed, okay, just like they don't write the llama over Hua. They assume that you know that word.
Usually, in Arabic texts, they're not going to write the Holika. Here in some texts that are meant for beginner learners, they're only going to write the ones that kind of are disputable or maybe ambiguous. Okay? So for example, they would put the llama here because it's something that indicates the grammar to you. They put men here because they're trying to help you out so that you don't confuse men and men. Right? They write Ailee you because that's part of the grammar after calling to someone using Yeah, but they're not writing the that's how over however, they assume that you know how to write so they don't write the Holika over column because they assume that you know this word.
Good. Let's see. Sister Samira and Mossad rocks can you please do a masala will let's have you be salaried.
And the sister Samira. Yes
Okita Abu. Hamid in Harada. Yah, yah see now have a Kitab Mohammed and
Nikita Abu Mohammed in
who are Elon Musk Toby Kanaka
Aina after one Marine who are alarm ActiveE and
palemoon men had it you had a phenomenal Thursday.
Aina happy Batool muda as we see
here to be
very good. How can that really doesn't have to mean?
Yes, I was waiting for someone to catch it. So this was part of the grammar of how funny that Yeah. Okay, so notice how right here Ali, Ali Yan has a sandwich. And here Yeah, i Li You
does not have a 10 we this is part of the grammatical construction of using
the word after it loses its 10 week. Okay.
It we will come to it probably next lesson or the lesson after just to teach it formally. I didn't want to give everybody too much because the main point with this lesson is the possessive construction. Far more important than getting down the Yeah. But yes. Good catch. It's because it comes after Yeah. And there's other rules too. If, for example, the thing that you are
calling out to is not simply one name, but two names. Right. But we'll we'll get to that as well.
Okay, so we have two people left. Brother Tamim. Can you beside me, are you able to participate today?
I'm still actually catching up. Oh, probably.
Jump in your place. Okay.
brother to me. You can be sad
either one and I'll be acid. That way everyone will have gotten a chance that wanted to write good.
Epi taboo November 18. Yeah.
Good. Let me just interrupt and point out same point with Ali. Yeah, yeah see it all, whereas not view will be here soon. Right. So we see the same rule in play law hierarchy table. Have you seen
a Nike turbine Mohammedan.
in a different model for our next motor received
Palamu when had early you
had a call I'm on model receive
ain't happy but to a in a healthy virtual model.
Excellent work to me. One last thing I'll point out.
Notice this construction here and what salaried says he says call them all men.
Okay, this is still possessive. This is move off with awfully late, whose pen? He's saying? Right? Which is why they put the thumb up because normally Normally, it would be caught on one, right?
If we were just going to talk about a pen, but this is a possessive construction. That means whose pen column will men
be because of that it loses the second bomber. And the move off the lay is men but since men is men knee young, it's fixed. It never changes. We don't see that it has a cast off. But literally this is whose pen is this?
Yes. Press one.
If you go little up on a ma Rin.
Whereas I'm not on Yes. A death tarot and now read.
Yes, a mod n is a name right?
cluster to cluster. Excellent, good. So
the construction here is move off with off kneeling. We have deaf turtle and marine.
All right. So it is a modest note.
The first part of the move off, it loses its 10 week death title instead of death title and it doesn't need any phlegm to be modified. It's already modified because it's possessed we know whose notebook it but it was never a condition
that the second part of the possessive construction only have one Hasakah
that will depend on what you're talking about. When we said Baitullah he
we only had one test rom because Allah never has done we, right? It's always Allahu Allah, Allah He.
Right? If we use a masculine name, then we're dealing with 10 we
Kitabi Mohammed in Kitab, Mohammed in get Abu Mohammed in, and so on and so forth.
If I did it with a what if What if our mobile filet was a definite noun? What if we said like, for example,
the desks pen, right, the pen of the desk, the pen that belongs to the desk?
Paula model Mac Tabby,
right, it would have an LED lamp in front of it. And so what would only have one customer after? Right? So that's something that is not fixed. Whether it has two customers or one customer that depends on what type of noun we're dealing with. If it were, for example, a feminine noun Fathima, then it would be something different. It couldn't possibly have 10 wind because we know that it can't have suddenly that the answer to that question is going to come later. But does that answer the basic basic question? Why can't we say Mohammed dune or Iran or Hamid dune? Good because it's part of the possessive construction. If it was Aina def title mill hadn't done.
The sentence wouldn't make sense. It would come close to the meaning of where is notebook on mouth? It would seem like you're asking where is the notebook and where is a mug?
Right? The the fact that it is in the genitive case that it has a that it's measurable tells us that that is the thing that
possesses the noun that came before it.
So being measurable is an essential ingredients of that part of the possessive construction. However, whether it has 10 ween or not, whether it has two customers or one customer, that's something that depends.
its inverse, it's actually the opposite, right? Like, if you look at the two parts of the possessive, like keytab, and Mohammed in the first part, the move off, has to be mouthful. It can't have 10 weeks.
But it doesn't have to be metaphor. It doesn't have to have a moment it could have a customer, it could have a photo. And the second part of the model delay is the opposite.
It's the opposite. It has to be measurable.
Right? It has to have some sort of customer at the end, but it doesn't necessarily have to have 10 weeks. It could be one testimony could be to customers.
Does that make sense? Yes, absolutely. Thank you.
Okay, any other remaining questions before we depart for the day?
Everybody did a fantastic job.
Try to read over until next class, Wednesday, just read over the conversation again. The next exercise that we do is going to be reading comprehension from this exercise, where is Mohammed's book, whereas I'm always booked, and so on and so forth. And then we're going to have a lot of really good basic practice making possessive constructions between two nouns, both with like this example here with a 10 lien and other examples with Eddie now and with Eddie flam. So will it'll become more comfortable upon our tongue inshallah.
Okay, great job everybody as usual.
And I will see you next time in sha Allah Assalamu alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh