Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 44
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 42.95MB
Okay announced at rush hour
Okay, let's pick up where we left off inshallah Tada.
Inshallah we'll finish the lesson today, or we'll get very close.
So, previously, we had been talking about
these are two ways to express
possession. And we said not all nd kita goon wanna call li a con, we talked about the differences between li using lamb l Molokhia. And end on talked about one of the differences being that we use li for people.
Whereas we use our end for objects. And the other thing was that we use end up for things that are on our person. And we use li for kind of pure possession, things that
are yours, whether they're on your person or not. Now we're transitioning to talk about another important preposition Ma.
Ma, is a similar preposition to or ENDA and Li, it is often translated as with.
And we'll see different examples of it that we will be doing through the reading here and the exercise. But the important point
for now, is that the grammar of math is just like every other preposition.
This is mobile off, I'm off eBay, right. So the word after that is going to have to be in the genitive case known in Arabic as measured rule.
And the word will need to be declined or demonstrate that accordingly.
With and we're going to be talking about this exactly what that means in just a bit, which is exciting. Because everything up until now, we've learned that measure or means Khasra and morefor means dama. And monsoon means Fatah. And it was one of those rules that you know, we taught you in the beginning because that was the easiest way to know or the easiest entry way into the topic. But we're going to be exposing you to some situations today where
it's not that simple.
But for everything that we've learned so far, okay. The word that comes after my eye has to be majeure, genitive case and that genitive case.
In all the words that are going to be in this exercise is going to be shown by either one or two customers, depending on what type of word it is. So let's just begin with reading this exercise.
Let's go down the list here che family,
whoever's with us today, start us off with number one
Oli be very good. Excellent. And let's do some translation while we're at it. What does that mean?
I made left with Khalid. Very good, excellent. What type of sentences this
warble Yes, yes, very important, right. What are the parts of a verbal sentence?
object? Yes. Fantastic. Exactly. So this is the type of kind of while we're training our brains to recognize, so if we compare it to Arabic to a house, it has two rooms and each of those rooms are the different types of sentences. There's one type of sentence which is the Joomla is meow. And the one type of sentence that is the Joomla three Alia and each of those types of sentences. Each of those rooms have different furniture, right? So they have different parts. The room of goodness Mia has two parts. Look to that and hover
And the grammatical position of those two parts is not for a month for easy. But Joomla is Joomla fairly excuse me, it's something different. It's a different room. It's got different furniture, and it's got different parts Joomla thelia, this verb assuming the sentence that begins with a verb, it has at least two, often three parts Fair, which is the verb that it starts with their aisle, which is the one who is doing the verb, which is Moldova, and it often but not always has a URL, which is the object. So here we have cottager Hameed, doing.
How to judge the verb in this case does not have any grammar because it's past tense and past tense verbs are fixed. Miyun. Hamad is the doer of the verb and so the doer of the verb The foul is always more for.
And here, we do not have any, we don't have any object all we have is an extension on to the fact that someone who's also doing the verb, but it's a prepositional phrase. And so it takes the grammar of the prepositional phrase. Yes, that's where we're going. Exciting stuff. So now we're able to clearly recognize and distinguish between okay, this is Jim This is me, this is Jim Nefaria and know its parts and know what is happening. Number two is sister ESMA. Are you there? You're number two
the hub, the hub, but
to be able
to handle this
mile Wuhan DC fantastic and translate that for us.
The doctor came came with the engineer correct except that had that is go instead of came. So went that however, the doctor went with the engineer and what are what type of sentence and what are the parts? You love? Philia the female is the hubba Yes, file is the Beebo Yes.
Is the is behind this the object then? Not quite. The object is not necessary to every single Jimena failure here, not the object it's an extension on the file because the Mohandas is also going right with with the lobby. But that's enough to just say that they have a fair at Bobby boo Ferran that's enough for now very good. I'm good next Brother Mohammed might touch on number three
jealous Jellison moderate to mild
to the students and students as with the principal with a very, very good except
Al muda This is a feature
that you're completely correct.
JELA Sal muda resume Niall moody. So the teacher sat with the principal. Very good
Jennifer is failing with the final. Fantastic. Good job. Excellent work. Okay, moving on to number four says there's
Okay, so I'm gonna do ma xojo Her
the one before that number four. Okay. My Maka? Yeah. Lee
Myers my Myers a meanie.
Who is you with Ali
and my is Amelie. I'm with my colleague.
Very good. Mary. Is Amelie here we would leave it now. Instead of Mara. Yeah.
But that's very good. Man. Maca? Yeah. Ali Yun? Nines Amelie and the origin of the sentence. If we untangle it is Amelie Mary.
But, you know, he's responding directly to the part that's being questioned. And so that's why he flips it up very good. And this is a doom the Isthmian okay. So we had Joomla Joomla Joomla earlier, and this one is a Joomla Isthmian does that mean Amelie now i 's Amelie is the subject motera. Now it is the hover about mezzanine. Very good. Next, number five
in law has all you have
good what does that mean translate that for us?
have with her is for feminine who trying to break in?
Who is ominous spouse? Okay, you're very very close. Oh, no, it's not a question. Yeah. Good. Good. Keep going. Okay.
ominous with our response. Yeah, very good. Excellent job that was tricky. It's tricky because this sentence doesn't translate well into English. Right? If we're to translate things, literally into English, it would be Amina with her, her spouse.
But that doesn't make sense in English, right. But when we recognize that this is a Joomla ischemia
and that it has a map to that and a cover. Okay.
Then we realize that is,
is going to be communicated in here at some point. So it essentially is saying Amina with her is her husband. Okay, we wouldn't say we would say in English, Amina is with her husband. Okay. Which is exactly what you said. Right? But just it's interesting to see how that same sentence is rendered. In Arabic, it wouldn't be translated word for word. As we arranged the words in English, it would be Emina to malted up. Now I have xojo.
Um, you know, with her is her husband or is with her? Yeah, I think that's the best way if we're trying if we're trying to translate it literally just for the
With her, is her spouse
Good. Next Brother Mohammed thought IK?
Oh, no, can you? Can you tell me what is the McDonough here?
I mean, I didn't understand how his mom had the Hummer.
Mm. Let's see. Yeah, I believe that mount AHA is part of level today. Um, you know, tomorrow xojo Because the information that we're talking about Amina is that her husband is with her.
And if we're going to put is anywhere in the sentence, it's going to be between Malaga and so do um, you know, to now I have xojo. What exactly now i has is occupying in the sentence grammatically. I'm not sure. Off the top of my head.
So I'll need to look into that. So it can't be the the spouse is the subject like it can't be.
definitely possible. Correct. Yeah, that's not possible. There's something it was I mean to stands alone, right? Whereas XO do Ha, is conditional, right? Like, so if we were to isolate either of those. Right. So let's say we isolate xojo. That means first spouse
is what we're saying.
not meant to
be I see. I see the shopper. I see that.
I mean, I know. I know. You say we shouldn't do this, but I guess I'm doing it. In English. The subject is
the husband. Right?
Is does this translate to harmonize with her husband? Or does it translate to Amina husband is with
we have to say with her, right? Is this the subject? Amina is with her or Amina? Her husband is with her.
I don't know. I know you say we shouldn't talk late, but I'm just trying to comprehend how about entities work? That's why I can't say Oh, I understand that. You're right.
I think what systems are the same, but I think Amina is a subject and we are talking about ominous husband.
But I think you're just saying Amina is with her husband, you're telling something
you're getting Aamna is with her okay, I know what she's saying to her husband. And also the thing is in English you know, we ask the question to the world but there's no hope you're coming to ask the question, right? That's where my mind just went. If we were to come here.
It would be like I mean, I'm I have men
or men, okay.
Okay, so the question is Who
was with Amina and so the answer is her husband. Right. So then he's the movie that okay, I get it exactly. No thanks for thinking it through because it wasn't it wasn't clear to me until I put it in a question first. Good. Excellent. So let's go back to my brother Mohammed todich. For number six. Yeah. Sally. IV mineral, baby. Very good. You translate.
A B means father. The father left the house. Fantastic. And I'm going to let somebody else do this bottom line here because that was a nice full sentence
mean in a way it isn't farther left my house. No, it's not. And we're going to get into why it's not in just a second. So Abby, right is with a possessive pronoun. Okay, so EB as father.
Okay. Abby, is my father mean el Beatty from the house. So we don't have any information as to whose house it is. It could be his house, it could be my house, it could be somebody else's house. We don't know from the sentence. And this is assuming that the idea College is the parent, Abby as Barry and Mina Beatty is a prepositional phrase that stands in place of the object right so this entire thing would be on the throne here mean and Beatty.
However, it's a prepositional phrase and so we're not going to see anything with a
good let's let because we have yes of course it's just gonna do this last line here which is a continuation of number six
men Hara Gemma
Cara Gemma who? Um, me
exited with him? I don't know exited.
Who left with him?
My uncle, very good. Yes, I'm mon with a shadow on the meme is a paternal uncle. So in in Arabic. Like many other languages, there's a differentiation between paternal uncles and maternal uncles call is a maternal uncle.
Whereas time is a paternal uncle. And if you want to arrive at the paternal aunt, or the maternal Auntie simply at a time of the Gupta. So I'm two as a paternal aunt, and Paul Latu is the maternal aunt.
Excellent. Any questions about that? Before we proceed?
Okay, good work.
Okay, here's where we're going to get into
something that's interesting, and very important. So
let me explain. In the beginning, all up until now,
we've been operating under the assumption that if something is metaphor,
meaning it's in the grammatical case, that is what we call an English the nominative case
that it manifests or demonstrates
it it's case with a Bama. Okay.
And if we were talking about Medrol, which translates to the genitive case,
we use for prepositions and things like that. We've been operating under the assumption that it will demonstrate with a customer and we've also been operating on the assumption under the assumption that anything that's in the accusative case, which we call an Arabic monsoon
manifested with a that's here X stands for any Arabic letter, so we have Bama cassava, okay.
That this rule holds true for most types of words, but not all of them.
Not all of them. There are different types of words that demonstrate these three grammatical cases with different signs.
So, what is what are these signs good for Bama? kestra But they are good for two things, which make up the vast majority of them.
have words that you'll ever have to deal with. This applies to see where should I put it again, it makes the most sense probably up here.
singular nouns and broken plurals Oh my Lord, what is a broken plural? We will explain very soon. I think next lesson or the thought or the lesson after, we will finally be moving from the singular to the plural, we'll be learning the different types of plurals and Arabic. And there are two broad categories of plural words. plural nouns I should say.
Sound plurals, and broken plurals. Broken florals are simply those plurals who apply to objects and sound Poros apply to two people. But we'll see that we'll see that later. This covers most of your nouns, singular nouns and broken plurals.
But there are other types of words that manifest these grammatical cases, metaphor, Metro, and monsoon in different ways. Not with thumb kestra, or fats happen. We're going to learn today, a group of words, a group of nouns, specifically, that demonstrates the same grammatical cases not with VM customer pets, but with entire letters. Well,
So we see how hear, in these types of words, the grammatical cases reflected by a hat AKA
a small vowel, sometimes called a diacritical. Mark.
And in other types of words, it is manifested by an entire letter.
And the group that we're going to focus on today,
is a group of five nouns that are notorious enough to have earned the title, the five nouns.
So there's only five of them, which is good, because then they're easy to remember.
This group, the five nouns demonstrates its grammatical case, with either allow, if it's not a four, or a year, if it's measurable, or an ally, if it's Mansu.
The five nouns
they use these symbols
only when they are milled off.
Okay, so that's what we're going to notice here. So it doesn't, it's not. When we say the five nouns use these symbols. It's not that they always use them, they use them if they're mobile off, and you've gotten a taste of this with the conversation when we were talking about Buka. Okay, is one of these five now. So we're going to demonstrate what we're talking about here with these examples. So Beighton is a normal noun.
Right? So let's see what happens to Beighton. When we attach a possessive pronoun to it, they turn they to Cat easy, they to who pay to her Beatty. Easy normal. That's everything that we've learned so far.
However, these following two words here, Eblen father and Afghan brother are two of the five nouns.
So if they are not possessed, like they are not here, at balloon look, this is normal.
bomber 10. But if we add a possessive pronoun to them, all of a sudden things are going to change.
We are going to show its grammar not with a vanilla cassava that time but with a letter. Wow. Yeah.
So we have instead of instead of what a normal noun be Abacha, right.
If it were to be
to manifest grammar, like any other noun, it would be Eboracum. But in Arabic phonology, they determined that that is too hard to hear. And so instead of Obama, it becomes a while. Boo.
Instead of Eboo. Wouldn't it be difficult to hear that if someone is speaking fast, they hear echo.
It would kind of it's hard to say and it's hard to hear as well. So, boo,
boo ha. And we know that Abby is fixed because it's a little bit different.
So we don't have to worry about that.
But that's the general idea. So all of these are Monteforte with a well, boo, boo boo. For the sake of argument What if these three words were meant rule? What would we have? We would have be
like if I said I mean Vika
min be he
we change the hair to a casserole just to make it sound
harmonious with the before it.
Men be here
okay, that's the idea. The same goes with Akon. If it's not move off, if it's not possessed, then we treat it just like any other Noun. f1, f1 f1. However, once we add a possessive pronoun, and it becomes modal, we now have to make it manifest its grammatical case, not with a haircut, but with a letter, hookah. Hoo hoo, hoo ha. And you all would agree that to pronounce it without that would be difficult. That's okay. Try to say that five times fast. Okay, it's hard, you're going to mix it up.
harder still. Right. And so humbly that we have phonetic principles in Arabic that try to make things easy to pronounce. So we have a full worker who, who have if we wanted to make this month zoob, we wanted to say let's say it was the object of a verb. I hit
Right use the I use the men with the example. So I'm going to use now and then sue the example for
I saw let's use a non violent example. Instead of I hit because in the Arabic grammar books, for some reason, everyone's always hitting each other. That's the go to verb to demonstrate objects. But let's use I saw I saw your brother are you too? Ha Can
I saw Ha hoo.
I saw a ha ha.
So now we see that it's demonstrated not with a that's hot but with an LE.
So these are two of the five nouns that operate in this way. What are the rest of them? So Evelyn, Evelyn, we have Hanneman.
Ham is a brother in law, ha me.
We have femme feminine, which means mouth.
And finally we have Lu
which means the possessor of like we say, the little codename, right.
The one with two horns are the possessor of two horns. So model four would be a Volvo car name.
Metro would be Ville coronation.
And monsoon object would be that low performing.
Now, Lou is a little bit different because it doesn't stand alone. It's not possible to use zoo without a word after it. So we're never going to have an example of zoo where it's not operating with these rules.
Hamlin Hamlen, airborne and f1 are all exactly the same in their usage.
fenlon is also a little bit different with them.
We have a couple of options. If you want to
make it part of the five nouns. If it becomes mobile, then we remove the meme. So instead of
the Mocha, we say Fuka that means your mouth
from your mouth.
I saw your mouth
however, we also have the option to use the meme and if we use the meme, then it's treated like any other normal noun. So for example, if you want to use the meme, then it's simply femoral and you'll
I agree that that's not that difficult to pronounce.
mean to me he,
et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.
That's the five minutes.
don't worry, there's not too many more surprises when it comes to grammatical case. Once you can understand this, you understand that the default sorts of ways to demonstrate grammatical case are a Bama castle at that time. And you're aware that there's a couple other ways. All that's left for you to do is learn the different types of words we've learned most of them already.
And how they demonstrate grant. We have singular nouns, we have broken plurals, we have the five nouns. All we have to learn now is the duel, and the sound plurals, and then, you know, everything that you need to know about how nouns demonstrate grammar and narrative.
Yes, so in the in the positive nine, the last one like ASCII, the rules don't apply to those. Correct anything with the Yeah,
that doesn't apply, because it's not me. Right. So we talked before about Arabic phonology, about how there are certain things that Arabic phonology considers to awkward. And so they start to delete things. So for example, let's say that a hoo ha, upon that logic, it would be
a hui. Right,
So generally, any EU sound followed by an e sound is detested is not it's shied away from an Arabic phonology. And so they just cut off the well entirely Fe and they make this to conform with that. Strong. Yeah, at the end, and that follow suit for everything else. Even for if it's,
if it's not, so if it's not zero, it's always going to be Fe Fe is Magne if it has this Yeah, that indicates my that is me. It's not something that changes.
Have a question? Yes. You said if it's the doer is always merciful. Yes. Okay. All right. Yep, there is the doer of the verb is always meant for
that's like looked at it as always not for and however, is always not what you're looking for the three situations where you're going to find love for those are moving to that cover that
will cover that cover of Virginia Izmir that is for Joomla fairly.
And that conforms with English grammar. Well, grammar in general, because the idea of the nominative case is the subject and even in English, we don't have these two different types of sentences. Now no sentence and verbal sentence. So whether we're talking about someone directly, or whether we're talking about someone who's performing an action, we call them both the subjects in English.
In Arabic, we don't we have the fat and the Muqtada which are both the subjects the English subject, right but they're in two different scenarios in one scenario that that is performing an action and the other scenario that looks it up. That's the main thing that we're talking about.
Any other questions?
Okay, let's keep going. Let's try to finish this
reading. So we're going to apply what we've learned here with our reading. We'll start with first on my list here is rather than having Lesson number one
so what we have to do Sorry, this. Yep, number one here.
Be more on me, but
finish it. Very good. Sounds like that for us.
My father, and my mother is in the house. Very good.
Yes. And so this is Joomla is MIA will put up cover. This is the Mocha that Abby will owe me. Bill Beatty is the information about that. That looked very good. Here. It's a prepositional phrase. Excellent. Number two shake family. Can you split it? Can we have one of you do the question and the other do the response?
Buka Yeah, harming the hubba. Eel. ilus who?
So, very good translate for us.
Where is your father? Oh, Mohammed. He went to the market. Excellent work. And so a Buka is the what? What here?
The Muqtada Buka aina. Right, is really what it is. But since Cena is the information, we're putting it forward in the question, hey, in a bouquet I'm having to do with Mohammed is just extra. That hubba now he's the fat girl but he's hidden away from us. beat us up. So here this is actually a really good
thing for us. Here's a sentence a Joomla failure without a fat and
why don't we have a file? Because it's already implied. We know that what we're talking about here is a Buka. We just asked where where he is. And he says that hubba he'll assume that have a means he went and so it's implied
in the sentence, good.
I don't remember how many could you split the next one? Number three. One of you do the question the other one do the response
be even good.
Law. Whoever the reason. Fantastic translate for us. That was
to be brother. Yeah. Is your brother a doctor? Yes. No. is a teacher. Fantastic. Fantastic. And so a hookah is metaphor because it is the motor that are asking about your brother. That's who we want to know about. What do we want to know about him? We want to know if he's a doctor or not.
Maybe this is the you know, Russia or something.
Okay, number four.
So, as in BOO, Sharia li
A ha ha ha iffy.
What a boo ha Phil Madina Munawwara Very good. Excellent. translate for us if you could. Zainab is in Riyadh. Her brother is in life and her father is in Medina. Fantastic. And these are all cities in Saudi Arabia. We are the capital obviously. If there's next Mecca and Medina doesn't need any explanation. So all of these are in there almost to the
right so they don't so they're all going to be modified hoo ha That's a bit iffy is the hover that we're talking about him whatever whoo ha Nether Matera Ville Medina immunoblotting very good
number five that leaves systems around Can you finish us off
have a hazard only has Bollywood who was the one
who does you can be very nice translate for us.
the students father is a minister and his brother is
Very good. And this is an excellent example of a sentence that doesn't translate they seem to find you today it's just a masala sentences that don't translate because we would never say this student has father is a right that construction is purely Arabic construction. Have a Bali Boo Boo who was the hero was Iran. Yeah, I said this student's father? Yes, which is how we would translate it colloquially in English. But literally, literally an hour I should have said the father of the student.
I mean, this is the the why translation is more of an art and not a science, right? Because there's not like one exclusively correct way to translate anything. And now all of you will know enough Arabic to be able to see that there's they're squishing them. Right there's there's wiggle room for how we can
certain things from one language where those devices or those styles don't exist in English we can't literally translate this into English have a Bali Boo Boo who was
this student, his father, right we wouldn't say that in English so system of thought automatically put it into an indigenous English phraseology by saying this student's father
I mean translation 100% Correct. But in Arabic and Arabic notice that the formula is a little bit different how to balibo ago who was Iran? Well, who who tells you don't give you so just little things to pay attention to?
Very good ah
oh look there's one last one
who would like to let's go back to our brother Mohammed. Number six. I didn't realize there was one last one hanging out there
the the harbor of the
ill mother itself Elon Musk
was the harbor
Jamia very good my only correction is med velocity madrasa there's the school
so we have two Joomla philia here they have Fe
which is why Santa Fe with the with the year is lovely. We don't see any bomba any Wow anything like that. They have a fe eel madrasa t this is gonna ruin the object
where they have a be ill jammy.
Guess what it is not an ad yet that was with our Hirahara okay, this is what they're trying to get us to pay attention to here is the endings of proper names. Mohamed Dune, call the dune hammy doing soon national dune. These are typical masculine names and their masculine in two senses. And we're going to see this with the next list of names, their masculine in meaning, and they're masculine linguistically, which is why they have a bomber tan on the end of it. However, there are names that can be masculine
in meaning, but feminine linguistically, and this is a nice little list of some of them Hamza to Oh, that's a name of a man. However, it ends with a timer buta and so linguistically the word itself is feminine.
Ball how to husana to move we are to air Corona to or air Karima to see me yeah Karima to all of these are masculine names in meaning, but they end with a Tamar buta and so they are feminine linguistically. So there is there are different types of gender in the Arabic language.
And I think that's easy enough to not necessarily have to
go and read the rest of those. And then we just have a little brief recap of our vocab. And that's the end of the lesson as me who is a colleague or a classmate, Zoa Zhu, literally a pair, also a spouse. Why don't one Fetta is a young man MA with the flu, the flu is a young child could be used for a baby or a toddler. I look away too, is obviously the country of Kuwait. And that's the end of the lesson. Congratulations. Anyone have any questions about anything?
We'll probably get through next time. Ooh, yeah.
We've finished the first book, I found that Allah, is that the end of the first book because for me, it is for one edition, you know, there's the one that got AICPA
then this is the first book, mashallah, that's very good. Congratulations, everybody. Everybody worked very hard. And very proud of everybody, their effort, their attendance, everything.
I think soon we're going to have an additional opportunity for anybody who wants something a little bit more challenging or they want a little bit more practice, even if they just want to be a fly on the wall and listen along. So I engage in some translation work for my Sheikh back in Medina, Schaefer, Baelish, and PT and
actually just the other week, a group of students, Western students, and from everywhere across the world, we made a group and we're trying to translate some of his voice notes into English and put them on social media. And so this is something I'll be doing anyway. And I figured we could make it a collaborative project for anybody who is interested.
You all have my email. So whoever wants to be in okay system was thought about is interested, Mashallah. Anybody else who is interested, send me a message, either through the Facebook or through email, you all have my email, I believe, or any other way that you have to message me, and we can make it we'll find a time that's suitable and we'll make it into a collaborative project where we do a little bit of translation work, we expose ourselves to some new vocabulary and we involve ourselves in something that's a little bit more
I don't wanna say Islamic but yeah, like some more Islamic vocabulary and things like that.
So that's another opportunity that's out there for you all.
And great job. Thank you very much, everybody, and I will see you next time in sha Allah Tada. I sit down when he come off of Allah he is