Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 39

Tom Facchine

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AI: Summary © The speakers discuss the proper pronunciation of Arabic for possession, including Meha, XO Jihad, Hameed, XO Jihad, and Ma. They also discuss the use of objects and deviances for clarity and the need to write out words that do not match meaning. The speakers emphasize the importance of negation and the use of different forms in different languages. They also mention upcoming class events and encourage attendees to ask questions.
AI: Transcript ©
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on a show for MBA one was in Vienna, it was in a Muhammad Ali for Salah was Qatar Salim Allahu Allah and in WA inverno, and

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was even and many out on the line. I mean, Assalamu alaikum, Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh, everybody. Welcome to beginning classical Arabic, we were just at the beginning of a new lesson last class.

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And I mentioned before,

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I mentioned last class that we're going to spend time

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practicing reading this one, because this is about

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two or three times longer than any other

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kind of introductory dialogue that we've had so far. And there's a lot to unpack here.

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However, we didn't even get through last time we didn't even get through

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breaking down the dialog

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all sorts of vocab or new words and things like that. So I'm just going to start by looking at this larger statement by Mohammed is a dialogue and any sort of remaining things that we have here to point out a few things and then we're going to be reviewing pronouns and practicing reading it. So Mohammed, he's asked a question, and the question is by Hamid Aloka icon, yeah, Mohammed.

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Right here, Hamid is using Li and we've learned li before as one of the particles or prepositions whatever you have

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that

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established possession.

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Right, we used to say Lehman, for whose is this? How though Colorado, Lehman? And similar will say how they'll call mo li more handmaiden. It belongs to Mohammed or it is Mohamed's. Okay, so this is the exact same kind of meme here.

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However, what we're doing here is that we are pairing it with a possessive pronoun.

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So if we have li plus Cathe we get laka

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not Lika we get laka because that is easier to pronounce.

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And it means yours or in this case it's a question Do you have he's asking a question because we have a leaf here with a hands on top of it is used to make a question

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so let's untangle the sentence let's untangle the sentence

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if the sentence itself is

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laka Aslan

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which means you have a brother.

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Okay. Lakka f1 f1 Is brother laka is you have are yours. Any that's how we're using this lamb in order to express this year.

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All we have to do now is add the Hamza for a question. Aleca are fun. Yeah, Mohammed do and now we have this question. Do you have a brother,

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which is something a little bit different from what we've had before using the lamb here to make questions.

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But notice that the formula is adding a possessive pronoun to it. Now we're going to see how Mohamed responds and Mohamed is going to add the appropriate possessive pronouns to form his answers he starts with Li Ah, so he has the land. Plus, all we saw was the possessive pronoun for mine.

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Li Afghan why don't I have one brother is mu sama to well hola Mary. We have learned that now I means with if we add the possessive pronoun Yeah, it now becomes married which means with me

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Hoda I believe we've had that before. If not, it means here

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feeling Medina tomorrow Marathi and that's the medina we all know and love in the hijas

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but he's not done. Wali and I have same exact construct

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option two underwear hate a ton. One sister asked Is Sister

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So, brother, we've had that before I believe. And his sister

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is small haha.

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Over here when he was talking about his brother he had his small who

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his name here we have is small ha Herning look at how the possessive pronouns shifted in order to correspond to the right type of person according to gender. Zayn, who was here, feel right off the Malla XO Jihad

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and she is in Iraq with her husband or literally with her spouse.

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XO Juha more handy soon. So we have her spouse and so we have the appropriate possessive pronoun.

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So we've learned we've learned some important prepositions and how they can link up

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with possessive pronouns. Okay, this is different than English or English, each word is separate. Here, we are adding them on to the preposition itself. So we have math, which means with we have

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the lamb, which is for possession. And if we go a little bit further, we're going to find that there's yet another that we can pair this up with.

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Down here we have Hameed says,

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Alright, indica, say, yeah, yeah, I see.

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Okay, here's our third one. And I purposely didn't erase this, or in the

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end, okay. All right. And we can use in a couple of different ways. And recall that we've said that prepositions are a little bit more flexible in Arabic than they are in English. So and can be used for around

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it can also be used for with okay.

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Alright, and can also be used for possession.

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Right? And we do this all the time with the word with as well in English. Do you have a pen with you?

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Right, this is exactly what he's saying right here.

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Ah, which is the QUESTION All right, and can I say outta tune? Yeah.

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Do you have a car with you? is literally what he's saying.

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with you is here in our indica

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do you is in the question. Hamza? What are we asking you about say Oh, twin. Yeah. Hey. And now we're going to see how Mohammed respond responds by shifting the possessive pronoun here, it was indica. Now he's gonna say left Ma, or in de se out. So he has paired it with the possessive pronoun for mine.

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This is where it now this is why is it so interesting? And why is this such a leap in difficulty from everything we've done before? Because here, you're you can't really translate to English anymore. Right? If you're trying to literally translate this from English, you're going to get really, really turned around.

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So if we're, if we wanted to try it, this is what it would sound like no, not with me, is a car. That's literally word for word, letter by letter. What this means no knots with me is a car.

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See? So our English translation. This is where we this is where we take off the training wheels. Now we're going to have to start trying to think in Arabic law. We know that's no, Mandy, we haven't learned that smat as a way of negating Joomla ischemia. But we will learn that soon enough. Don't worry about it too much. Now, Matt, I'm in the car auto. Indeed the Roger tune, and Undurraga is a bicycle. I think we've heard that word before.

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Hamza to end who say

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Hamza he has with him a car.

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Does anybody have any questions?

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About anything that's on the page right now.

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We're going to practice this all new. I'm also going to go back to the slides for a second and refresh our memory about the what are the pronouns, the different types of pronouns in Arabic and what they are. But as long as we're getting the main concept here, prepositions in Arabic are different from English, they're more flexible on what they mean, they often mean more than one thing.

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They can be joined and are often often often joined by possessive pronouns.

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One thing that we can ask, and I'll put that up, point this out now, what if someone said okay, he says, I have a brother and I have a car, right? Or he uses Li, and he uses to talk about possession.

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How do I know which one to use? And we'll notice here that he used the LI to talk about

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to talk about something that's more

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personal and existential, to have a brother. Okay.

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Whereas he used to talk about something on his person right now.

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Okay, so that's an important little subtle distinction between the two. Right? If you said someone like our column, yes, he could have a pen, but it doesn't mean if he says yes, that it's with him right now.

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means that in his house, he has a pen. So our ENDA is kind of something that is on your person right now. Whereas Li is a little bit more abstract, something that is possessed or owned by you.

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Okay, let me erase this.

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And we'll go back to the slides just for a second.

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As a refresher,

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recall that

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we have in grammar, subject pronouns, object pronouns, possessive pronouns. In Arabic, there's only one form for object pronouns and possessive pronouns. Okay, so that makes our job a little bit easier. So we only have two forms to worry about what are those two forms? These are the first forms the subject pronouns these are your he she they i right these are going to be your subjects your milk to that this is going to be your fat I in a gym that fairly Yeah, this is going to be the one that's doing the verb the one we're talking about. Hola, here. Home. Most important wants to know. And NT, and Tom.

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Anna, an ethno and we've seen most of those before. So it's not a problem when we get to the object and possessive pronouns

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very good fella home at Euro home and the rugby him. Right. So you have a lot of pronouns.

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Okay, perhaps I misspoke as being part of a person, it's more about

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something that's possessed, that isn't necessarily on the person right now.

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Okay, so if you say lack of agile, do you have the Agile right now? Do you have the reward? No. It's not physically on you.

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So it's yours. It saved for you. It's far away or in time, let's say in general, but it's not on your person. That's what I meant to say something and that is used for on your person right now. But it's with a lot and it's yours. But it's not on your person right now.

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So if I say Aloka Cardamone Do you have a pen? Whether you have it in your pocket? Or whether you have it at home? Or whether you have it in the car? You can say no.

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Because you own a pen.

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However, if I say no the Catalan

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this is like Do you have one with you?

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Right now and you might have one back in your car, but you've walked up a nice little hike a couple miles and it's like, oh, that sorry, Matt in the column that's like I don't have my pen. It's not with me right now

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does that answer the

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question?

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So object and possessive pronouns, okay. So we have hope

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for

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his

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or him. Okay, so what's the difference? How can we

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You tell between the object and the possessive pronoun, it simply matters is it attached to a verb or attached to a noun? If it's attached to a noun, it's a possessive pronoun.

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I do to home or I do to who or is smooth to take the example from the dialogue. His name is smooth.

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Okay?

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If we take any verb that is referred that is transitive and put it at the end of that verb. Now it is the object Katsa who he wrote it, or even he wrote him if we're talking about who he wrote to.

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The same with her. Hers is Smouha.

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Her name is small home, their name

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second person is smoker.

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What right? If we want to ask someone's name masculine Muskoka, feminine Meskwaki. What is your name?

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mismo comb

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is smoko your names? And in the first person, if it's after a

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you you're normally going to have just the Yeah,

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I can't I tried very, very hard to think about any nouns in which we use this noon or Lithuania. And I couldn't think of any. However we do use it for

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verbs. So for example, let me draw what you're saying. We have

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baits on

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house. This is a noun, right? So

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on to say my house simply be at

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my house. Okay.

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That brings up the question, okay, Imam, when do I use the noon and the Yeah. And it occurred to me that you're most likely if not always going to use them with that with

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verbs. I say Baba.

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He hit

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past tense. I want to say he hits me. It would be not Bobby.

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Because that creates ambiguity and Arabic cannot stand ambiguity. Baba ne.

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law are all of the singular here, that knee

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so we have the noon to protect

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the distinctness of Baba bah, bah bah, which is a verb which means he hit. If we were to cut it off and make it into a bolt or B, then we would lose the distinctness of the verb we wouldn't be able to tell who was doing the hitting.

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So in order to preserve the clarity of what's going on we add the noon in that case bought all by me

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and finally nap

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so those were the forms and now let's get back to the

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lesson

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so scrolling way back up to the top and if we have some words that we don't recall what the meaning is we'll write them out again no problem at all. Um Let's have

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let's have sister masala rotten sister Adam. Can you to tackle this dialogue sister Edwin Could you be Hamid and sister Mossad Could you be Mohammed

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Ali Khan

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and Bali boom polygon Jeremy Jeremy it

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on that polygon Judaism

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now and barley Bucha d

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min Aina and min Aina until

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midnight Hindi

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ma balls mocha

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if me Muhammadan.

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Vm Volman Haza

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alpha z

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AKA

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AKA

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Zemi

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Alpha

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know

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how I didn't? Mineral Hindi

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yeah who are

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meaning yeah Bernie

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ma sma who

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is Hamza to

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is a I can read the whole thing is

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I'm Muhammad. No, ma Luca Touka ja Muhammad Muhammad de

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Ramadan do mama do my Aloha Touka yeah Mohammed

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knew what

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all the two

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are he

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here uh he looked on South Latin

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now

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here lower than

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well Hamza to mount over to

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Luba to will Yabba. Nia to we're here low water SAR but when

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Aina Guca Yamaha Madhu Abby Phil Kuwaiti Hua Bobby Shahi run

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well I know mukha

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here Ivan Hill Kuwaiti ma v here muda rosseti Hua sorry, here muda the surgeon who now

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he has

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as a hafta

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Illa il CO at Yamaha Mizzou now I'm gonna have to

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was a me Look, I know a boo

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boo philia Bonnie Hua Jun Kirby rune

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Aloka Afonya Mahamadou

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now

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ye Lea a one word hidden. is moving. Awesome as to where my ohana feel. Medina T fil Madina Munawwara T

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one saw he or she Oh, sorry, sorry.

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Willie often Wahida tune is whoo ha they Naboo we're here Phil

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Zoji ha. So do you have more hands? This one

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in the car, so Yara tune Yaffe.

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Yeah mine the sejarah tune and the the Roger tune Hamza to end the Hussein era.

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Now we're going to go back

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and we're going to now see where we need to explain. So same roles. Let's go right back to the beginning and translate line by line.

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Mon untha.

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Yeah, English

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who are you? Yes, exactly. I'm a student. I'm a student in the

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University, right?

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Yeah, I'm a university student. Oh, I'm a student in the University. Sorry, at the University sorry.

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I forgetting English.

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We were just talking about how prepositions are more flexible in Arabic than they are in English. And so not It's not your fault that there's only unity to how to translate B. Because at the university, it can mean with the university it can be in the university it can mean all of those things.

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Okay, and are you a new student? Yes, I'm a new student

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I don't know me

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from well my husband telling you from where are you? Okay from India.

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What is your name? Ma sluka. My name is Mohammed. Just to point out for one second, just a small

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MASS MoCA

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muscle

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mass. Mass MoCA, MASS MoCA. My name is Mohammed

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Al

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He

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who? What is funny, I don't know the meaning of this is like between a valid and yes, that's how so?

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Let's start with this word right here is this men are men, men, men?

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Well me men better. So from this young man, that

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woman has a young man who has this youth with you is

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young men, okay?

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And so you're not going to get figured out by the context that are saying why men have an attack? What are we trying to figure out? Who is this young guy? Right? I love the man who is with

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you. Okay?

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He's my friend. Right? me a little bit more

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precisely is a classmate or a colleague. So

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it can also be your can also be your friend. But um, there are other situations where that would listen to a little bit of trouble. So is that me is an asset

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class?

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And, like, does the money come from the same? I'm sorry for that one more time as a millionaire, does that come from this route?

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Because it's a different vibe of song. So you're talking about the statement of the Prophet Mohammed sai Sena. Yes.

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That means Alamos. And so it's yes, the same route, but with the meme has a shadow on it.

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So that means rather than just trying to make the connection

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so your your classmate, they they cover you, I guess. Okay, like you're very close to them. I guess. I'll have to look that up. That's an interesting point. I never made the connection before. Okay.

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Sorry. Oh, no.

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So,

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is he from India?

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One one important additional word here. Are you born? Which means also or? Also Is he also from India? Okay.

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He's from Japan. What is his name?

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His name is Hamza.

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What language you use? You speak of? What is your language? Muhammad? Good job. My languages. My language is.

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Is your language easy?

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Yes.

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It's an easy language. Good. And notice how she translated here as it's because in Arabic We don't.

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It's got to have a gender male.

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Language is not she would say it. So

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what language

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is what is Hamza's language? Language is Japanese. And it's a difficult language. I'm just offering this extra information that wasn't.

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Father, you right. Yes. Is your father from or where is your father?

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Oh,

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he's in Kuwait. He is

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a famous doctor. Very good.

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How do we know? How do we know? What's the difference between Where is your father? And where's your father from? What was the sentence?

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Oh,

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how the difference? Well, in this context sounds like where's your father? And I try. Yeah.

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It'd be mean you know if it's from me nine. It mean from what from what from where your father from? Okay. But I know where is your father? Okay. Okay.

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So you responded yes. Okay. So what is your mother?

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And she's also

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she's also included with my father. She is a teacher there or not? Okay. That goes there. Okay.

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Dr. Mohammed,

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I forgot the meaning of

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Go.

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Go. When you go to coin. Somebody say not have been

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Wait, I think you've been too quiet.

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Yes, I have. Yes, I've been. Okay, so timeout timeout, because this did not explain earlier. Now. We're starting to get introduced to conjugating verbs in the past tense, okay. So before, simply learn to the Hubba, for example, which means he went.

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Now, what we have here is we have two new conjugation, we have the habitat

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with a cutout on the end, and then we have the hub too. And don't worry, we're gonna get a nice good conjugation chart somewhere down the line, but not right now. They have to so the hub tab means you went

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on my little

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Have you been? Yes, we make it into a question. Yes. Once we make it into a question that

00:31:05--> 00:31:57

if we're gonna stick with the affirmative, just to get the concept for a second, it would be you will ask since you went, you went right. And then they have to, I went, okay. It's a curiosity of English. Okay, that when we take that affirmative statement statements and make it into a question, we don't use whence we say, did you go? Or with the prospective? Have you gone? Or have you been even? Right? So that's a curiosity of English it's actually easier in Arabic, because we don't have kind of this. To me. We don't have compound verb tenses. We don't have first verb conjugate second verb doesn't any sort of thing. No, did right? We just kind of have the habitat. You go

00:31:58--> 00:32:06

other habitat. Did you go right? Or in this case, really what they're trying to say is have you ever been Have you been to Kuwait?

00:32:08--> 00:32:15

And then the answer is yes. I went literally, literally, contextually. Yes, I have been.

00:32:17--> 00:32:18

Okay, good job.

00:32:23--> 00:32:24

The link together.

00:32:26--> 00:32:29

Yes. And your friend

00:32:34--> 00:32:35

in Navajo

00:32:37--> 00:32:39

and your friend.

00:32:41--> 00:32:46

Sorry, I Boohoo. I just don't remember. His father. Where's his father?

00:32:47--> 00:32:49

Oh, where is your friend's father?

00:32:52--> 00:32:57

His father is in Japan. He is a

00:32:58--> 00:32:59

businessman.

00:33:02--> 00:33:05

Okay, I like him. And

00:33:07--> 00:33:22

did that with your brother? Do you have a burger? Do you have a brother Aloka? Who near Muhammad? Do you have a brother? Yes, I have. Yes. I have one brother. His name is Osama. And he is with

00:33:25--> 00:33:28

my he's with me. You're

00:33:29--> 00:33:32

in Medina, in Medina and in

00:33:33--> 00:33:38

LA do I translate this or can I just say Madina? Munawwara say it like that.

00:33:39--> 00:33:43

Illuminated City is the literal translation. But we all know what you're saying.

00:33:44--> 00:33:45

Okay. And

00:33:47--> 00:33:57

I and I have a sister. I have a sister. Yeah. Her name is Xena. And she's in Iraq with

00:33:58--> 00:33:59

her husband.

00:34:01--> 00:34:07

Her husband is an engineer. Very good. Fantastic work. Okay, we're at the end

00:34:12--> 00:34:17

do you have a car brother? Yes. Oh,

00:34:18--> 00:34:20

yeah, that's right.

00:34:22--> 00:34:23

Actually, no.

00:34:26--> 00:34:53

I don't have a car. I have a bicycle. Hamza has a car. Very excellent work. Fantastic. Okay, so I'm just gonna point out a couple things because we're pretty much at the end of class time. We don't have enough time to go through the whole thing one more time though. Next class, we will we will go through it yet again. Because this is a really, really, really beneficial dialog. We'll go through one more time and we'll move on to the shallow. So

00:34:55--> 00:34:55

what I want to point out here

00:34:57--> 00:34:59

let's take a look. Now we're starting

00:35:00--> 00:35:04

To get into negation, okay, so just to put it on your mind,

00:35:05--> 00:35:08

every single sentence usually

00:35:09--> 00:35:27

has three variants. Okay, variant number one is the affirmative. All right? That's it. That is simply you're saying something positive. Okay? Then what we have is we have a question.

00:35:28--> 00:35:31

And the third is we have a negation.

00:35:32--> 00:35:38

Okay? And all languages deal with these three different forms in different ways in English, for example,

00:35:39--> 00:35:40

let's just say

00:35:42--> 00:35:44

I have a ball.

00:35:47--> 00:36:05

negation is derived from the affirmative, we say I don't we insert the don't write have a ball. Easy. questions a little bit trickier. We say, we flip the do we actually derive it from the negative right here? I don't do I?

00:36:07--> 00:36:15

Do I have a ball? So there's kind of like a flowchart? Okay, we go from affirmative to negative to question, and that's how we derive it. So

00:36:16--> 00:36:20

Arabic is different. Arabic is different if we have

00:36:25--> 00:36:27

for example, nd

00:36:30--> 00:36:31

CL

00:36:35--> 00:36:36

say, All right, so

00:36:39--> 00:36:43

this is an affirmative statement. I have with me a car.

00:36:44--> 00:36:46

If I want to negate

00:36:48--> 00:36:51

this affirmative statement, which I spelled wrong.

00:36:52--> 00:36:53

There we go.

00:36:54--> 00:36:57

What I'm going to add is Mat.

00:36:59--> 00:37:19

Mat. There are many types of mats. This mask specifically means do not negate negates. A Joomla Ismene. En de se out of tune is a Joomla SP. We've learned all up until now we've just been doing Affirmative, affirmative. Affirmative making statements.

00:37:20--> 00:37:26

If we responded with a negative, we were saying just that as a response, no.

00:37:27--> 00:37:33

But we weren't really making negative statements. Or we're saying I don't have this.

00:37:34--> 00:37:50

I didn't go there. Right. So this is our first introduction to negative statements. And we're learning here that with Joomla is meow meow as a separate, separate thing. Joomla is Mija. we negate with Matt.

00:37:51--> 00:37:54

Randy had the Mandy that

00:37:56--> 00:37:57

I have this I don't have that.

00:37:59--> 00:38:27

Okay. We also learned in this from this lesson and before it's much easier to form questions in Arabic than in English. All you have to do is slap a Hamza sitting on top of an Elif right before the affirmative statement. So and the SE autotune becomes and the say auto tune, which doesn't really make sense, you wouldn't ask yourself, so we'll change it to end cap, say auto exactly as it is here.

00:38:29--> 00:38:39

So we see that Arabic is a little bit more regular than English and a little bit easier, because in both cases, the affirmative statement remains hole.

00:38:40--> 00:39:00

And all we do in order to derive a question, or a negative statement, is to add something in the beginning. We don't have to change word order. We don't have to conjugate anything around. All we do is say in the Seattle Mandy sale, or in the cafe additon

00:39:01--> 00:39:03

or in the cafe auditorium

00:39:04--> 00:39:08

and that is that anybody have any questions on anything we've gone over today?

00:39:10--> 00:39:13

Not about this but is there class this weekend?

00:39:14--> 00:39:19

Today is yes, there will be class this weekend inshallah. It will be the last class

00:39:21--> 00:39:25

for until Ramadan is over. We'll start back up after Ramadan inshallah.

00:39:26--> 00:39:28

So one more class on Saturday

00:39:30--> 00:39:31

if that's okay with everybody.

00:39:33--> 00:39:34

Yes, shallow.

00:39:37--> 00:39:38

Any other questions?

00:39:43--> 00:39:43

Nope.

00:39:45--> 00:39:55

Fantastic job, everybody. Excuse me. Just a quick question. So when we call it in the car is tense for you. Do you have a car? Yes, because

00:39:56--> 00:39:57

there's a

00:39:58--> 00:39:59

preposition meeting with me

00:40:00--> 00:40:02

When we put on the air in the, you

00:40:04--> 00:40:05

know, in the

00:40:06--> 00:40:15

around the island who are in the HA and then and according to the possessive pronouns that we recently learned.

00:40:18--> 00:40:23

Okay, good stuff. Thank you very much, everybody. I'll see you soon