Channel: Nouman Ali Khan
Quran Tafsir/Explanation – Juz Amma
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and hamdulillah Hello benign amino Salatu was Salam O Allah say the MBR he will mousseline Radha le he was actually Home Minister Nebuchadnezzar he you know you may deem Allahu Miranda mean home, Amina Latina, Amma know Amina Sally had what I was hoping happy what I was all the sub me hon Allah mean from Santa Monica
wabarakatuh we begin our study today inshallah tada of sort of shrimps, which follows Sultan ballad. In the previous solar, we learned many things, but a few things that I'd like to reiterate, were certain conflicts that were highlighted in the previous sorta One of them was the conflict between the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi, Salam and the people. And really, it's the conflict that the people initiated, in which in the beginning of the soul, we learned what and the hilum we have invalid, that you have been made pretty much had permissible meaning the attack against you, or to expel you from the city, which was one of the meanings of what the hell on behalf of but that is now
the case or it's about to be the case that they're going to have a conflict against you. And even at the end of the same sort of when livina cafaro will be a Latina, and those who disbelieve in our miraculous signs, where the IR is coming from. They're coming from the Messenger of Allah sallallahu sallam. So cofrin the IR is an indirect reference also took over in the messenger Elisa to Salaam and all of this is one package, if you will, it's a reseller. So when Allah azza wa jal talks about the books, the angels and the prophets, it's really one thing, it's the message, because the message is delivered by the angels to the messenger, and what is he delivered the book, it's one thing. So
when we say for example, when Mr. Abdullah he will Mullah kawakita when they begin, it's really one thing. So this is the conflict between the people and the Salah. The second conflict that was illustrated in the previous surah was the conflict that every single human being suffers from, and there's no escape from which is the struggle of day to day living. And that was captured in the word local hospital in Santa Fe, he covered
another conflict that was mentioned was the conflict the heat the arrogant human being has against Allah azza wa jal himself that was captured in the words
of Allah. He had lm era who had this he assume that no one has control over him, does he assume nobody saw him? Right? Those words were illustrating a conflict between him and allows origin, another conflict between the disbeliever or the one that refuses to take the right path and against those who need help in human humanity. So for him, not even not only is he not a believer, he's not even a humanitarian. So when a lot of talk about Philip Hammond acaba that he refused to climb that upward climb that was tougher than the other side. That ally explained what that October wasn't, it was all humanitarian causes that could occur, but in our own film in the masaba, Yattaman de
matava so I'm askin Dharma collaborator. So all of those were causes that, you know, in order to help humanity around him, not even interested in that. So there's a conflict between him and those who are in need. So after all of these conflicts that are illustrated, there were some internal realities that allies that we alluded to in the previous surah. And the central idea you could even say is, what are they now have,
we guided him unless has we guided him to two paths, two paths that are heading upwards, and that was really the center of the previous sorta, this surah you can think of it as a Tafseer as an explanation of that one statement, those two pathways that Allah alluded to, and talked about the higher path and how you have to be a given human being that is now going to be opened up in further detail. And we're going to get a real insight into the Quran and the Islamic view of human psychology and human personality. This is the term that we're going to be looking at the word knifes which really problematic a problematic translation of his soul because it leads to some other
implications and in
Which literature another I think oversimplification even is person, a word that may come close to it doesn't capture all of its meanings but comes close to it as conscience. The English word conscience is kind of close to the idea of knifes, as is expressed in the Quran and Sunnah, but we'll see a discussion of the knifes in the surah inshallah tada and full moon and how we're supposed to reflect on this marvelous creation of Allah when we read the IR when I've seen one, so we're coming to those if in sha Allah today, so we begin inshallah tada with the the first ayah was shamcey. What will Haha, this is a surah of oaths. We've seen a number of students so far that begin with a large
declaration of oaths. There's one opinion about the oath that I did not share that was held by a minority of scholars, yet it is still there, that every time Allah takes an oath by any of his creations, there's halves of a MOBA, meaning there's a word that hasn't been said, that is understood. And that is the word Rob. So when he says what shamcey they understand this is what a bishop see, by the Lord of the sun. So for example, when he says, what are some, what he means is what I've been asked by the I swear by the master the lord of time, etc. So that's another opinion that I didn't share with you in the past that has existed in in our tradition, but for the most part
that has not been taken for the most part we look at these oats in and of themselves and the Sunnah is that when we take an oath, we take it by Allah, but when Allah has takes the oath, he has the right to take it by whatever he wills Okay, so Larissa swears by the sun was Shamsi, but then he adds wobble, haha. And I swear by the sun and by its soothing morning light, the definition of Baja is two things that some have called a noble Shams also the light of the sun. Others have called it the entire day, but the majority opinion comes from the linguistic analysis of it like a bus for example, says well, morado is a rocket WooCommerce will follow her meaning when the sun comes
completely out. And it's not you know, it's not early early morning where it's not completely manifest, but it's out so you can see the sun. And but it's not difficult for you to to look at the sun either. It's the soothing time of sunlight. It's not the scorching sun. It's the soothing sun. Now, interestingly, I want I'm not going to explain it fully but I want food for thought as we continue in sha Allah, Allah did not just swear by the sun that has that property, he took two distinct oaths. He doesn't say for example, what Shem said Bahia the brilliant sun, I swear by the soothing sun. He didn't say that he said, I swear by the sun and separately what will haha another
oath that I swear by its morning light. And I swear by that, it's its ability to give that morning light. So two aspects the sun itself, and one of its contributions. You could think of it like that you could think of it as one of its contributions. I will have a SRA when explaining Baha Mujahid says a boat will have a shark or it's light and it's morning of a shock. Well, bla bla bla shrimps, the unknown nema qunar and the end of the fire. He says that this was attributed with the sun because it only happens due to the sun the word had that light is not attributed to any other kind of source of light. Like you can't use Doha for a torch or a lamp or anything like that. It's an
exclusive feature of the sun. Well comedy that Allah and I swear by the moon you could say in Simple English, either at Aloha, the word teller in Arabic has two origins Salah to tilawat, in Antalya to tell one and della to tilawat and means to read and tell I have to tell one means to follow along follow right behind something. So when comedy that Allah and the moon as it follows it and continues to follow it, there's repetition in the word teller also. So the Allah swears by the moon as it follows it. Now what does it follow? What is that it it is the sun, the hell referring to the sun. Now notice in the previous oath, there were two features, and there was a wall separating them. That
was the sun itself and its soothing light, its ability to produce that soothing light. The second oath is one thing, the moon itself and it's not given a unique entity, it's given this subservient position is that Allah I swear by the moon as it follows the sun, some LMR commented these are the first 15 days of the month, and other opinions have also been given about the implications of that Allah. But we'll go to some straight, straightforward and very direct implications of the statement of Allah azza wa jal number one, as a shocker any comments as a judge also says, the law heinous Dada, meaning it follows the sun, especially when it becomes full meanings. It's a fully circular
moon. That's the time when you could see that it's really following the sun and what do they mean by following the sun for Canada to Sham psychedelia? When nor Jani is that Camila Babu fissara tabulations that when it's light becomes complete, it is following the sun. In other words, it's reflecting the light off of the sun. This is even an opinion among ourselves. Fill in our column alpha alpha also says de la ha ha ha da minha
It takes when the law says the moon follows it. It means he takes it takes from it. Now what how does he explain takes from it and then camara chumps that the moon takes from the light of the sun. So even the sun have understood it in this way that the moon draws from the light of the sun so obviously it's in a subservient position position to the sun. So now again just food for thought we're not going to go any further into this, but Allah swears by the sun and its contribution of Doha to one of the most beautiful times of day and then he swears by the moon in its subservient position to the sun and it follows it meaning it takes from its light and it follows along and also
all also a lot as origin. When he talks about day and night he mentions day first. So he says For example in Satya seen Let's jump so young Bella and to Brickell Kumar, while la Lusaka. makuuchi Falcon, yes. So he says it's not becoming of the sun, that it may proceed, or it may come after the more normal night proceed the day. So the sequence that Allah defines in the Koran is day, first night second, that's the sequence of larger which undefined anyhow, when the howdy Elijah, and I swear by the day, as it gives brilliance to it. Now this is a tough thing to explain the word gela, to give brilliance to give something that's already bright and exposure, meaning for example, you
have a lamp, but it's covered up. So you have no opportunity to appreciate that it gives light. So if you do gel, if you do tangentially to it, or tragedy actually that's that would be the muster, then you're given an opportunity to show its full glory. And actually the agenda is used as an Arabic verb for you know a wife when she beautifies herself. For the husband's he's folding showing her full glory to her husband. That's how it was used in classical Arabic pre Islamic. So now when we say when the Howdy, Nigella Hi, it's an interesting metaphor. And really, it's sort of an indirect form of speech that makes you think it's a lot of allegory. In the speech, Allah says end
the day, which gives the opportunity to the sun at the time that it gives the opportunity to the sun to show its full glory. The word higher referring to the sun, meaning of life talking about the day as though it's giving the sun a chance to show its glory. It's like in a supporting position, though, literally what we mean is, the sun is what causes the day to happen. But here Lessing are the days giving the sun a chance to bright to show up. What Ally's illustrating here is Allah created these opportunities for that brilliant thing that Aleck created the sun to be appreciated. If Allah did not create the, you know, produce the creation of the day, there would be no
appreciation of the brilliance of the sun. So what Shamsi what will haha well, comedy is Allah when the howdy either genda another opinion on the pronoun ha, in gela has been that it's the earth, meaning I swear by the morning, as the as the the the morning gives brilliance to the day gives brilliance to the day, that's a weaker opinion, because July is usually used for something that has light in and of itself. And we know the earth does not have light in and of itself. So really, the stronger opinion is that the heart refers back to the sun.
And one last author about the creation of night and day, when lately they have Shahada and I swear by the night as it covers it up, as it covers what up. Really, it's the date the hats feminine, so it's not referring to the day it's referring to the sun as then I swear by the night as it covers up the light of the sun as it covers the sun up. Okay, so all of these oats so far actually center around the sun. The center around this the central theme is the sun itself. First it was the sun directly literally, then it was the moon but it wasn't even given credit itself, it was given an association with the moon, then with the sun rather than the day, which is in a Supporting Role of
having people appreciate the sun. And finally the night that makes an attempt to cover up the sun. So everything has been about the sun. Okay, and we're going to see soon a parallel era in the surah. The parallel is being drawn between the Sun and the knifes the parallel is between the sun, the creation of the Sun is brilliant creation and also the knifes and how the sun has these different roles and different you know things happening to it just like the knifes has different things happening to it. So Pamela then he says what's summer evil Nirvana and I swear by the sky and I'll translate it a two ways. And I swear by the sky and I swear I swear by a what made it I swear by
what made it no of course who made the sky It is Allah. So you would expect Who made it? But the wording here is what made it this would be called mal masuleh in Arabic okay if you interpret some monsoon has have interpreted this map as my own masala and then the translation for us would be I swear by the sky and I swear by what made it what referring to a law, which seems kind of inappropriate, right? Because you would use men by law, but you have to understand this in a little bit deeper sense. You know, you'd also
You say for someone you don't know, you say, Who is he? Right? You say Who is he? But sometimes you also say, What is he? When do you say what is he say, Oh, he's an engineer. Right? When you say when you say Who is he, you might find out his name. But when you say what is he? What do you find out his attributes? Has attributes, okay? So when you ask the question, Who, then who and what can be referring to a, the Volkl meaning of a creature that possesses intellect, even like human beings, but of course, it can also refer to a larger origin. So when we say men, when I had the question is who created it? And the answer is a lot. But when you say, Man I had the question is, what kind of
power can do that? The question the what here is what attributes this this being have that can create this. So the what is also actually very appropriate for a lot in this case, what's being done here is the human being is asked to imagine stare at the sky, and just exhausts your imagination into thinking, what kind of power must he be? And so I'm putting it in English in this way, what kind of power must TV and that's what's being illustrated webinar. But there's another interpretation of this same map that what that we just translated in Arabic grammar is called mammillaria. So there's Martin masuleh, and my alma study, there are two kinds of interpretations
linguistically or grammatically, if you interpret this as Ma and muscaria, then the meaning of one Urbana is and how remarkable its creation, it becomes an infinitive form of statement, that's why the word Muslim is used. So I swear by the sky and I swear by how remarkable its creation is or its construction is. Now by using the word banner we are already learning it hasn't. It wasn't always there. It's been constructed, right? Similarly, if you look at the words that were used before, when comedy that tala tala means to start following, and when there's a verb, there's a beginning. So where did it begin? When did it start following? Similarly when daddy that gender, gender is also a
verb, and every time you mention a verb, there's a beginning. So when did this all begin or who started it? Those questions are created by using these verbal forms and what by the night as it covers it, and it covers it. In other words, this covering must have had a beginning. a verb, by definition has a beginning. So now in all of these when verbs are used instead of adjectives, instead of just saying the covering night, that would be an adjective, but the night as it covers, or when it covers a verb has been used, it's created a question of when did this all begin? Or who began it? And so let's hook it back to the more fundamental question What kind of power constructed
this The sky was similar in one webinar. And then finally, the last of these oats in this create the series of creations is one of the one motto haha but before we go to it, a little bit more about the word Bina or vinaya in Arabic, April pharis, urashima Allah He says, Be not with shape be long me badly he in abandon that construction of something or be not in Arabic means to fuse something together or put some things together in a way that they get fused with each other and become inseparable. And this is actually an illustration of the flawless beautiful view of the sky, which in other places in no color is set in the way health elements are thought Do you see any cracks? Or
any flaw? You know, even in the newest construction, you see some gaps, something that was missed, something that needs to be patched up? Do you see anything that needs patchwork in the sky, so what a remarkable construction This is without any flaw. Similarly, Allah says in another school last summer, a banana be identified in a museum, that it is the sky that we ourselves constructed, and we are the ones giving it expansion. So the final oath in the CD series when ugly wall mount Baja, and I swear by the earth, and what though, again, man could be muscle area or what was the other word masuleh. man could be muscaria or masala. So if it's masuleh, let's take it the same way we took
previous oath, if not as Martin masuleh what Marlin masuleh here means is, and I swear by the earth, and what kind of power it must be that gave it its spread. Baja, Baja means to spread out and to lay down. So what kind of power must be must be that lead down this earth and its vastness. Then if you say, Well, I'm out Baja, the mayor referring to my alma study, it means how incredible its vastness, how incredible it's laying down. So one is making the human that one part of the translation or winning implication is making the human being wonder about the remarkable powers or the attributes of Allah and the other the remarkable creation itself. So on the one hand, you're reflecting on a
larger vision on the other reflecting on his incredible creation, both are captured in the words now Hahaha, another word that this is by the way, this word is only used once in the Koran and this is it, and a sister were to it is when Alibaba Delica, the ha ha. And according to most like the sun and Arab and Tasha rose, they say that these words are actually the same word, but they were used by different tribes of the Arabs.
So the message is kind of universal in that both words are used in the Quran. And both are used only once. So panela baja is also used when the Arab would go to a castle, or to a huge, huge, huge house, where they almost couldn't see the end of where how far it goes in, you know, you're gonna go to somebody's house and there's a room at least to another room leads to another room, and you're kind of wondering how far does it go? How far down is that laid out, then they would the attribute they would have for that is not here, not here, the error would say that this house is well spread out. And that's the same word Allah uses for the earth. Now let's go back just a little bit. These
illustrations that Allah has given first was the sun, everything centered around the sun. But really night and day was the larger theme. The sun, the moon, the day, the night that was the sequence of the oats that we just read a lot, as always asks us to reflect upon them before we prepare ourselves for the rest of the surah. Why? Because that is the function of the oath, the oath, our invitation to reflection. That's what they are. So we are asked to reflect on these creations and just some aspects of that reflection. First and foremost, these things are in conflict, right? The sun is is in conflict with the moon the days in conflict with the night but they're part of a larger picture.
And all as opposite as these things are the experience of the human being, especially in the desert. Now if you know if you stay indoors the whole day, you don't feel when it was day when it was night, you could not even realize it. For example, you're in an office building with no windows, you won't know when is day when it's night. But for the person living in the desert, they have a very different experience in the day and a completely different experience at night. They're completely different worlds, right? So they see this completely up these completely opposite things. But what we're learning here is Allah has given each of them a limit. They have a, you know, they have a
certain time, there's a certain time for the sun, and it's the heart and it's soothing morning, and there's a time for night as follows the sun, and they're not going to break that order. Like we learned in school at USC English, I'm so young, to become calmer. Well, Elena, sabich, una Ha. So these opposites are there, but they don't break their rules they've given me they've been given rules, and they follow them. They submit to this, this principle, and that following and that system, and that discipline creates harmony for us. Now imagine for a moment if that's that harmony disappeared. If the sun and the moon went their own ways, and they did they rebelled, the word in
Arabic is Boolean. It's also used for water. You know, when water is stays in the ocean, but if it comes out and spills over and there's a flood back on, the water rebelled, right? So imagine if the sun and the moon they rebelled, who would suffer the consequences, there would be chaos on the earth. So we're talking about things in the sky. But if things went haywire, what would the consequences be on the earth on us? We're about to learn later on. There's also these conflicts, these opposites inside the human being. And just like love balanced and perfected, and gave discipline and limits to each side, inside the human being are also different inclinations and love
balanced all of them when we read the ayah when I've seen one mass, when I've seen one, Master wah. So now coming back to this idea of harmony between all of these creations first mention things to notice in the sky, of course, a different sky a day of different sky at night. But when you reflect on this harmony, you said, these are such opposite things. What kind of power must it be number one to create such an enormous creation like the sun, or the moon, or their brilliance? But more importantly, what kind of enormous creation or incredible, incredible creator must it be rather, that gave them harmony? despite them being such opposites? He gave them harmony. So this is the the
point of reflection that's been set for us before we continue into the rest of the surah. And what to think of just the sky, this same creator, how incredibly well he caused balance and harmony on the earth, how its spread out, how it spread all over Panama. So now we come to an oath now that is almost a departure from everything we've read before which is the I have never seen one so well. Ha Allah swears by the knifes and you notice there is no Elif lamb on it was shams, one comma, one line one, one day and Islam Alif Lam Alif Lam Alif Lam everything a lot took an oath by had an Elif lamb, but now he's taking an oath by the knifes but there's no Alif Lam he doesn't say when nwsc or masala
he says when I've seen one so we're her and then Kia lit the flame. Okay, oh later when the Nikita here or the lack of Elif lamb here is to magnify that above all of this the point of all of this reflection is reaching its climax when you think about enough's. This surah is actually a you know, a lot of times my teacher used to say
he used to say that the Somali out of the Koran are like seeds. And some passages of the Quran are like flowers that came out of that seed. Right? So in one place in the Koran Allah azza wa jal says no to him it nothing FRP Wolfie unfussy him hepatitis A and aluminum
Help, that we will soon show them our miraculous signs in the horizons and inside of their own cells fee unforeseen, until it becomes absolutely clear to them that that is that this is that it is the truth. Right. Now that statement began by reflection on what the horizons and then what the knifes, look at this surah that was the seed. And this is sort of the flower that comes out of that seed. The beginning i are asking us to reflect upon the the horizons, and then we're coming to reflect upon the neffs when I've seen one master well, her and the knifes, and that again the conscience, if you will, but really person and it has more to you know, I say conscience with a disclaimer because
the word conscience in English literature and our speech also is typically used, not when you want to do something bad. But it's used either, you know, I have a clear conscience, which means I am you know, I don't feel bad about anything I did. Or I have a guilty conscience. Right? But you don't really use conscience when you want to do something bad like I have an evil conscience. Actually, the word for that is you have no conscience. Right? The English literary term for that is you have no conscience at all. So it's a little bit difficult to translate sometimes these things word for word, but part of the nerves the nerves Ella Mara, and the lump sum the woman at least the word
conscious fits. And
also to some extent, Amara actually doesn't fit in and Aloma it fits. But the commanding knifes the word conscience doesn't really fit. So we'll talk about that separately inshallah. Anyhow, when I've seen one master Well, the word Sowell comes from Tasmania. And this has been used, we found this used in just before, just a few things, some ways to take things that are uneven, you have a bunch of things that are uneven, and you organize them and you balance them in a way that it evens out. If you had a scale, right and you had some weight on this side, some weight on this side that's we're somewhere would be that you balanced them in a way that it's perfect. equal weight on both sides,
okay? It's balanced, does we are also means to create something like you know, you're constructing a building, or you're building some some sort of tool or whatever, but you didn't just build it, you balanced it perfectly, and you did all the finishing touches down to the finest detail. It's perfect, it's symmetrical, etc. This is the sphere. Allah asks us to reflect Not only do I want you to reflect on the sun on the knifes, the knifes itself meaning yourself your conscience. But in addition, how remarkably well it has been balanced? And how amazing is the one who balanced it man could be multiple out of Masada again, how remarkable its balance? And how remarkable The one who
balanced it? What kind of attributes must he have the one who balanced this? What's what you know, and this is actually a remarkable, remarkable lesson in the Koran. our conscience is directly something that makes us remember Allah.
And since Allah is the one who gave us our conscience, you know, this, in its definition is coming very soon, we should realize that the one who gave us this conscience is watching what we do with it. So this constant, you know, I feel good, I feel bad, I feel guilty, I don't I think I should have done more. I don't think I should have done that. Etc, etc. You say you felt this. But Ally's teaching you the one who programmed this into you watches what you're doing also, when of similar Massa will have profound reality about the nuts when you think your your inner thoughts know that there's a designer for those inner thoughts, the one who gave you that ability to think in this
fashion, when I've seen one master Wow. Now what is that balance? You know, balance is conflicting things being balanced together, left and right. In many, many cultures, there's this discussion of balance inside the self, the yin and the yang, for example, right? many civilizations talk about these two elements, you know, the animal side and the spiritual side. And it's not just something on in Islamic tradition, but a lot as origin gives us this really profound and deep understanding of this self. By the way, this is the heart of psychology studies. You know, in pre modern society, there was a focus on philosophy. Right? So all these philosophies exist. And of course, philosophy
talks about things that aren't that there aren't tangible. They're they're abstract kinds of things, right. And so you had tons and tons and tons of emphasis on philosophy and philosophical kinds of knowledge, post modern society and post post, you know, industrial society, we became obsessed with science. And when you become obsessed with science, you're not concerned with things that are not tangible. You're only concerned with things that are tangible, that you can touch and feel and measure, right. So when philosophy used to talk about the soul, and the conscience and guilt and all of these things, philosophers have talked about for many, many, many, you know, generations and even
millennia, go to any philosophy, any philosophy from any civilization, they'll talk about these things. So harmony, balance between you know, body and soul, good energy, bad energy, karma, all this Fufu stuff you could call it has always been there in philosophical discourse, but after the
advent of modern society, the society in which we live, there was the shift towards science and tangible things and measurement, right? And because of this, we said, who needs the discussion on the soul? We know that's not scientifically measurable, to see if a person has a soul or not. Right? These aren't measurable quantities. So what did we do? We started studying the human being in scientific kinds of terms, right? And the beginning of that was a shift from philosophy to the new philosophy, which is psychology. Right? The study of the human being used to be around philosophical studies, and now it's in what area psychological studies and it even psychology, in its beginning
was very philosophical in nature, like, you know, if you if you've studied Freud, if you if you were made to take a psychology 101 course, it's a lot of philosophy, his own philosophy on what the human being, you know, what, how he develops his emotions, what the personality is. And later on, there was a shift. There was a shift even in psychology studies and philosophy, you know, the, the way we approach the human being the study of the human being changed. One of the biggest mysteries in modern psychology studies, you know, what it is the definition of what is called personality.
There is no set definition of one thing, personality. There's no definition. Every philosopher has their own definition. What is that? What is the word for personality in the Koran, there are a few terms that make up personality in the Quran, there's the word rule, which Allah Himself calls a mystery. He says cooler Roman amrop be warm. Oh, Tito, mean an enemy in Laconia. kalila. Tell him the rule, I'm not even going to translate is from the commandment of my master, my lord. And you have not been given from knowledge except very little, meaning you're not going to know much about this thing inside of you, which is a part of you, which is rule you don't even not going to know
much. And today we're learning in psychology, we don't have a set definition of what a personality is, what is it. And then other terms that are used in the Koran that make up our personalities, the word is the word knifes that is coming up here. These are really important terms, especially those of you that are interested, and we have a desperate need for it in the Muslim community. You know, Muslim psychologists, and therapists, family psychology, youth psychology, etc. Don't just study, you know, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis, and medical bio psychology, etc. That's being taught in the university today, but also study psychology from the perspective of the Quran. So you have a
real picture of, you know, the one who created knows better what he created. And we're just making theories about it. Just a couple more comments about that, because it's an important subject of our times, I already told you the shift towards science. So there was actually a shift to and this is actually reversing now, but there was a major shift, to reduce the human being to a bunch of chemicals to explain everything that we do, and say and feel to just a bunch of neurons firing in our head, and a bunch of you know, you know, hormones or chemicals that are released in our body. So because of that, that approach to psychology, this medical approach to psychology, what happened
was, Oh, are you feeling depressed? Take this pill. Do you feel guilty? A lot, take this pill. Right? Do you feel sad, here's a pill for that too. Right? And you know, they'll, they'll run through the, the side effects very, may make you suicidal may make you kill your neighbor, etc, etc. They'll read that really, really fast and the commercial, right? But the idea is to reduce to not acknowledge the existence of something more than just chemicals, reduce the human being to just these bodily fluids and these electrical signals. That's it, that's all we are. Right? Because the human the effort now is to only look at what you can see and not look at what you cannot see. But
this knifes is a mysterious thing Allah gave it to us inside of us. And it's not something physical, right? The human being is made up of physical and, you know, intangible, tangible and intangible that cannot be touched, cannot be filled, you can put it inside a jar, it's not something like that. It is from the armor of Allah, the body is something physical. And you know, the analogy that like he commented a lot parallels the knifes with the body, just like you parallel the sun with light. Because light you know, you don't touch it. Right, but the sun is something tangible in and of itself. So he talks about these these two things being fused together. Anyhow, so Allah says when
I've seen one Massawa and how amazingly well he balanced it now of course, the balances there's inclination towards good inside us and there's inclination towards evil inside us balance that's been talked about it the other night, they talked about it at length. For example, Lucy Rahim Allah says remarkable things on this subject. We the human beings want to learn as always You created us when He created us, he created the the clay, and he blew into it the rule and the clay that he created the soil we were created from material that belongs to this earth. You could call it organic matter nowadays, right? What are the things that we desire in this world? All of them come from the
earth, right we desire companionship, well food etc shelter
All the things come from this earth, we were created from this material and all of our needs and desires are also made of this material. Okay. But then there was something put inside of us that is not this material,
something was put inside of us that came from the armor of Allah through through, it is not from this material. Now the body feels hungry, and the food comes from where the earth because the body is also from the earth. But then Allah put inside it, but also has not from the earth. It came directly from Allah and it also feels hungry. And when the room feels hungry, where does it food has to come from? What's the only food that will satisfy it, the only food that will satisfy it is that comes from Revelation. Right. So this is a profound philosophical, if you will, reality of the human being, we're made up of two things. And these two things are in conflict like night and day. These
two things are in conflict, like the sun and the moon, they're very different things. The body wants its own things, and the roof wants its own things and they're pulling the human being in two opposite directions. They're pulling the human being in two opposite directions. Now, traditionally, there have been societies have imbalance, one imbalance, one imbalance is a society that is completely immersed in pleasing itself.
Or their whole concern is what the body or the rule I won't even say soul, the body or the rule, their concern becomes the body. How do you beautify it? How do you give it more luxury? How do you please it more? How do you give it more fame, etc, etc, etc. And as when this balance occurs and you're overfeeding one, what are you doing to the other is starving it and choking it, you're killing it. And on the other hand, there was another extreme, for example, in the Christian tradition, especially the Catholic tradition of monasticism, right and becoming monks, what you do is the body is evil, its desires are evil, we're not going to get married, we're not going to wear
comfortable clothes, we're going to keep ourselves in pain, right? This has even happened in Muslim tradition, some of the aroma they would wear, or I don't know if you'd call them, but they would wear really uncomfortable clothes that would like you know, like cause irritation on the skin. And they would say this is because we don't want any pleasures of this dunya I guess the heart was in the right place, but it was a little too far and the
imbalance, imbalance right to these two extreme imbalances. One directed completely towards the body, the other completely directed towards the soul. But Allah made us have two things. He made us have two things, which means he expects from us to give justice to what, two things which is why while Allah talks about the obligations we have to our role. He also says while I attend Santa see by kameena dunia Don't forget your portion from where this world worldly life also the obligations you owe in this world and the obligation the rights that are owed to you Don't forget them either. So where this composite of two things with this composite of two things. Now if I had a like a
chart, I give you a little bit of a diagram, I want to paint this picture because this is one of the most important places in the Quran with this picture should be painted.
You know at the center of the discussion of Iman and Kufa is the world called heart. That's the word that's at the center of this discussion and all of the Quran. And Allah says that the Quran is the location and I'm talking about the Quranic version of human personality now Okay, that's why I'm bringing this up. At this at this location. Allah mentions a few things he mentioned his diseases, right diseases that are in the heart, Sophie pulumi him Morocco, right that's mentioned also in this heart they're also mentioned desires, desires, fears are mentioned here. Love is mentioned here, right hate is mentioned here. Anger is mentioned here jealousy is mentioned here. So emotions are
also mentioned associated with the heart. diseases are mentioned with the heart emotions are mentioned with the heart. Faith is mentioned with the heart. Eamon was the yenna who flew back home he purify the mind in your hearts. When Allah mentions Iman and Cofer and people refuse to believe Allah says their hearts have become hard for Mikasa kulu bukem hearts have become hard. So imagine cofre is inside the heart. desires are inside the heart, emotions are inside the heart diseases are inside this is really the center, this is the center. Now what are the things that affect this heart? This heart has you could say it has two influences. Two influences. One influence is from the
needs of the body. And the other is the needs of what? The soul, right? If it listens to the body the whole time, what happens to the heart, it becomes a heart.
If it listens to the soul the whole time it is doing injustice to its body. There's another imbalance. There's another imbalance. Now, what influences these two influences that are trying to win over this heart, the heart is the territory and you have to share this authority right this is the castle
You want to win over and both of these sides are fighting inside of us, right? How do they both advertise to the heart? Allah azza wa jal mentioned in our last solo ad, hearing and listening, hearing, listening and seeing. And then he mentioned the heart. So how does the message of the world the bodily desires, how do they enter us? How do they reach us? Either we see what we desire or we hear about what we desire, and how does the needs of the rule How do they reach us? We see the truth and we hear the truth, right. So these two mediums are the ones by which the truth is coming to us. Also falsehood is coming through us to us. Now revelation is called light. Revelation is called
light. Eman is also called light. There's a light inside of us, which is the fifth law the law created us with and there is the light of Revelation. When you hear the revelation. It's like you know, even though it's hearing the images out of light entering inside of you, Revelation is light so light has entered inside of you and what's already inside. If you are a good person, you're fertilise, stolen, intact. Light is inside of you. So when these two lights come into context, little neural describes it and it says neuron Allah, no light upon light, the light of Revelation, and the light of goodness that's already inside of you inside your heart, right these are the two
lights that are meeting. Now, in describing this conflict. The word for the Quran is nurse, this conflict that we just talked about, the word that describes the conflict is the knifes the knifes is being pulled in two directions. When it goes too far in one direction it starts feeling bad, it starts feeling bad. So it becomes unnecessarily a blameworthiness the guiltiness then it pulls itself back and makes no binary stefarr and returns to balance and what does it become again? enough's and multiple in the tranquil conscience, the conscience at ease the conscience at ease, but it doesn't it never stays that way. It's constantly being pulled towards the direction of the body.
Now what are we what are we exposed to more the RV being is more of the desires of our body being advertised to us or more the needs of our soul are being provided to us. Obviously the body the dunya is bombarding us constantly right. So as I mentioned enough's ammara Okay, enough Salah American bisou no doubt enough it commands to evil the way a lot captures this, that in this surah It's incredible. He says for Al Hama ha then he pleased inside the nurse put it some put something inside its heart ill ham is to put a feeling in your heart that is more certain than fact. You know, in English literature, we call it a gut feeling. That's what that is. It is a gut feeling. I just
know that it's right I just don't we have to take a left for sure. You know how you're really really sure sometimes that's ill ham. And this is a word used more generally than what he what he can be used for animals or human beings alive and uses for the be our Highlander. But in ham is only used for creatures of intellect when they become firm about something and alleged telling us that he put something inside of us that is this. This is a gift from Allah xojo What is this in ham? Fujiwara ha ha taqwa is amazing.
He says food you He gave it he gave it a clear conscience a clear understanding of its food your food your literally comes from budget, which is to rip and tear open. It is used like a budget is the one who rebels against a line the worst possible way in the worst possible way. So food your means the understanding of what is clearly rebellious to Allah.
But alight it doesn't even say for Alabama health fujimura he says Fujiwara ha the future of the rebellion. This excessive this this violent and completely obnoxious disregard of the knifes meaning Allah made the knifes aware that it has an evil inclination inside it. It has something inside it that has the capability of Fujio. It's already pre programmed inside, that it has that potential. And Allah made it aware that our potential is there. And when it heads in that direction, there's this alarm system that goes off, you're headed in the wrong direction. That's the guilty conscience. That's the inherent that alleged talking about that when the human being does something wrong, even
if they haven't studied revelation, even if they're Christian or Jewish or atheist or agnostic or whatever, when they're about to steal, something goes off inside. Something tells them This isn't right. And something and they have to shut themselves up. Basically, they have to stop listening to themselves. You know, cartoonists used to do this. Right cartoonists, they're depicting this guy's about to go kill somebody, and this and this guy comes up and says don't do it. The other guy comes up and says Just do it. And one guy beats up the other guy and he does it. Tom and Jerry used to do this, right? But these are illustrations even in contemporary culture of the same concept that Allah
made the human being aware of
Inside of himself that something is wrong. And you know why this is so important? Because for the Muslim for the Muslim when we know we're doing something wrong, the first place we find out we're doing something wrong is ourselves. And when we do it anyway, we feel uncomfortable. And when we feel uncomfortable, we go to the mom and say, is this really harm this thing? If somebody does it? They don't say I did it. What do you say, if somebody did that? Is that really harm? And the mom says, yep, that's pretty much around, then you feel even more uncomfortable. So you go to somebody else and say, is this really haram? And they say, there may be other opinions and you feel a little
better. Then you start googling it until you find somebody who tells you it's head on and your conscience is at ease. But your first fatwa was not given by somebody else. Where was it given? Your your own and that's why you weren't asked. You weren't asking around because you felt something inside. So this is Fujiwara Ha. And then what taqwa Allah gave Allah azza wa jal gave this human being he inclined in him the ability or the the consciousness, the awareness, to protect itself. taqwa taqwa literally means protection and precaution. Actually, the root origin of the word is amazing, it is to to is to protect yourself from something bad, so that you're staying away from the
bad thing and from the punishment that will come as a result. So you're protecting yourself from two things becoming bad and getting punished. That is taqwa, actually, and we constantly translated as fear. But fear is an implication of Karnataka itself. Fears because you're afraid of doing something bad and you're afraid of getting punished when you save yourself from it, but literally requires protecting yourself. So Allah says, Be inspired inside the human being, recognition of evil fujimura this evil rebellion against Allah. And by the way fooled by necess. necessity means rebellion against an authority, you're violating something that was already placed. So in the word food, you
were already learning the nuts knows that there is an authority above. The guilty conscience in and of itself is a proof that there's a master there's a lord, because why would you feel bad anyway? You know, people atheist and stuff, even they say I feel bad. So even their conscience is telling them there's a master who can make you feel that way. So a lot that's going on psychology. And then what taqwa and the urge to protect itself and to protect its knifes and to keep that balance, let's read something from a seed and shallow Tara. That is written by Ashoka. Annunaki mohalla in regards to Alabama, Georgia hahahahaha before we take a break for the military, what time is the moderator
by the way? Oh, 45 we got some time. Okay. I Rafa. So he says for Alabama foodora have a taco ha ha ha, ha ha ha ha Allahumma. He made the human being thoroughly aware and he made him clearly recognize the two states. Both of those states have it was Murphy Mammon and Houston welcome and he rigged made the human being realize the beauty in taqwa. And the ugliness in men the ugliness in in rebelling against Allah and the beauty and protecting yourself. While Rafael preconfigure Mujahid says he made him realize the path of evil, meaning it's the ultimate evil, but he made the human being realize if I take this first step, it'll lead to a step worse and worse and worse, until I end
up in the worst state. So you know how people say sometimes to ease their conscience, what I did wasn't that bad. At least I didn't kill anyone. Right? People say make excuses like that meaning in order to justify their bad behavior, they compare themselves to someone much worse. It's not like I robbed a bank or something. It's just rebel, etc. Right? So what do you do is you compare yourself to worse, but in your conscience, the fact that you said that you know that this is leading to worse, meaning you do something a little bit bad and you let the crack open and some comes through and more is bound to happen and the cracks going to start getting bigger and bigger until the dam is
broken and the floodwaters come through Subhana Allah. This is why Allah protects the believers when he says oh loofahs silica, fatten enter into the fold of Assam totally. Don't let any cracks because even a little bit of crack what's going to happen over time, it's going to get bigger and bigger and bigger. This is the human being recognizes this for Alabama for Georgia. What taqwa and finally we find out for saying for Alabama whoa for Alabama Houma. Oh, actually, yeah, for Alabama Houma buddy arafa hyperikon Hi, what are you sure, this is what I meant to say? That he made him realize the path of good and the path of evil. Allah did not say good and evil, though. It's, that's how it's
been interpreted, and we understand it that way. What he said was, he made him realize it's rebellion. It's worse disobedience and its protection and how to protect itself. So at the end of the day, it's not about good. I didn't say alcohol was shot. It's not about good and evil. What is it about protecting our own selves? This is the reality of the knifes the knifes is that this benevolent creature that wants to do good beyond itself. It's first and foremost priority its instinct is to benefit
itself. This is why a lot as always, let us know if you're the best of people even in a centum even if you excel
Sent only unfussy comm you're only excelling for who? yourselves yourselves. In modern ethics, there's this idea of I don't need a heaven and hell to tell me what's good and bad. I'm pretty good. In and of myself, I can do good things. You know, even an atheist and whatever it can do good things and giving charity and all of that stuff. Why though? Why do they do that? Because in the end who feels good?
they themselves do it's something for their own knifes that they do. It's something to ease their own conscience upon Allah. So now,
in the previous surah, we found Allah gave us lots of abilities. alumna Jalla whining, Wali Sano Masha fighting, right, didn't we give him two eyes? Didn't we given you know a tongue and two lips, right? And now in this surah we're learning if your enough's is in the right place, you will use those eyes for the right things and you use your tongue and lip for those the right things. But if that knifes is deviated, and there's an imbalance, what's going to happen? Those same gifts that Allah gave you are going to be misused. And so when they are misused, you won't go the right way. In the previous slide, we found what
we showed him, we guided him clearly the two pathways and in this surah Tafseer of that, what are those two pathways for Jura Hawa taqwa, those two those are the two pathways either the rebellion against Allah or the protection. Yes. I thought it was 45
Okay, so inshallah Allah will stop at this point and we'll take a break. And when we come back at the level of complete our study of sort of the chumps barakallahu li walakum salaam alaikum