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Nouman Ali Khan

Channel: Nouman Ali Khan


Episode Notes

Quran Tafsir/Explanation – Juz Amma

Episode Transcript

© No part of this transcript may be copied or referenced or transmitted in any way whatsoever. Transcripts are auto-generated and thus will be be inaccurate. We are working on a system to allow volunteers to edit transcripts in a controlled system.

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To download more lectures, learn more about our project and to help support it. Visit www.bayona.com slash dream. That's ba y, y i and H slash dream. You are free to share these recordings with family and friends. Thank you and Jacomo hydron for helping us make our dream a reality. And 100 Allah wa salatu salam ala rasulillah salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato. We're continuing with the 10th ayah of social credit well had a nice day.

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First and foremost, inshallah we let's look at a hadith that is quoted in the seat of the Surah Al Bukhari Rahim Allah. Yeah, yohannes haleema

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Allah wa kafa hieromonk nakazato Allah. Yeah, yohannes in NEMA, who manage then negitive hierin when there's too sharp manager knows the Shangri La community. Hi beautiful Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu Sallam rushed towards your Lord people. Because certainly that which is little and enough is better than what is in plenty, but this deludes you and deceives you and distracts you people listen up, no doubt there are only two paths the path of good or the path, the high path leading to good and the high path leading to evil than what has made the evil path more beloved to you or the path of fulfilled with harm more beloved to you than the path leading to good. Now in that context

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and Shannon Tyler let's look at the language of the Iowa hi Dana.

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The word hadda in Arabic is to guide someone and by Allah says Allah has guided us to two paths. The again the majority to seat of the infp unanimous but majority of seat of the eye is this is the path of good and evil. This has been illustrated in other places in the Quran. For example, when a large soldier says gotta be in a rush to Middle High. You know, the the straight or the right way has been clearly identified from the wrong one. Or for example, we're going to be reading later on in the same hour of the Quran. Allah Maha Fujiwara Hauer taqwa has two implications. What the what the implication here is that Allah guided along two paths are guided we guided him

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to two paths means we clearly showed him the right and the wrong. It's not like you know, and by the way, McCann Quran early on, talks a lot about universal goods. Things that, you know, for example, we're gonna read in this surah. In the previous one also, we read about taking care of the orphan which society has a problem with that, or sees that that's an evil everybody knows that's a good thing, right? Or taking giving to the needy giving to the poor, charity, rights of neighbor, etc, etc. These are the sorts of things that are talked about in early mechnical on a universal sense of morality. So before we talk about the finer details of the deen in the dollar of the messenger

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sallallahu sallam, very few, little to nothing of Sharia. As we know it is mentioned in mechanical Ron, very few things. On one or two occasions, there's mention of foods that are permissible. On one occasion, specifically, as mentioned of Riba,

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right, but outside of that, pretty much you have these these general moral principles that anybody can relate to, that anybody can relate with even the most raccoon of the Arabs, who did not have any exposure to revolution before. They're not like the people of the book that know about a book and know about law and you know, divine law and commandments, they have no idea, they have no background in these things. But even they could relate to certain things as being good and evil. And those are the things that are highlighted in mechanik are on this call to Universal ethics and goodness. Okay. Now with that in mind, it's it. And this is actually something a lot pre programmed inside the human

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being, this is in our fifth law. So killing is wrong is something that that's part of human nature, right? And this actually,

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this is a subject in social psychology, and in other areas of psychology, the subject matter of morality. Philosophers try to deal with the subject of right and wrong, right, what is right and what is wrong by means of rationality. But psychologists interestingly, try to study the subject matter of right and wrong. How do human beings develop this stuff from a philosophical point of view, but from maybe their environment, or their genetics and things like that? And there's some really interesting findings, that you know, that we've known all along that these are pre programmed inside of us, right? There's actually now a good amount of evidence that, for example, being averse

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to lying, for instance, is one evil, that every society says lying is bad, pretty much there's no society that says, hey, you're a liar. We'd love you, that doesn't happen, right. So lying is looked at as almost across the board universal wrong. And studies have shown basically, that when somebody engages in a lie, that this is these are studies that are in social psychology when somebody engages in a lie for the first time, not like a professional liar, like a politician, or a professional liar. Liar, like an actor.

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By talking about a liar who's not usually lying, when they lie for the first time, you know what happens? The you know, blood pressure increases, the hair on the skin rises, the pitch of the voice goes up out of their control. But these are physiological things. But lying is not a physiological act, you're not putting your hand on a fire or touching ice or something like that. It's a psychological thing. It's all in your head. So why is something abstract leading to these physical consequences? And basically I asked my professor this when I was studying social psychology and what he told me, he told me the human being wasn't programmed to lie as best we can say. Right? That's

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that's what my agnostic non Muslim Professor tells me about lying. Human beings are not programmed to line What do we know about the fifth law better than Clyde's towards the truth? Right? So let's show the two pads. What are they now? The thing in the language here are a couple of things. Just like in the Fatiha there is no preposition we find in the Fatiha ad now Serato Mr. Payne, we don't find a denial either. A denial is Serato stalking there's no law there's no law. There's no preposition. Other places in the Quran with the verb of guidance whether there is a preposition with him either. So are clauses in Hamid? Yeah, the University Allah is used Alhamdulillah Hilary, hi,

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Donna Lee have prepositions are used. But here there's no preposition. What are they now Who? There's no imminent danger? Or limits then, but they're just straight match, then? Now the removal of prepositions does something linguistically, it actually makes this the phrase more comprehensive and carry more meaning. So one meaning, of course, is we guided him to the word to I'm using in translation, two pathways, two pathways, but it actually also at the same time means we guided him along two pathways. And that's very important. The path of good when somebody takes that path, you know, what, what does, Allah facilitates that path for them and guide them along that path? And when

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somebody decides to take the path of evil, what does Allah do for him? Well, you

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know, when he tells us himself, we extend for them in their rebellion, so they can go further blind, they can keep going further in their blindness. So a level that just guide you to it but also guide you along it, you've directed your you've chosen your career, a level of facilitated for you and get you enhanced in your career, whether it's good or evil Sophiatown you want to be bad, let's see how bad you can get open that door for him. Right. So this is this is really the concept that's been illustrated here, we'll have a new one. Now a little bit about the word magic, it means a mountain that has no vegetation, or trees is bare rock, okay. And in it, there's a clear path that is leading

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up knowledge dangerous two paths, right. So in the vision, the image that's presented in the eye is of a person at the foot of a hill. And in front of him, there's these two rain, these two pads that are leading right and left, but there are two pads and Allah has clearly shown this path leads to this. And this path leads to that. Now, the thing to understand is, these two pads are right in front of you. They're clear, they're heading both do they involve climbing upwards? Does it involve labor anyway? Right, whether you go up the right way, or the left way, is still involves labor. And that's already been taught to us in this surah before when Allah said La Casa Latina in Santa Fe.

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Cabot right when human beings created in toil. So now that lesson is being reinforced with a new image, the here's the next thing that's really important to note about this is the word nudging is the general word for mountain. And I'm going to add some things to help you understand the image that's coming. One of these ranges is easy going up. But as you go further up, there's difficulty and the other range is very difficult in the beginning, but once you get a certain path, it becomes easy. So one is easy in the beginning and one is hard in the beginning. One is hard at the end and one is easy at the end. So now you've got these two choices. Right you want easy in the beginning,

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or you want hard in the beginning, right and the human being what does he love to get immediately? ease in the beginning, right? We we love things that come quickly. We don't we want to for as for problems that are concerned, we say we'll deal with it later. Let me just get what I want right now. Right? So now let's have a look. You know, why Dana has named but then he says panagsama and Acaba. aloka is a really interesting word. It is also a word used for a path. It is also were used for path heading up a mountain range. So it's almost synonymous with the word nudge. Except the word acaba means a path that is very difficult to climb. It's very difficult to climb. So first, Allah showed

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us two paths. But then he told us one of these paths isn't just nudged. It's also acaba. It's very difficult and high and you know, it takes a lot of struggle to get through this path. So he says pannacotta hamanaka. Then he didn't jump right into and get involved in Alibaba, and Alibaba. Now the word at hand. Let's look at one word at a time. If the hammer

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In Arabic is to jump into something without giving it any thought. And put yourself in a in a task that will involve a lot, a lot, a lot of work. But you once you jump in, you jumped in, right? You ever been involved in a task that, you know, you say, Yeah, I can do this, right or putting some furniture together or something I'm thinking of putting putting furniture together. Could I just move right? Oh, yeah, I could do this. Right, you get involved. And then it gets difficult. And then you realize that maybe this wasn't such a good idea in the middle of it. Right? So there's you you dive right in without much thought. And then you realize this is actually a lot of work and it's

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exhausting, right? This is actually ham. Allah says the human being didn't jump right away, you know, so enthusiastically into this heavy cliff, I can handle it. He didn't do that. Right. But now the way he says this is in the beginning, the first word in the ayah is la Fela, then after he showed him these two paths, then he did not and the word for not the negation is law. But for the past tense in the Arabic language, which is the word extra Hama is it's past tense. We don't use law. We use Ma. Naka. hamanaka. That's what we were expecting. Okay, the expected grammatical term here was not not it was Ma, la jaqua. haimo. Okay, let me aka him fine. But Nah, kochava it doesn't

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come together normally. And so what this illustrates is a linguistic what, I don't want to call it problem but almost a riddle. There are depths and new layers of meaning that are captured by just one change of a word. One implication of this law is used for something that necessitates that has started in it, meaning there are multiple things that are being negated. But we know if the hammer is just one thing he didn't jump right in is one act. But the word acaba are there multiple things involved in a lacava we'll find later on Sakura Coubertin film in the Moscow birtinya team and Rama Rama miskeen and Mr. McCann Amina Lavina, Amano, whatever. So the sub whatever

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that entire passage that is coming is all an explanation of an aka so according to some of us soon, because there is that there multiple things mentioned here. That's why now is there. So now we'll prepare the listener, that this path had multiple stops and had multiple stops, because that illustrates something that has multiple components, that that's being negated. So now will prepare you for these multiple items that are coming. It's not just one thing. That's one thing. The other thing with law is it's what's called a DA meaning. For example, in Assam Actually, he says that fella here could also be in the meaning of Hana. Why didn't he? Why didn't he just go up the tougher

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path? Why didn't he do so? Why didn't he just jump right in? Meaning did we not give him enough ability? hadn't we given him eyes, two eyes, a tongue? Right? hadn't we guided him clearly to both pads and what one leads to and what the other leads to? He had everything he needed to get on this path. So how can we didn't? So further is actually in the middle in the meaning of the Mazda, the Mazda Miata him?

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How come he didn't just climb up that path? What was missing? So it's almost as though Allah azza wa jal is complaining about the human being who didn't jump right in. And by doing so what is he asking all of us to do? He's asking us he's putting a challenge on us to jump right in to actually engage in the struggle and engage in that climbing of the mount. So for Dr. hamanaka. Now, here, by the way, and because he also among other Muslim comment here today,

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that this path is the path to salvation, it is the path to save oneself. This path will be talked about in brief here, but in full bloom, there's some language at the end of the soda that gives you some clue about the salvation some idea of what you will see when you start reaching the top of this path, but the full picture will be given in salt Lhasa. So the same wording is used here we'll find what the wasabi sobrato wasabi mahama find the complete picture in the Latina or

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whatever so the subject will talk about that when we get to the hospital in Sharla. Now ignore Ariana writes about the next ayah well na Baka acaba in the Quran we find two phrases will not a blocker and also allow you rica when you drink Eureka Eureka is the present tense form my blocker would be what would give you any clue what would you know what would what can you look around you and decipher from and dilute and you know conclude from deduce from that will give you an idea of what Allah Kaaba that highcliffe what what that really means what that really is. Now, the way Allah says that is in the past tense, what would have given you an idea, but sometimes he says what will

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give you an idea what will give you an idea. Now whenever he uses the present tense, which also includes the future tense, he never answers the question. When he uses what will tell you he won't tell you what could have told you, then he'll give you the answer. So whenever you find abraca you find more information. When you find you Rica is the kind of question the answer which you're not going to know

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Allah will not open that door to you. For example, when is the hour coming? Allah will say what will give you a clue when it's coming? He will not want to answer it. Right? When are you legal Allah who has a copy read before? That will give you any clue that perhaps he wants to purify himself, then that human being wants to purify himself? Can anything give us an idea of what's going on inside the heart of another human being? Nothing. All we see are actions. We don't see the intentions of those actions. We assume sincerity but we don't know sincerity, right? We will never know. So you're eager because we're not gonna know. But abraca Allah will teach. Allah will tell you what you could do to

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what could you do to find out what this mount is? And so it's a mercy of Allah that the word Blanca is used? What would give you a clue? Now we're hoping for an answer. Because if we didn't know what this clip is, we would never jump in and climb because we don't even know what that path is. Right. So let's see what are the what are the things that Allah talks about that are part of this path? The first thing that Cora Coubertin Chroma says Actually, he has the only unique opinion about this ayah he says, The literal meaning, by the way, is rescuing someone from slavery. rescuing someone from slavery, that's what that's what the meaning of the expression is. Chroma says it is to free

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yourself from the slavery of sins when making Toba obioma that's what his opinion is on this ayah that actually, the first thing to climb is you're your own boss, and to conquer yourself by means of Dawa. But let's look at the majority to see of the ayah in sha Allah. In Arabic, there are two words for rescuing there's uncover uncover with a dial at the end, right for example of a tomb cumin finau in the Quran. And then there is fatca this this word that we find in this ayah this word is used when you're trying to rescue a slave or somebody out of prison. But um kata is used when you're trying to rescue someone from a fire or from some kind of danger, you pull them out of the way so

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rescuing from bondage, or slavery or prison and then rescuing from danger. Two different kinds of words are used in the Koran. Here, of course, we find the word for slavery. So the first act is being the slave. Now the word for slavery is lacava, which literally means the back of the neck, the back of the neck. Now, you know, holyoake is the neck. And there are other words to illustrate the neck also in the Quran, but specifically at Aqaba is used for the back of the neck, illustrating that there is a chain around the neck of the person. And the link to it is we're in the back. And now if the link was in the front, the master pulls it and you pull forward. But if the link is in

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the back, and the master pulls it, what happens? You get choked. You get choked, you don't get choked when you get pulled forward. But you get choked when you get pulled back. So it's actually illustrating the pain of being a slave. The pain and the the slavery is mentioned in two ways in Islamic literature. One is literal slavery. The other is the slavery of a debt, that your necks are tied in debt, that's also a chokehold on you. Right? So for Krakow, Athens, Pamela, other use other words using the Koran for the neck or watin wakaba G. These words inshallah we'll discuss when we get to them. The other thing to note here is, the first word is not using verbal form, you know, the

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word pacu in Arabic calf calf, the root origin, this word actually being used in the nominal must of form implies you are committed to it. Meaning the first mountain to climb was not one time you free to slave. One time you did this good thing, you're committed to that as a cause. So even in Mexican cron, we find the cause of freeing slaves, you know, how people talk about why does Why does Islam endorse slavery? Right? And that discussion is taken in every direction. The Koran from the very beginning is saying you want to become you want to climb that that right path? What's the first act become committed to freeing the slave become committed to it hardcore committed and so to Newton

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Sharma one day when we get to that sooner, we will I will talk about how systematically and systematically abolished the institution of slavery now,

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or In addition, feeding now, by the way, in the previous slide, we read something very interesting. We read about a person can lead to criminality mulata hamanaka, will miskeen takuna terasse very selfish people. Right. And what's the first act of climbing the mountain you have to become what? selfless so the previous Sula illustrated Why isn't it that you'd climbed up? Didn't you already use an extra 100 pastors you haven't done so what's the proof that you haven't done so has the proof already been given? It's given in the previous surah and now you're being told the exact opposite freeing the slave and fireman fee not just

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not just giving and by the way, they don't even give. They eat themselves what una Tora UCLA llama you eat the wealth that comes to you from the inherited from our monies you didn't earn you love to eat it, but if you love to eat it, you should have a moral

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of giving others to eat, without giving, giving to eat, but then giving to eat when not just giving to eat. That's even that's not enough for young men the masaba in a day that is quantified or identified with this term must cover in Arabic in the Quran specifically for hunger. There are four terms that are used masaba, joueur, navassa, and hasakah. These are four words that are used in the Koran for hunger, specifically, the one that is used here is must cover a syllable. In Arabic expression, which comes from this word means when a nation is hungry because of famine. So Muskoka means widespread hunger. Hunger isn't just limited to the one you're trying to feed, but everyone is

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going hungry, everyone is going hungry, meaning in our expression, we would say bad economic times. So Allah says this mountain to climb, why is it so tough? In the beginning, you have to feed and be committed to feeding because again, there is no there's not a verbal form, I'll use a Muna film and no iMovie I'm in no time when film time is the must have the infinitive form implies it's a timeless commitment. you're committed to the act of feeding, especially in bad economic times for Yeoman, the mastaba, in a day that is known is possessed by this overwhelming hunger that's coming to everybody. Meaning when you're reluctant to give, it's because you yourself are hungry. But Allah is saying, if

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you want to climb this mountain, you have to become a true humanitarian, in the sense that you're even giving preference over yourself in giving to the other. So how Allah Allah has not talked in the sutra, yet about a man. He's not talking about a man. He's not talking about Africa so much. He hasn't talked about this stuff. What's he talking about these ethics and these morals of becoming selfless as a person, you're concerned about the slave? And by the way, some of the good people of Makkah, even before Islam, were they not concerned about some of these things? This is a historical fact. Right. So these are universal ethical humanitarian concerns that are being given precedence in

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this in this context, you know, why? One of the benefits of that the previous surah told us what it could lead to, what did they lead to fact Sophia sofa and facade in the cities they cause corruption, fee high, referring to the cities because corruption in the cities, what is corruption in the cities, it's this slavery and is the oppression of the league it is not giving to the poor, this is oppression. So now in this sutra, it is a response. what's already understood they didn't rebel against the law, because had they rebelled against the law, there would have been facade and what's the counter to that facade what is being mentioned? And this surah so your theme and nakaba

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previous Silva said Kela Bella to criminal your team, your team came up again, it's like a review of the previous lesson. So he says your team and the Makarova feeding the orphan the feeding of an orphan that is that possesses closeness and the word macabre is interesting because it's from what McCann, now then Korba or the will even have closeness, meaning the orphan that is close relative to you. But Makarova doesn't just mean the close relative to you means the one who is in close proximity to you. There are orphans all around your neighborhood. What about them, too. So it captures two things, the orphan in your family that's needy, and the orphan that's in your

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community. What this calls for from the believer is, first of all, you know what happens, you have close relations with your brother. Because you grew up together and you're you know, you're very close. But then your brother lives in a different city, you live in a different city, right? You get a little bit farther apart. And he has children, he sends you pictures of those children, you know, you're attached to them, you love them, but not like you love your brother, because you actually had a meaningful connection. You see those kids once in a while, etc. Right? So now what happens is when mother law that brother passes away, and those children are orphans, you're motivated, you think

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about them, but not so much. Not so much. Because you're more concerned, you were more concerned about your brother than you are about showing this. There's a little bit of a distance between you and them, right. And even actually, in our families, what happens is your niece and nephew, they come up to you come to your home, and they're fighting with your kids, and like oh my god, they're coming. They're coming again next week. Right? So this idea of cousins being a nuisance, right? So what happens is, even in the family when there's some new team, then people tend to overlook, there's a possibility of them overlooking. So a lot calls for that first, not just Yattaman nakaba,

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the one in close proximity meaning close in your family and also close in your neighborhood. The other side, we have to know the uttama the item in our communities, this is actually a very important task of the Muslim and this is something that Allah is saying that even the moral Catholics should be aware of. Even he can relate to this because right now the appeal the discussion is to anencephaly, not to Allah Dena Avenue. This is universal alleged talking to human beings in general here So prior to law, they should be concerned with miskeen and matava. Or the word miskeen comes from mackanin. It's used in many, many

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In the Quran, it's been defined in a couple of different ways. For example, imambara, herbalist for honey says, someone who barely has life essentials to survive, meaning they have no assets, they have no savings. Perhaps they don't even have a home. Some linguists argue, but they're somehow surviving anyway. Like, if you saw them, you would say, How are you surviving? That's a miskeen. Okay, so Allah says miskeen and but then he adds the matava the this needy person is barely surviving person. That is no that is associated possessing dust. And mosquito, not even that, Rob, Natasha. The name here is called me muscaria. What it does is, is completely covered in dust. And

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it's it captures a few things for us. Number one, he's homeless because he was at home, he wouldn't be overwhelmed with dust. Number two, he's going around in search of food. So when you go around what happens to you, you get covered in dust. Number three, his bed is dust. Because when your bed is dust when you sleep on dust you are now when you get up, you're covered in dust, right? So he's dirty, and he's bankrupt. All of these implications are captured when we see his skin and the merkabah. The previous law told us how bad these people are they don't climb that mount. And how did he say what are the how buena alto harmony miskeen forget feeding him, you don't even encourage

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anybody else to feed him. You don't even do that. So that was actually illustrated in the previous slide. And it's being responded to again here. Then Allah says, Can I mean and Athena Avenue there after he became from those who had believed he man has mentioned all the way at the end here, what was mentioned before the freeing of a slave, right Coubertin, giving one a day that is difficult giving to the orphan and the needy that's covered in dust, humanitarian causes. So by saying those of you that see something wrong in society, this is a very profound lesson of the I don't want to say philosophy, but the wisdom of the Quran, profound lesson, those that saw problems in society

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before them, and they could relate to these problems. And we're looking for a solution to these problems. There's only one real solution. Everything else is patchwork, you know, the, you know, you have organizations that will reward them that are trying to feed the needy and the poor and the hungry, etc. Right. And, you know, they say this year, we fed 10,000 orphans. And the next day, they say, we increased our activities. This year, we got to feed 20,000. Or we got to put these many more children. So they're showing you this chart where their progress has gone up, right. But if you compare that progress with the level of hunger in that hunger increase in the world, what will you

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see your your progress is this way, but the progress of the problem is this way. Right? So you made a little progress in helping but the problem is exponentially faster in its growth. So the people who work in humanitarian causes very quickly realize that it's a hopeless cause. They become very, very, you know, disheartened. They're just working, working, working, working, but they will become hope, man, if there's no hope, human beings are just, there's no, there's no helping this. It's just endless. It's just endless, right? So what happens is, a lot of these charities and these organizations, what they do is they don't want to tell you how big the problem is. They say support

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one orphan $1 a day, or what you know, because they don't want you to see the bigger picture. Because if you see the bigger picture, what's going to happen to you, man, this is Forget it, it's too overwhelming. But then, you know, these are the problems of humanity that this is a sad, basically, in humanity that's always been there. The previous surah told us what was the root of that facade. It was a levena bajo fibula, they rebelled, rebelled against

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against Allah and thereby caused corruption. So how do you get rid of the corruption? You can try to help the corruption what's the route that will get rid of the corruption altogether? That is returning back to a man in Allah. So the person has these concerns? The what's that final concern that will lead them away? You see, this is why Allah azza wa jal for example says about the believers he says layer defender who will have whether you MacKinnon the human body helping him

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right that he will establish them in the earth and he will replace for them this is a lost promise to those who believe he will replace for them after their time of fear, a time of peace and safety. Where does he man bring it brings me what is safety. And you know, the surah began by swearing by the city. What's the other attribute of this city will have Paladin? I mean, a man and a man are directly connected to each other. So the real so you turn to Allah and Allah will send Baraka from the sky and a level by means of his reveal justice and his revolution, create a society in which these problems are properly dealt with. Now look, historically speaking, when the Society of a man

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was established, was it not the case that the hungry

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The poor and the team and macabre and the miskeen and de matava, were taken care of think about the rule of law, who was where did that come from that solution? What political theory or, you know, you know, constitution brought that out? What was the root source of that entire situation? That was the man, that was the man. So at the end of this thing, thereafter, what did he become? What was the conclusion? kind of mean and Latina? amanu, he became from those who had actually believed he came to he, man. And then what are some of the sub and then after they became from those who believed? He became from those who believe then they see Can I was singular? Can I was singular, it's not new,

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kind of would have been they became from those who believe. But it says, Can I mean a Latina ama? No, he became, he was now from one, the one who believed, but then immediately, there's a switch to the plural, what are so the sub, it's not what I was on the sub tawassul would have been singular, that also they enjoyed each other meaning, when you become a person of a man, necessarily, you join in the ranks of other believers, you are not in this struggle to help humanity alone. Now you are part of a larger struggle, a communal struggle of believers, this is what's happened to you, by the way, the previous surah hinted towards it. Even in Jelena for the Holy See everybody enter in the

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company of my slaves, even the work of this Deen is in the company of slaves, tawassul, they encouraged each other, the word will see ya is to leave a will or a legacy. Right? The wealthy is to advise and to motivate and to encourage and to counsel one another to advise, motivate, encourage and counsel one another. So now what's happening is these they become believers, but the situation still looks hopeless. So what do they have to do, they have to counsel each other, they have to advise each other, they have to keep each other motivated, motivated to be what the sub, the sub the sub is understood in two ways here, by the way, what a sub mean, it means patience, commitment,

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consistency, and constancy. four things at least, okay, that are in English that are not captured in one word, Arabic sub, but in English, you have to understand four distinct attributes of Saba, those are patients, right? That's the most common translation, consistency, meaning you're doing something but you're doing it consistently, that's sub, okay, then constancy, meaning no matter if it's hard or difficult, you are constant in your commitment and commitment Finally, so your constant and you're committed to whatever that causes. So then joined on each other, and they did whatever they could to encourage and counsel each other to remain constant, to remain constant. The other thing is

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be sober could be hard and fun. In other words, what it could be, it is with commitment that they keep canceling each other. So once again, in simple language, I'll say two things. They cancel each other to commit to patience and perseverance and commitment. And it is with commitment and consistency that they continuously counsel each each other. These are the two implications of what are called the sub y a sub because this task of climbing this hill is difficult, isn't it? That's already captured in the word Alaska. So you might start losing hope. So there has to be someone else that says, Come on, come on, you can do this a little more to go. Come on, we can handle this. We'll

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help each other. This is the last episode. Now in the in the passage, that's the context of the Iet. Let's look at one more thing. The things that we were told that are the uphill climb among the humanitarian causes. Why is it that the kuffaar were not inclined to do so because they were greedy. They didn't have patience, to you know, to, they didn't have the self restraint, to not take the wealth for themselves that kulula Tora la buena Allah Tommy miskeen these were their problems. So what's the first thing they have to be told you have to be patient and part of patience is you restrain the desires of yourself for the sake of another it takes some time, so that he becomes one

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of several really after he has the man, then what our soul will not have a beautiful word. The word Mohammed doesn't just mean mercy that is the word Rama. Rama means mercy. They enjoined each other encouraged each other and counseled each other. For the sake of you know, universal mercy. mahama means mercy that goes in every direction mean muscle, it makes it powerful mercy for everyone and everything. So what is the ultimate mercy in this surah it is a man number one that is the ultimate mercy and if you have that mercy, now you'll have concern for humanity and I want to tie these two things together and shout out on the decent human being that listen is listening to this call for

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human concern is concerned about the welfare of other people. Isn't that the case? What's the ultimate welfare for another human being? You fed him today and tomorrow and took care of him? But what if he still ended up in the Hellfire? What if he became from us how much am I better be mentioned at the end of the surah that's not mercy enough. What is real mercy? You take care of their needs today and you take care of their needs for tomorrow that day will where some of them will be seeing you

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It comes down to the hierarchy you feed them for that day to you give them the food they will need to survive then also, so that is not hammer real. It's not just immediate mercy. It's this profound universal mercy that they encourage each other to win equals horrible maimana. Those are in fact the people on the far well off to the right as heavily I mean to the right, as many men are far to the right meaning they're safe from the center and going tipping the other way. They really are, you know, and safe on the right path. soprano lamella makers from us having a beautiful contrast between this in the previous saw in the previous Robbie found what he might even be jahannam Yama is in San

00:35:39--> 00:35:44

Juan de la creme de la casa de for Yama in the US

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who had whether you think Osaka had and then yeah.

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I mean, the people of Hellfire were mentioned first, and the people of Paradise are mentioned. Second, in this surah what happens the reverse, the people of Hellfire are mentioned second, but the people of Paradise are mentioned. First there's a reversal. Similarly, in the previous surah, we found in this sort of weather we found the theme first and the miskeen second theme first and miskeen second in the previous solar we found miskeen first and your team second. So there's this, you know, flipping of sequences between this surah and the next. Also the end of that surah the end of that surah was Jana, and the end of this surah is now is Hellfire, as we will see. Okay, so when

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levena cafaro, the ayah Tina, Emma, and those who disbelieved in our miraculous signs, this believed in Revelation, there was no discussion of revelation in the whole surah.

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Most of the surah was talking about Allah Kava, which was humanitarian work and then this little mention of the man, but then the problem, the root problem of all of this is what go for

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this belief in the miraculous signs of a lot what are the Ayat of Allah Come on, go for any man. Go for in the Quran means go for in the Messenger of Allah sallallahu sallam. So actually now we are getting the definition of a man in the previous solar. You know when you think of the man the first thing that comes to mind is a man and Allah, He man and Allah. But this surah is highlighting another he man he man and the revelations of Allah. Eman in the revelations of Allah. Because the revelation of Allah is real guidance to solving the problems of humanity, that Notre Dame, right, that guidance. So those who disbelieve in this guidance, they are imperfect, they will fall they

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will continue to have facade in the land. So when levena cafaro, the ayah Tina, those who disbelieved in our miraculous signs, I don't. I commonly don't translate Ayah as verse, and I don't translate his verse because it has nothing to do with verse, the word verse in English literature is used either for poetry, or it's used in the biblical context, verses of the Bible or verses of poetry or verses of a song, the Quran emphatically declares that it has nothing to do with poetry. It's very strong, insane. Well, my alumna, balmaha, because it's very strong in saying that, so I don't want an English listener to have even the most subtle hint in their mind that it has something

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to do with verse, as in poetry. The second thing, the Quran, you know, claims against, you know, is that, you know, the claim made against the Koran was that it's plagiarized from the Bible. So the last thing you want people to think about when we're thinking about Quran is why the Bible or what comes to mind when you hear the word verse, so you know, verses of the Bible, that's a biblical connotation comes to mind. So when we're translating, not only do we have to be careful about the words, but the messages those words send to the audience, right? And what connotations they have. The word AI in the Quran is two things. It's a sign and it's a miracle. Two things so I like the

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translation miraculous sign below them. It's used in the sense of the miraculous birth of Elisa Elisa Lam, or the staff turning into a Python etc, if that's an ayah, okay, Revelation is called is something that points to the oneness of Allah is also called an ayah. So the creations of a lot also called ayat, because they point to the oneness of Allah and you reflect on them. So those who disbelieved in our miraculous signs, the ayah Tina, Homer's Hubble machinima, those are the people associated with the curse and mesh ama the overwhelming curse, a chatroom in Arabic is to be to be vile to be disgusted, you know, to other people are disgusted with you and you are a source of curse

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people stay away from you. Also, the word mesh also means the left side because the Arabs considered the left side occurs inside and that's something continued in the tradition of Islam in for example, in politics cetera we use the left but in good things we use the right hand and this is the Sunnah of the messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. One last comment about the scaffold the iottie. Now before we go further, what are the Ayat of Allah? There are two kinds. There are two kinds. Essentially there's revelation and there is creation. The revelation is Koran. And the creation is all of the creation. Now when we talked about this

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disbelieve, being in the revelations of a law meaning the Quran, but there's also suffering the other Ayat of Allah, what's the other eye out of Allah, the human being and all the other creation. Speaking of these ayah, Allah says saluti him iottie nephele FLP Wolfie unfussy him had better be and Allahumma nohoch, we will show them our miraculous signs in the horizons and even inside of themselves, until they are actually it is absolutely clear to them that that is the truth, that this is the truth. So there are miraculous signs inside of us if we reflect. And there are miraculous signs outside of us. If we reflect and then there are miraculous signs inside the revelation of

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Allah itself. Are there miraculous signs of you know how Allah looks inside the psyche of the human being in the beginning of the surah? And he tells the human being, even what he is thinking without even seeing it? You know, it's one thing for the Messenger of Allah sallallahu, I need to know what the person said, How is he going to know what the person thinks? If

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does he think no one will have control? Does he think no one saw him? Now the person is thinking, nobody's gonna control me. Nobody saw me a lot tells him what he what he's even thinking. So there is a miraculous sign even inside of his in his thought Illa captured that in His revelation Subhanallah even that they deny. So they're the ultimately curse, they're refusing to reflect. They're refusing to think they're refusing concern. And really, that's the bottom line of this sort of from the previous one. The people who will have the easiest transition to a man are people that are decent human beings that are not engulfed in self pleasure, that have concern for humanity. And

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that concern will lead them to the ultimate concern, and that's a man. That's even that's the logic that is being presented here. And the sooner beautifully, finally, I lay him out on that, and this is an amazing balance of the Quran. When Allah spoke about the people of the right hand, he did not mention Jana. He did not mention Jenna, right? But when he spoke about the people of the curse people he mentioned Hellfire, he added something for the people of the Hellfire, why the entire surah is essentially a surah of [???]. And you know tough words are used like a savonia Rahim Allah he would say there's every soldier has a Joe has a climate. Every solar has a climate. And the

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climate of the sewer is very tough. It begins with law a tough word, right? Then there's words like a lacava match deign to hammer, the climate of the soda is very it has a lot of [???] that in it. So even the people of Paradise a little bit as mentioned about them but more is mentioned about the people of Hellfire but if you look at the previous solar what was given more emphasis, the ending emphasize more so the people of Paradise it's sort of a balance between these two souls that has been reached. So Allah says it him it is exclusively and especially upon them now on Masada, a fire that has been sealed up and was the hot mushy in a shaman kata says once it is to feel something on

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top of it with another thing outside. For example, you will say I placed a lid on the stew you know when the stew starts boiling and the steam starts coming up. You put a lid on it so the steam doesn't escape. That is Isa Allah says I lay him now on Saba

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is only upon them will be there will be a fire that is completely covered meaning the heat doesn't escape you know the heat of the fire doesn't escape it goes in further intensifies what is inside Subhanallah similarly in Arabic expression when you say outside the lab it means he locked the door when there were no other escapes either. Like if a room had Windows you can get out of then you won't say also the lab you just say Allah Allah callback right but you won't say also that also though there's no other escape right so let's Is it him now? upon them exclusively upon them is a fire from which there is no escape Subhan Allah now I'd like to inshallah Allah conclude, with some

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commentary from some glimpses of commentary from father Saleh assembled by Iraqi mala, who consistently connects the conclusions and the beginnings of sutras and talks about the intricate intricate relationship between them. He argues in the beginning of the surah, we found nakahara plant in South Africa, but we know that we created the human being in toil, but that toil is for this lunia and if he doesn't do the right thing, there's a far worse toil coming at the end. So the surah ends I lay him now on most of the attires that toil of this world, if you don't do the right kind of toil, you end up in much worse toil in the end, which is closed off it only gets worse and

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worse and worse. May Allah azza wa jal protect us from the the flame of the fire metalizer which enters directly into agenda and not even have a CEO with an a draft of the hellfire. barakallahu li walakum and Hakeem when a family with El Camino Kima salaam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.