Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 18
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 41.78MB
are Salatu was Salam ala Ashraful and bi vamos serene Vienna off with Latina Muhammad Ali are full of Salah was Qatar Slean Allahumma I live that'd be million foreigner one fatten that'd be my I limped in was even there in Milan I mean,
we have been talking about possession. And that's very exciting. Because every day we're able to say more and more things. Possession hat takes some time to grasp, because it's not the way we normally construct possession in English. However, everybody, everyone in this class has been doing a very, very nice job.
So let's get right into it. We have more exercises in the book because they really want to make sure that this concept is strong and applied well.
The next exercise simply says epiroc Read.
However, these sentences are very, very good for
grammatical analysis. They're very good to bring in your vocab that you've learned so far. So we're going to be looking at all of those sorts of things. Stopping excuse me starting at the top of my list. Masada rocks, could you please read?
Example number one?
Sure. Aina Badal, muda LISI who are buried on
where is the home of the teacher.
Excellent work. So listen to how she, we talked about the importance of joining these two these two words, right. If they were going to run together, then the first thing we had to pay attention to we have a noun here, Bates, which means house,
we have to be careful not to put a leaf lamb on it. And the second thing is, we have to be careful to connect it to what comes next which uses the rules we've learned about son letters and letters and so on and so forth. So a in between modal racy, she knew that Bates had to have a Bama
because of its position in the sentence. And she also knew that it had to have only one this is a fixed feature of being possessed. The thing that is being possessed, must only have one Hanukkah, whether that Hanukkah is a flathead llama or a casserole, so on and so forth. And then she knew what this word was because it gave us the hints with Aloma. Remember last class, we talked about the ambiguity
and madrasa versus modal Risa and how that ambiguity is usually resolved in Arabic by them just giving you one of the Holika that you need to be able to determine one from the other.
And then finally, we have to put and this is a fixed thing with possessing with a possessive construction, the thing that is doing the possessing the thing that is the possessor must be in the genitive case, which we call them as rude in Arabic, and so this type of word, it's represented by a casserole. So it has to be based on modality See, even though they didn't give you any of that,
due to your knowledge of vocab, and your newfound knowledge of Arabic grammar. Now you understand that that's the only thing it can be. It can't be anything else. And finally, the response to the question, Hua Hua returns to bait so we learned that bait is masculine, very doing now.
My son Ross, I want you to tell me what type of sentence this is the answer to the question, what type of sentence is that?
So Joomla is very good, whereas the up to that
it's the Poonam very good and so where's the hubbub?
is it been done or is it implied? Right The cover is buried okay. So what case is the harbor in
my for good How can you tell? Because it has done Matan. Fantastic. Okay, what about the case of the mug to them?
It's not me.
Good, good, excellent. The word occupies its metaphor as well, but we can't tell just by looking at it because who a pronoun is Magne meaning that it's always POA doesn't ever change, whether it's metaphor or metro and so it's always going to be
Excellent. That's the that's the type of big picture thinking that we're looking at. Good. So number two, brother side. Can you do example number two here?
Yes, inshallah number two
I'll call I'll call at alkyl alkyl kita.
kitab. Ye Excellent work, Masha. Allah. Okay, I'm gonna pick on you Sorry. What type of sentences this
I don't know that I need to review.
Well, what does it begin with? Doesn't verb or a noun?
It begins with a
with a noun? Yes. Excellent. Oh, 404. No, isn't
that if ma'am? It's not possible for a verb to have anything? Good. Okay, so the two parts of a sentence that begins with a noun we said we're moved to that and Hubber Okay, subject and predicate. Okay. I'm going to draw a line between the subject and the predicate where am I going to draw it?
subject and between the noon and the calf? Yes. Excellent work between Toronto and he Tableau law he.
Very good. Okay. And so we know that okay, how did you know so? I'll get to the question in the chat in a second. How did you know that it was out? No.
Because you have you have an Islam in the beginning
that answers why there is only one that is
right, it could have been a flathead could have been a casserole. Why is it mama right here
I mean, I don't know. I just felt like that almost sounds natural to me.
Well, you were right. Okay. So, this is the same sentence structure as who about either so, if we have a Joomla Izmir a sentence that begins with an essence like oh poor n then the two parts of that sentence are the move to that and the hover both the move to that and the hover are more for that means that they are in the nominative case nominative cases represented by Obama which is why sat and knew that it had to be L for no key taboo and he made the possessive construction correctly he said keeps I will law he
very good. Now the question on the chat poor and is proper. Now. Is it a proper noun?
Can we have poor and on?
Yes, we can.
Because Quran means recitation right?
For an RV and yes
I got little confused here Sookie tabula he does when we do trimless meow.
I think I'm getting confusing. The the hover
so we have
mocha and I'll hover right? Oh Quran is mocha.
What is a hover here guitar.
Okay, so we remember when we first learned prepositions like Min. Right and fee. We learned that we could make the hover the predicates, not just one word. Like here. Hover is just there either in one word, but we can make the whole
over an entire phrase, right? So we said let's take our example athma do
feel mesh DD
sorry, that's terrible handwriting.
The NES g d and if you can read that, then you are blessed.
Feel MSgt Okay, Achmed is in the mess. If we think about well, okay, subject predicate will tell us about what are these things mean? It means that the subject is what we're talking about, or who we're talking about the hub is the information we want to communicate about that thing. Okay, so this is the subject Ashman. What's the information we want to communicate about athma is that he is in the message. So the entire phrase is the hub. Now, what's the strange thing about that? Is that Well, when we had just a single word that was covered, it was easy to see the fact that the bomb was on the end. And so it's in the case of metaphor. It's in the nominative case.
If the hover is a phrase, then the whole phrase is still metaphor. It's still in the
it's still nominative. However, we can't necessarily see that because there's another word that came in here and change the recipe is from LSD due to LSVT. Feel mesh eating. Okay, the same exact thing is happening here. So we have elcor. And who is the motor that is the subject, and the entire rest of the sentence. The phrase,
which is a possessive construction is the hub of the entire thing as a unit
is in the case of motorsport. And we actually can tell that, because it's going to affect our first word here, keep taboo.
But the second word in the possessive construction, the thing that's possessing a possessor is affected by it being
part of the possessive construction. Right? So Arabic grammar is like dominoes. Right, whatever is in front, that's what hits the thing that comes next. And so on and so forth. Over here, the preposition made this have to have a customer over here. The fact that this is possessed,
makes this have to have a castle. But that doesn't change the fact that the entire construction the phrase is still the humbler is the predicate.
What do you want to say about the Koran? The Koran is our subject, what do we want to say about it? It is a laws book.
Right? So all of that is the cover and the information we're talking about. Does that make sense?
Yes, yes, it did. Thanks for explaining.
Very good question. Back to a poor Anna's proper noun Koran is not a proper noun. Because as was said in the chat box, we have times in the Quran where Allah says porta and an IV and will be a an Arabic recitation for en from Cora, called a means to recite or to read.
Code n means a recitation. So when we put Elif lamb in front of it, that becomes edelkoort, and the recitation and because of its honor and station, then it is unknown to us exactly which recitation we're talking about.
But the word itself, or unknown is a common noun. As of course keytab will law he does that answer your question? Say?
Yes, thank you. Yes, good. Okay. A little tiny note here about handwriting or systems of writing. You might be curious as to why this is spelled this way. In the Quran, you might see it as written like this.
This is particular to the earth manuscripts that's used in the copies certain copies of the Koran, but in common Arabic writing that's not within the core and this is how it's written. This.
Here which in
in Quranic script represents a med represents elongating the sound of the vowel. It doesn't represent that. In average, everyday non Quranic writings, it actually indicates a Hamza with an eye
leave after. Right? Just like we have the word for now, which is an N.
We have a n, right? Because hidden in here is a Hamza and an ally behind it
which is written out separated. It's basically separated and written out like that within the Koran, but here in non Quranic writings it's simply written with this sign
Okay, moving right along.
Next on my list is the sighted family so most of them could you do number three for us
I look I have a two by two Llahi Excellent. Good job. What type of sentence is that?
Joomla is meow Excellent. Where's the
Alka to excellent where's the hub?
Baitullah Yeah, very good. How did you know that it was Al kava two and not
because it's nominative and starts with a lift and
I was the motor that has to be on for motor that has to be in the nominative case excellent work and you heard how he also said be to Allah he and he ran it together. Basil law he translate that for us for the message before it will be on
the cover is the house of Allah. Excellent work number four sister Syrah through there
Mohammed Mohammed does filial
who Allah he was suddenly Allah soon. Lulu he
mashallah, I prove I threw a curveball at you. And that wasn't very nice. But, so why did they put it in green? Because this is an honorific, right? Whenever we say that name of a prophet. We say sallallahu alayhi wa sadhana or something like that. There's different formulas to do. So. Green, let you know that this honorific. It's like an introduction. It's not really part of the sentence. The actual sentence is just the black. And you pronounce that completely correctly. She said Mohamed doon Basu LA. What does that mean? Translated?
Muhammad, messenger of Allah. Yes, well, is the messenger of Allah. Fantastic. Because it is a what type of sentence it
was that I'm sorry, what type of sentence is this one that begins with a verb or a noun.
and so we're talking about Mohammed, Allah is what we're saying about Mohammed Ali Salam is that he is Rasul Allah. And she knew to make this Bama team and this was a fantastic job.
Good. Now we're going to get into something a little bit different. Since they're at home with you please do number five
For whatever reason,
men are fertile. muddy. Good. I got the former time so we can
hydrogel mother reason men hold fertile muddy. The I'm not sure what they will end on
with the room movie. Really?
Good job. Excellent work. So let's break it down bit by bit. This was this was significantly harder than the previous examples. But that's okay, because that's how we learn. So, first of all, the question would be, is this a Joomla? Is Mia or a Joomla? Fairly? This is a sentence that begins with a noun or a verb.
Do you remember what are the three or two parts of a sentence that begins with a verb?
sorry, I missed that class. Anybody want to help out?
Either in the chat or?
We have the
let's do an English we have the verb
subject and the object
and method rule. They're
very good. Okay. Now, why is this significant? Because just like when we were talking before, okay, if we're in Joomla is Mia and we know that the two parts of Joomla is MIA are moved to the hover. Okay? We know the most of that has to have a bun love because it's much more we know the hover has to have the Dhamma because it's much more unless there's something else like a preposition or something like that. Similarly, with a sentence that begins with a verb, what part it plays in the sentence is going to affect what's on the end of it. Right? So caught Jack is a verb, it's me, it's a past tense verb, as more deadly Sue Su, with one bomber, and you knew to put the Dhamma on it.
That was correct. Because it's the subject. So we have this rule in a in this type of sentence that the faring meaning the subject is not afford just like the mob to that, just like the hub,
it will always have a Bama. Kado general The reason
the rest of the sentence is tricky, okay, because now we have the whole object is this phrase. And not only did they throw at you a prepositional phrase,
they threw at you a possessive phrase as well.
Okay, which is just playing me at this level. So, because this is a preposition mean means from the next word, Sister Adam doesn't have to have Wi Fi as it should be a word for two or one party.
Closer to four?
I'm not sure.
That's half of the saying, I don't know how let's get some food together. Everybody in the chat? Somebody said measure rule. That's correct. It has a cassava. I'm gonna look. Why because the rule was that we had said, anything that comes after a preposition, either men or feed, or Allah or either, it will have a customer. Excellent. The second thing going on, is that a vote of ah, and Elmo dear is part of a possessive construction. And we know from that, that that makes the thing that's doing the possessing, also have a test. So that was very, very tricky. The sentence should read Cora gel Modera reseau mineral warfare team, will the
the teacher left or exited from the principal's room? Or the principal's office? We could say, right.
And you see how now, the analogy of dominoes is suitable? Because this mean affects this.
And this affects that.
Okay, let's see if there were some questions in the chat box. Would we not do the possessive construction first. So look by two are the ad. And then we add the preposition. So the word becomes magical?
I'm not sure I completely understand your question. But when it comes to the order of the syntax of the sentence, the way it appears even in English, okay, let's break it down between what we're talking about. And what we want to say about what we're talking about, is say Elementary. So
that's what we want to talk about. The teacher, what do we want to say about the teacher?
He left from such and such a place?
Even an English we say he left from
okay, because from is attached to leaving, right, it's adding now more information about leaving.
We could have just said he left. But that wouldn't tell us where he came from where he's going to.
We're going to get more information and the most pertinent information is from
then after we say from, we're going to say where is the from that we're talking about.
So that's why the order of the sentence dictates that the preposition comes first. If the preposition comes first, then the Morpher has to follow it.
Right morpher has to have a customer.
It can't possibly have a loan
any noun that follows the preposition has to have a. Okay, but go ahead. Am I misunderstanding your question? Yeah, so actually,
oh, you muted yourself.
Sorry about that. So I actually thought there was a lot going on in the sentence. And so the way I thought about it was, I would first say, I would first take the possession, which is who refer to. So I would say would refer to L, moody D, then I would add the preposition before it. And so I know that when I add the preposition, then the one after becomes material. So then I changed that month for to the module. And so I made it mean, over 40 At that point, just because I thought there was a lot going on, and then it was confusing.
Because actually, only the roofer is affected by the preposition. And so that's how I just made it simple for myself. I see. Okay, I understand. So. So she's saying that as a tactic, okay, if you're looking at the sentence, and you're trying to figure out what on earth is going on, oh, wow, there's a lot of words, and I'm not sure how this is all going to affect each other, you can probably pick out pretty easily she's saying it was easier for her to pick out a Waterfoot twin, and we'll do it as a possessive construction. Right. And so, in her mind, that means I know that a majority has to be with a customer.
And then after that, she looked back at the sentence and picked out recognize the fact that there's a preposition there. Yeah, of course, if you're just looking at the sentence and trying to figure it out, then whatever is going to lead you to the conclusion. And that's what you should do.
Very good halogen with that resume and worthless in moody. Definitely the one of the more difficult sentences we've had so far. Other question we had in the chat, we say the messenger because the possession specifies that what if I wanted to cite a book of mine? That will come later, when it comes to possessive constructions? There are, there's a separate linguistic device to make possessive constructions. They are attached pronouns that we will learn later.
So this is the process by which we attach or make possessive, a noun to another noun, and not to another pronoun.
Let's go to number six next on my list. The fake family
has a bay
to hire me then was leaked by two colleagues in work? Mashallah. So, what type of sentence busters they're both pretty much the same. What type of sentence are we dealing with here?
Joomla is mere fantastic. What are the two parts of Joomla is?
What's the subject in this first clause here?
It's implied with the hazard. Yes, fantastic. It's had good so we're gonna draw our line and predicate that's exactly where it's going to go. Okay, and how did you know you were correct. You said me too. How did you know it was paid to?
It's the Modafinil Modafinil a concept
Okay, that's definitely how we can tell that have you been Have you been? But technically, I could have had beta ham you didn't or Beatty's.
Like for example, if I hadn't been in before, it would be mean basically.
Excellent. So the reason why base two has a Bama is because it is part of the predicate. It's part of the predicate. There's nothing else before it and the deep bolts grammatical case of the predicate unless there's something there to change it is not for
the second half of the sentence, it's exactly the same as the first. So could you just translate that entire sentence for us?
how many times house and that is harlots house.
Excellent word. Someone else referred by number seven.
To amar in
dolly Boone, we're what no yes it in taggi that you don't
that was a difficult sentence that you totally did. Fantastic. Okay, so what type of sentence are we dealing with?
Things? Joomla is meow
what are the two parts of them? That is meow?
The subject and a predicate or
where do we draw
the line comer? Where's where's the subject in this first part?
I think a modern
Okay, let me ask you this first. translate the whole thing first.
The son of a Marine? The maybe the teacher on mine, son. No, no, wait. Alright, well, so half
a Martian is, um, okay, um, my son is a student. And on the second level, we're What? No. So yes, there's daughter is a merchant. We're still in it philippson. So given. So yes, there's sun is a merchant. Very good. So let's just look at the first half if no amount in volume. Okay, so where is
what's the sub talking about in English or in Arabic?
The son, we're talking about a modern son, a milestone of no unknown.
Now, we have something a little bit different. Instead of the subject being only one noun, like the kava, or Mohamed Salah Salam, or
Amar son is the student. Omar son is the whole thing. And then student is the rest. Exactly. Fantastic. So the Muqtada here is the entire possessive construction. If no, I'm not in, that's what we're talking about. What are we saying about it? No, I'm not. He is a quality boom. So the hover now is simple. Just one word, Bollywood and has a Bama because it's the hover
and the entire first part of the sentence is the motor that is the subject and the same thing. Even though yes.
That is the subject. What are we saying about the subject? What's the hover? You don't? Which is why it has a Bama.
Fantastic job. Very good. That also was not easy.
Anybody have questions about those two, those two were somewhat more difficult than, like I said, anything we've seen before.
Well, one thing in their modern otolith, whoo if we just for the sake of understanding, it can be out valuable or now. Or valuable. Olive lamb. Excellent. Excellent. Thank you so much for asking that question. What would we have on our hands? What type of sentence or what? How the meaning change? If instead of we have Bali boon, natira, indefinite we had we made a definite
if no, I'm loving
and listen to how he knows that if he adds the LE flam than the 10 we have to go away.
This, if we're going to make it is not
usually usually depends on the context of a sentence, a complete sentence. Okay? Because in Arabic, you can give someone several titles.
Even within one loop today, don't we say? Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen Rahmani Raheem, Maliki Ahmed Deen, right, we're giving multiple titles to Allah spawns on it. And it's all occupying the same space in grant. So if you think you know, if there's a, I don't know, a, some sort of boxing match, right? They say in this corner, so and so the so and so. And he's got all these titles and nicknames and things like that. If we make Volleyball, volleyball, it's not clear what we're doing. It's possible that we could be just giving him another title, even though I'm not an authority who, the son of Armada students,
right, dot dot dot and we have
haven't said anything about him.
Okay, maybe there's multiple children of amo. Okay, but all of them are
grown up and out of the house, they've become doctors and teachers and everything else. But there's only one of amount of sons that is still a student.
And so you need to clarify say, even though I'm not an authority well
meaning the son of Amar, who is a students, but you still haven't said anything about him, you haven't completed the sentence.
Now, if this is a So, upon the first answer, just as it was mentioned, in the chat box cover, we said
is by default, Nikita.
indefinite, the scuze me the predicate, by default, is
indefinite, which is why over here we have volleyball with two bomas. Anytime we attach, you don't.
If we try to add anything, and we make it mowdy, for
the default understanding is that this sort of thing is going on where we've simply added another title, this is called bedden. And we'll learn about it later in sha Allah, where we've added another title to the son of a mod, and we haven't really yet said anything about him.
It's the response to a question,
then it could be a complete response. If someone asks min authority, like like, who's the student, you say? There was a student today that wrote an amazing poem, and he won this prize. You say, who is? Who is the student? You say, even though I'm not an authority?
The son of Amar is the student.
But even then, in reality, what what really is going on? Is that that default of the sentence is a balibo does, the student is, even though I'm not it.
However, what we've done is we've changed the order of the sentence for emphasis, for emphasis. Okay. Does that answer your question? Yes. Thank you. Well, thank you for the question.
Possession in possession, yes, yes, yes.
Yes, this happens all the time. Actually, in especially in Hadith literature, where you're talking about people's names and titles, and so on and so forth.
Sometimes you get multiple
chains of possessive constructions. In that case,
just like what we've learned nothing different. The first one is going to be according to the grammatical position of the sentence. And then everything after that is going to be measurable. Right.
Can I think of an example let's see.
Can you think of an example for and that's another thing?
Probably not off the top of my head right now. But if we say Yeah,
exactly, like if we say B, let's, let's even Okay, forget that we'll just say a bait
are our su li,
write the house of the Messenger of Allah.
They to Rasul in learning,
right? If we added a preposition men said I came out of the Messenger of Allah's house, then it is mean Beatty, it also leaves.
So it doesn't, yes, Russell is measurable.
So there's nothing preventing us except for clarity, and ease and convenience. From just keep it on. Keep on going with possessive things.
Later in this lesson, we're running out of time. All right, and later in this lesson, we'll talk about the handler lesson and how to pronounce it correctly. How to know how to do it.
Okay, we did that. We're on to Number eights. Awesome. Can you do number eight for us?
They tune in we'll definitely see Barry doing or what beta tragedy Are you born? Excellent work. Very good. translate that for us first.
The House of the teacher is far and the house of the Mercian is close. Work. Okay, what type of sentence are we dealing?
this is a Joomla Izmir because it begins with a noun, Gnostic. What are the two parts of a Joomla? Isthmian?
looked at that and hubba what's the look to that in this first part here?
The possessive construction in its entirety. pasture. Exactly right. Yep. Beige was received, which is why he said b to, right, because this is the look to that. And the default ruling, the default case of the milk to that is not a poor is nominal. And it only changes if there's something in the sentence that changes. So why is modal recei and modal received instead of another resume? That's because it's part of the possessive construction and it has to change.
Excellent work. unburied on is the cover. It's more four, which is why it's a bummer. It's neck era. It's indefinite, which is why it's vomiting. Excellent work. Great job. Number nine, but to me.
Ina miftah. Wouldn't be excellent work. Good job. Let's stick just within this first sentence. What's what type of sentence are we dealing with here?
This is a Joomla is Mia.
uncovered where's the milk to that?
That would be
very good. So then the entire possessive construction attack was say out it is the hub. Now how did you know to make it miss Tahoe
I know we just went over this, but I forgot.
Okay, that's no problem there is recognizing and there's recall, right? And they're too different. So as it's the hover, the default ruling of the hover is that it's more poor.
Unless there's something to change it in this. That's why a sale is a sale. Because the fact that it's part of the possessive construction changes it to have a customer.
That sounds to me like it?
Sorry, I think my audio was cutting out did you do you ask something?
Did you if you haven't already translate that sentence for us. And then we'll probably have okay. This is the car key. And where is the house key?
Notice something. I mean, there's something really great here. Okay. He idiomatically translated that. Okay, if you want to go really literal, if this is the key of the car? Ah, true. Correct. 100%. But, but is that how we talk in English? No, it's not. So something a little bit more idiomatic would be? This is the key to the car. Okay. That's something that's well said. That's well used in English, even more commonly said is what he said this is the car key. Right, which is flipping the order from the Arabic but it's something that's very native to, to the English tongue. So you'll see it now. I'm just giving you an appreciation for translation work because translation
work is extremely difficult. How to what choices to me how idiomatic to make things and how literal and when and if that affects the meeting.
Well, that was great fun. We've we're halfway about through this exercise is extremely beneficial. But we're out of time. So does anybody have any questions? As to anything we went over today?
Or anything else the case may be?
Okay, it sounds like we're all on the same page, which is great, everybody, you're doing fantastic work. Keep it up. And I will see you next time at sha Allah. Allah hotel, salaam alaikum.