Tom Facchine – Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 58

Tom Facchine
AI: Summary © The speakers discuss the use of honorary forms in English, including the verb "can you please lead us off" and "can you please lead us off," and the importance of keeping track of flower by virtue of numbers. They also discuss the use of subject pronouns in past tense sentences, including "monster" and "monster," and provide examples and instructions for practicing. The speakers emphasize the importance of finding the right pronouns for each segment and discuss the use of "monster" in writing "monster" to avoid confusion. They also discuss the use of "monster" in writing "monster" to refer to individuals or groups and emphasize the importance of gender in the Anglosphere and the difficulty of manipulating it in other language settings.
AI: Transcript ©
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Let's find the Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen.

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So that's what's to them. Shuffle MBA one more saline, maybe you know put Latina Mohamed IV are full of soda. But it's good to sleep along that island that'd be my own founder one fat heavy mat and then 10 hours even

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me, so don't want to come off a lot, he got a casual everybody welcome to beginning classical Arabic, it is Wednesday evening.

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It's lovely day in August.

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Last class, many of you are not here. And it was just as well, because I took a deep dive into soft into morphology.

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Just to give a taste of

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what we mean when we're talking about morphology, what we mean when we're talking about derivation, right, taking a particular phonetic pattern

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of singular nouns and deriving their general succeed, deriving their

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broken plurals. And I kind of want to demonstrate how interesting it is for those who want to know, and also how complicated it is for those who would rather not.

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So I don't think that I'm going to go any more into that, for this series of classes. However, if you are interested in it more, because I think there were 27 Total patterns of the broken floral, and we only covered four of them.

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We talked about the difference between in Arabic, there are actually floral forms of German ataxia that refer to things that are numbered between three and nine. And then other forms that are for things that are greater than nine. But we also talked about how, why this isn't so important to study was because they're fairly substitutable, and interchangeable. And there are some words that only have a plural that indicates above 10. And it's used for both no matter what number it is, etc, etc. So it wasn't the most, it's not the most essential thing, especially to study as a beginning Arabic student. However, for those of you who find it interesting, I tried to just give a little bit

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of a taste of it. So that being said, insha, Allah Tala, we're going to return to the book today, and continue our march on through

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dealing with feminine forms of nouns of verbs, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. Now,

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since last week, I took a detour.

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I want to make sure that we are on the proper exercise.

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I think that this is where we reached from filling in the blanks with suitable demonstrative pronouns. Before this, we had been reviewing, changing the subject

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to make things plural. Am I correct in that? Does anybody have

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a different memory of where we were at? Thought we had finished this exercise the short exercise about converting things from singular feminine to plural feminine?

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I mean, it is a fairly short exercise, and perhaps because some people have have

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been absent, then we can just go ahead and redo this one very, very quickly. It's only got three different questions. And we have three participants today. So it says if eaten meat, that's how we'll do model, T atomic level, change the subject and each of the following sentences floral. We've seen this type of exercise before, but now we're dealing with specifically feminine forms, okay? And those feminine forms are going to need to be accommodated over several types of words. If you find that there's a feminine verb that's going for old and it needs to become plural in the feminine form. If there's a noun, then it needs to also be accommodated, right. So let's look at the example

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Zayn Abu, one female caught a jet mean and fell asleep. Zane have left the classroom. Caught a jet is the verb form that is appropriate to singular third person feminine, right in the past tense. What happens in the example

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Xena boo, what Amina to so we just added somebody else while I'm out of the MO and another so now we have three females for Arjuna Suraj now, not how much now but how Raj now meno firstly, so we had to change the subject from feminine singular to feminine plural and everything that then becomes necessary to change in this case it's the verb. So let's have some muscle rods can you please lead us off with number one

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don't listen to that habit. Firstly.

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So I should make this I should make

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no it won't be sorry. Oh, can we be oh yeah, I would suggest just making Elmo risotto. Right just making it sound feminine floral that would probably be the easiest. Okay. Lisa to

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have there have been no I have no ill plus

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very good

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using very very easy words

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so that we understand the important thing so it went from the habit

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to the hub

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Okay, and these are recurring theme themes in Arabic morphology the TA and the noon as representing the feminine good number two brother Sammy

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so the original sentence is a little more dead visa to the habit il firstly Yep, we just did that one can you do number two oh sorry apologize sorry, I started reading

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a barley battle Jedi the two jealous it filled falsely.

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And the making this plural would be a polybag to

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do to do

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gel Lesnar or gel Lesnar been falsely fantastic. They tried to throw you off and they couldn't do it. It tried to throw you off because the adjective here that describes the feminine noun

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in its singular form ah remember what we said adjectives match nouns for gender in the singular. However, when adjectives are pluralized then there is just one form for both masculine and feminine Judith is for plural masculine and plural feminine, which was not lost upon a brother to mean and then he also successfully conjugated the verb from the singular third person feminine gel assets to the plural third person feminine Jasnah

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very good and Brother Mohammed want to touch on number three

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been originally sent and been to Muhammadan is a Hatha and Madonna.

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Madonna set timeout timeout timeout,

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bento Mohammedan

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into Maha Medina. Sorry, Mama

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in another madrasa to madrasa rasa tea. See very good, good job

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been to we have to make this Bruner what's the plural of bent bent

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it's you because it's not sound feminine. This is a broken floral.

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Floral vintage

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not just Bennett. Bennett.

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Okay, but to Muhammad din.

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The Hub nah, good.

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Mothers. Fantastic. Very, very good. Okay, that's fairly straightforward. Does anyone have any questions about this? It just takes practice, right? As far as you know, the things that there are to keep track of okay, you have the noun you have to keep track of the noun. If there's an adjective attached to the noun, you have to pluralize the adjective not really worry about what gender it is. And then you also have to pluralize the verb. That's what you're keeping track of. Anyone have any questions? Before we move on?

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Okay next exercise related to the previous one very good exercise as chips eel USMA Italia T. This Misha Ratan relacore EB ha ha Hee ha ally. Okay.

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Fill in the blanks, not a literal translation, fill in the blanks using suitable demonstrative pronouns. Okay? The three demonstrative pronouns that we've learned have a singular masculine close, have he he singular, feminine? Close, hula floral either or close Okay, so all of these are close

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and in Arabic morphology the hat

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stands for something that is close

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have heavy hula, this this leads if we're looking for English equivalents The only difference is how the unhappy in our language English this because we do not differentiate between gender and Arabic We differentiate between gender in the singular with demonstrative pronouns Okay, so you're going to have to use the correct one so let's roll through it back to sister masala number one

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I should just see how the UFI likeness that's it you get the easy one. Yeah. No

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that's not fun. That's not fun. I know oh, well blaze through it inshallah and and we'll get onto more stuff than we can say. Oh, look at how many pages we covered. Number two, but let's I mean,

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her the T Good. Well, how am I test number three

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the heels of jello. Have a he is for what? Singular plural?

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The plural? He

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kind of a trick question right? How do you use for singular by singular singular right

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return Oh, how can I

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how would I reach out that's right these men or these are men. How will I reach I don't good number for a system

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like this resume very good five to me

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finally but fantastic number six having

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Hi there he

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made me very good. How the only this is my mother number seven masala has a be good eight. I mean

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her the heat oily but good. Nine Mohammed. Awesome. I will lie. The B button or B button? Yep. Number

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two Java

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jar. Very good.

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Good. We'll assume that this is supposed to be a full sentence because yeah, there's periods. So it'd be a full sentence so they will have

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Okay, very good. So that was supposed to be you see the utility of this exercise. Even if it's easy, it's to cement in your mind that floral.

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demonstrative pronouns no gender doesn't matter how old I polybags how old I E to love. Same. That's what it was meant to get in your head. Any questions? Or move on?

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Okay, we're going to do a similar exercise, but instead of demonstrative pronouns, now, we're going to use

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personal pronouns or even better yet, I think they're all going to be subject pronouns. Okay. By means place from what law?

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Well, I'll give you a little bit of sort of, for those who are interested. So how do we get bought from Wah bah.

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What happens to the well?

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Week letter? Yes, week letter very good. So when it comes to past tense verbs, really all verb conjugations, there are three week letters they are the same letters of med, right, the mildewed letters in touch we alief. Wow, well, yeah. And these, if you ever find these, one of these three letters or more of them in the root word, then it's going to call

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was wrinkles in contract verb conjugation, okay. So what we're going to find is that if the first letter, and there's a really nice chart of the fine for you guys that goes into all this, if the first letter of root word is weak,

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then sometimes the first letter is going to be dropped, it's going to be dropped in the imperative.

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And it's going to be dropped in the present tense. So for example, if while blah, is the past tense have to place then the present tense is going to be the elbow.

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There's no well to be found whatsoever.

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And just like that, we also drop the weak letter when we form the command the imperative Ma.

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So for example, we have wotja to find

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and in the present tense it's Yeji do

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forgive my horrible handwriting. Yes, you do.

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Right? So it disappears.

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So that's what's going on there. Just put it in the back of your mind that weak letters are important when they are letters and they change conjugation. They make exceptions or they make irregular patterns. They have patterns they're not like completely irregular like an English or even with romance languages, they're still have their own patterns, but they are distinct patterns. So Bach, Phil Mackey and Neil Holly. meno Jumonville TRT balmy Ron monesi Ben place in the empty spaces makin is the plural of McCann face Hollier from Carla which means empty mineral Jubilee sentences I'll add to it the following bomb Iran monesi Bomb bomb Iran is a pronoun when asked you Ben means

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suitable or appropriate and they give you options here are four of them who are here home one so we have masculine singular, feminine singular masculine or mixed plural and then exclusively feminine plural. Right this is the important thing to take away good so we'll read the example and then we are read number one and then we will complete the blank number one SR Massara

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men had the module

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disease would that be so? Very good. Number two to me.

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A no body but to

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a body back to sorry Hoonah film felt fantastic. Exactly. Because the whole purpose of subject pronouns is to not have to repeat the subject. Good number three. My husband was awesome

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man, how are you? How can I fit here too? Good.

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Up Now I'm now a mother now modality so not all modalities the RACI model

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is number four.

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I know I know. I know. kaliba. Jaggi, the two here. He has been MacDuffie. Yes, here fill

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mk 35 Semi

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men her hula in su home. Home Hoja Jun Meenal Hindi fantastic *

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that'd be back to

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when fee most most stuff most most touch most touch fee.

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Mustache. Mustache.

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Mila Dottie good. Who remembers what mustache Shall we ladder is?

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A children's health pediatric hospital.

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Maternity, maternity. Okay, we'll add that I mean it's from the same route so I mean, very, very understandable what a wee lad without a refers to birthing and giving birth. Um

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Good number seven masala

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Manhattan Volador lovey Faraja mean mean mean mean be

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mean they think

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it's one guy who have who have been no fee very good excellent pronunciation as well. She adhered to the Hamza to the muscle and she did not lose track of meaning they Tikka just because it has a fixed ending with a possessive pronoun does not mean that we will not demonstrate the grammar and yes we will, but it's going to be on the last letter of the original word and not on the pronoun. Good. Is Vegas is basically considered Modasa botany. Yes, it is. Yep, anytime there's a possessive pronoun. Technically speaking in grammar, it's considered a McLaughlin Boffi de pair.

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Good question.

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Okay. Moving on. This is a good exercise Um, number eight brother to me

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mean Aigner her? Ill

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will help you for your right

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me not real too. Good. Well, your first four or five guests. Good nine Mohammed about custom.

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Man the heel.

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but try to Yeah. To

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hear good. Ben tone Moodle, Moodle Rissa T? Very good. Excellent work. And remember, these are difficult. Fattah, right, so we have the masculine our

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Fatah is singular.

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And that goes to the plural of fits yet to

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which is counterintuitive because it has a template Huzzah.

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I should teach you guys the shorthand, okay. In Arabic. When you write shorthand, you don't make dots. You do lines. Okay, so a line stands for two dots. And a caret stands for three dots. Okay, so it's way you it's actually really, really hard for my mouse to be making all these little little dots. Right? So if you have, for example, a Yeah, that's yeah. If you have TA, that's TA, if you have that. That's that. And this is not just computer Arabic. This is normal shorthand.

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Arabic writing. Right? So Paul is going to be that

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you're still going to get one dot. Okay, no problem.

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You guys get the picture. Right.

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now that gives me the excuse to be able to write my shorthand.

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Since you all are so advanced now in the nuances of Arabic written culture. Alfetta goes to 52 and then the

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singular feminine. Oh yeah. Alpha tattoo, which is right here.

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Does anyone remember the plural?

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I want to remember the plural. The plural of theta. Alpha tattoo. Yeah. It was an was

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that this is a feminine? This is the feminine Yeah.

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Let's good because I can't remember either. So don't feel I just I just remember to have is masculine.

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I want to say it's fertile yet, but I could be wrong. I can't. It's very seldom used in my life. I'm not very often talking about young ladies. So I've forgotten the word.

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So that's homework for whoever wants to pursue that, to have an Fantastic idea to no problem easy. And if it's hard to tell yet, or better yet, I'm feeling like it's either offensive. I'm feeling now that it's perhaps Fanta yachts without the first Elif

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and a lot of stress. Forgive me.

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You guys will soon learn that. I'm just a simple student of knowledge that has only learned just a little bit. Okay, moving on. Hottie Jen. Sorry, it's. It is. Yeah, page 25. One Alex

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No Alfa. Yeah, what do you mean to? Like a tie? Yes or No? No? Okay, yeah. My second or second humble, humble

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hottie Gemma, Smar, t a t hat is a particular word that's very, very common. It's used for bring hot do good Hanukkah, hats. That's right.

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It's a special word. There are some words in Arabic that are called a smile efile. They are technically nouns, but they have the meaning of a verb. And they are also considered special because they do not exist across all tenses or conjugations. Right, so there is no

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present tense or past tense of hat. There's only the command hat. And there are certain words, they're very, very few in number. But there are certain words that only exist in the in the command form and only exist in the

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past tense only exist in the present tense, or only exist in the past in the present and don't have a command form, etc, etc. And they're relatively few in number while handling.

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Right? The plural of the following nouns and adjectives. So here again, we're going to try and do this rapid response because they're going to try to trick you, right? Because nouns look like adjectives, speaking morphologically, right? Like the appearance of the words. And so you see a word, you're thinking it's a noun. So you Pluraleyes it according to a broken plural, but Oh, no, it was actually an adjective. And now it has a plural that does not reflect gender, right? That's what they're trying to get you to differentiate here. So let's try to do it. Starting with a system of thought about.

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I'm not sure I understand. But anyway, a whole lot. That's it. Just give the plural of the word.

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point of the exercise is that the words that they're giving you, they're not all nouns, and they're not all adjectives. They're going to mix them. Okay. Right. So that's the trick. So yes, Flf is the plural of beans. I mean,

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that good. Next one. Listening, Matt. Good. Excellent.

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Bobby, that good? Yeah. You guys know the order. So. Okay, next.

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Let's see struggling to remember this one. Good. Because this is on a very complicated and not very typical. Wasn't a laid back

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be ugly, ugly back. Good. Next, us as Rajan. Good.

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So, John, very good. Yes.

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This is Sound feminine. Floral. Good. Next.

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fit here to feature two. Oh, who agrees and who disagrees?

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tattooin is masculine or feminine?

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Oh, that's feminine. So that's the one we just I know. Don't worry. I still I still have to look twice.

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It was fatter yet, right? Yes, exactly. That's what we decided on. That's a yes. Next.

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Me? Yes. No. Okay, B. Oh, sorry.

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B be that. Oh, here's the adjective. So it's a key bomb.

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They got you.

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That's exactly why they wanted to throw them in together. Because you see Kabira turn. It's on the it looks like an SM. It looks like a noun. It looks just like Zelda or viva. But it's not. It's not unless someone's name is to be zero.

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In this case, it's an adjective. And so the plural is going to be broken floral. And it's for masculine and feminine. Good. Next. So

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yeah, are you next,

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dude, good. And that's what actually the one that you had gotten earlier. Fantastic. Next.

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This was excellent as brother 10101.

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So there's one

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that's one

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That's the counterintuitive one. Because it has a timer router and so we look at it we think feminine But nope, nope nope, that's actually poor masculine. And then there's for those who are follow the news, if one

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if one can find muslimin or sort of

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equation shopping and mobile arena, can you find a shopping? Right?

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So, both of them equally use neither of them is better than the other one.

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Okay, good. Kibo.

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There you go.

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You got it.

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You got it. And then next, I'll do that. Again. You get to that Mashallah. It has to be three times so we know that to mean is never insha Allah to Allah never going to forget that a plural of the deed is do that. Even if it's just EDA, in the singular, good. Anyone any questions?

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Looks like we're at the end of the lesson. Hamdulillah. So, this is just a little reminder. The way that we break down demonstrative pronouns, we have three categories, right? We have gender can masculine, feminine, number, singular, plural, and distance just like an English. Okay, English, we have demonstrative pronouns that are broken down into four categories, depending on Singular plural, close far. We do not differentiate between gender. Arabic throws in the wrinkle of gender only in the singular, not in the plural. That's what they're trying to tell you here. How the body one how it will equal lab will have the body button how it will eat body baton, and that's what you already

00:31:48 --> 00:31:55

did. The previous exercise, new words as xojo The plural is as wedge

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and Mark at two Oh, here's a good example of a word without a floral on the same

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root word. Okay, so a lot a two is a woman

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and the plural is Nissa on

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completely different roots. We sat on also words that come from it or Nisswa

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which is a grammatical term for that feminine noon they call it noon and this one

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what's the difference between a two and imra? Two very good. Emre two

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is life in the in ra two Yes. His wife or me? Yeah, I mean, it's woman in the sense of Yes, wife or spouse

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is there an English equivalent to that?

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I don't know if there's an English equivalent but yes, it's basically wife 123 around right. Well, not absolute. Right. So that's that is spouse whereas a lot of it is not talking about a relationship to anyone else. It's just a woman. In this case, the woman

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and then it says here to be Donnie L M Robertson. Is that what you just asked?

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Oh, yes.

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I may have something I didn't notice this.

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So sorry, I'll add to this is feminine. What would be the masculine of this? Because you know banal Mary evil will be so is it is that

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yeah, like when the prophesy said to me said

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I'm now in

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India he will be Yeah, okay. But But what about banal money work? I'll be paying more II Oh, that's different cuz there's no timer Huzzah. being

00:34:09 --> 00:34:18

masculine? Yes. So that's the masculine of Alma Yes, I didn't call me and that is a frequently used word in the Hadith.

00:34:22 --> 00:34:23

And in the Quran, like he said.

00:34:26 --> 00:34:28

Yeah, and because he can, yeah, okay.

00:34:29 --> 00:34:31

And so you What were you saying about

00:34:33 --> 00:34:38

it culinary in? Yes. I think we met cassava Rahane.

00:34:40 --> 00:34:59

So what is the it's the same? Well, I'll put it this way. M Emery in for. Imran means like it's a deep, personalized individual. Right. It's a masculine linguistic form, as opposed to more of a two or imra tone which signifies a

00:35:00 --> 00:35:15

Woman, but it's usually used at least in the Quran for like how we would use the word one, like one can find or one's own. Right? So like, culinary IndyMac, casabella, when it's like,

00:35:17 --> 00:35:19

every individual or each one

00:35:20 --> 00:35:22

by what they have earned himself.

00:35:23 --> 00:35:24


00:35:26 --> 00:35:34

And here, it's telling us khateeb, which is interesting, too. So the difference between L two and M. Turn. Very

00:35:35 --> 00:35:36


00:35:39 --> 00:35:53

Quick question, so but that second word MBE that could be used for a woman or a man, because it's just the generic one, like the, it is linguistically masculine, in a sense, in the sense that it has a feminine word.

00:35:55 --> 00:35:56

But it is.

00:35:58 --> 00:36:11

Yes, it is a depersonalized individual that could refer to because when it's talking in the Chronicle in the in the necklace borrowing is for both men and women. There's a principal and in well, we've seen it before in action,

00:36:12 --> 00:36:21

as leap supposed to be an online tech lead from magala which means like to overwhelm where

00:36:23 --> 00:36:26

masculine words can be used for feminine

00:36:28 --> 00:36:31

masculine words can be used to refer to

00:36:32 --> 00:36:33


00:36:34 --> 00:36:36

realities, whatever we want to say.

00:36:37 --> 00:37:02

But not the opposite. Right? So for example, xojo, Allah subhanaw taala does not say Xhosa tune in the Quran. As far as I can remember, he says OCE for Adam's wife, right. Yeah, so that's, that's true in English as well, right? Like we could say, every man for himself, it doesn't really mean every man. Right? Well, today, I don't know, times are changing.

00:37:04 --> 00:37:42

Like, did you just assume my gender? No, but I'm actually that soon. I don't know what I don't know what's gonna happen to Grandma as time goes by. But Well, the interesting thing, and you know, just to take a very, very, very brief aside is that a lot of these things are very particular to the Anglosphere, because it's very easy to manipulate gender in the Anglosphere the English speaking world. However, once you get into the Romance languages or other languages, where everything Arabic we see an Arabic everything is forced to the binary, the gender binary, the books and the tables and the lamps and the houses, they all have gender, then it becomes an impossible task. And so we have

00:37:42 --> 00:37:44

to ask, is this another

00:37:46 --> 00:37:55

imposition of the Imperial Anglosphere this sort of attempt to police gender grammatically?

00:37:56 --> 00:37:59

It seems like it would be the answer would be yes.

00:38:00 --> 00:38:07

So anyway, so that's the principle. So when Allah subhanaw taala refers refers to Adam's wife, however, he uses OCE.

00:38:09 --> 00:38:10

He doesn't use xojo.

00:38:11 --> 00:38:25

Even though he's referring to a female, and that's the same case with in anytime a last time Tata or the prophets, I seldom are using this word it, like we said, refers to either one, male or female.

00:38:26 --> 00:38:41

Whereas if we're using the specific, like we said, before, exclusively feminine form, then there's no doubt about it. So just like with home and Han home, can be used for male and female. One is exclusively feminine.

00:38:42 --> 00:38:44

And there's nothing male about it.

00:38:47 --> 00:38:58

Good. Okay. This is the end of the lesson. Okay, let's stop here. And then we'll pick up at the next part next time in sha Allah, this will make up for

00:38:59 --> 00:39:07

oh, no, we are out of class time. I was thinking I was letting you go early. But this is actually when class should end right. 730?

00:39:08 --> 00:39:17

Yeah. Five minutes early. Okay. All the times I went five minutes over. This is your five minutes early. Anyone have any questions?

00:39:20 --> 00:39:21

We asked them.

00:39:22 --> 00:39:26

You already asked them any more questions. I mean, further questions.

00:39:28 --> 00:39:35

This may be like a weird question. Not weird, but kind of dumb. But so I'm assuming his Nissa is

00:39:37 --> 00:39:53

essentially plural. There's no like singular for the like formation of the three letters like known seen Hamza. There might be a route if you want to go back to the route, but there's no noun,

00:39:54 --> 00:40:00

singular noun that's used to refer to a woman that's based off of that route.

00:40:00 --> 00:40:13

All right. So the claim isn't that they don't have an origin with roots. The SAT has a root that it's being derived from and Imre has a root What about

00:40:14 --> 00:40:27

what is dumb, though? Couldn't own on that that's a different rule. Okay. So okay, yeah, so that's maybe in some parts of the Muslim world they pronounced that answer. And but on that whether

00:40:29 --> 00:40:37

it would be Hamza norm that No, I wouldn't actually the I think the Hamza is additional it would be known Issa and then which letter is the root

00:40:40 --> 00:40:45

so it does have a root word me sat, NASA or NASA

00:40:46 --> 00:40:55

noon seen week letter. It's another thing that we'll talk about eventually that the week letters are kind of interchangeable at the root of a word.

00:40:56 --> 00:40:59

At least interchangeable between wow and yeah, often

00:41:00 --> 00:41:06

but that doesn't mean that it has a singular noun that's derived from that root that is used

00:41:08 --> 00:41:09

and those words are very few

00:41:12 --> 00:41:13

Okay, that makes sense. Thank you.

00:41:16 --> 00:41:29

Okay, then is being called here and that's a perfect time to wrap it up if there's no further questions, because I can Chiron Allah hum in Pharaoh insha Allah to Allah and we will see you soon inshallah. Salaam aleikum

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