Channel: Jamal Badawi
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Assalamu alaikum Peace be on June, we're back for another programmer Burslem focus program. We're continuing our series dealing with the sources of Islam. Today we're having our first program dealing with the authenticity of the crown. I'm your host, Tom machine. And I have joined in the program as usual, Dr. Tim Hardaway of segments University
assalamu Aleikum, Ronnie
is our fashion. But I haven't perhaps very quickly summarize the main points that we touched on in our program last week. Okay. Well, after the discussion of the preservation of the Quran during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad peace weapon, which was the first phase of preservation, we discussed briefly, some of the circumstances which led to a blowback, the first came before successors to the Prophet, to complain, what has already been written from the Quran during the days of the prophet in one volume, after Of course, the encouragement and suggestion on the companions that took place almost less than two years after the death of Mohammed
discussed the reason why
the son of said it was particularly
commissioned to have this kind of task. And we said that his mandate did not include writing anything that was not a regulation in the lifetime of the Prophet. So what he did was simply to compile it together with the witnesses of people both from and when I was as well as those who have written manuscripts.
It was also indicated that that
task went quite smoothly, and he did not face any problem in tracing everything that was written for the entire Quran. And then we started talking about the beginning of the three
which was literally writing the Quran or comparing the Quran as what happened during the days of the prophet or the days of combobox. But rather, the copying
of the Quran after verifications and making various cutters to be sent to different parts of the Western world, in accordance with another British recitation of Quran in which the Quran was actually originally
copying was cutting in conformity with the original manuscripts, which were connected in the days of Abu Bakar, the first successor to to the Prophet The church was mainly to bring people in from the regiment crush height
model expression, what information do we have regarding these copies and and where they were sent? What the history
is telling them at least at four copies, Samsung find some say as much as seven. But the four places where abouts come in agreement.
The places where copies of this
original copy from the original manuscript were sent include Medina, which one besito in Caliphate,
Basra and Kasia both of them are in what is now rock
solid, let us say there are some other reports that there were additional copies also sent to women.
this is basically the information you have on the satellites. There were four copies on the cautious side.
These are your manuscripts and we'll just be discussing Are they still in existence today? Well, as well as the original manuscripts which was written at the time of the Prophet peace be upon him which was kept
under a buck
hazzan his wife.
This was set to have been returned back to have some the life of the Prophet that's after his death of course.
During the reign of us man, the third
pastor, it was used to verify the
The second, the second copying of the copies that was sent to different countries as to what happened to that copy, but our two reports narrated in October. And the first one is just check
that it was washed or and after
the proper diet, my best again would be in the chain because it was already copied in seven
copies. Another report say that it was probably burnt during the milling of marijuana.
Much whichever report is bearish, and doesn't matter because the couples that were sent to different parts of the Muslim world were checked carefully, verse by verse in the word identical, in fact with the original manuscript,
but as well as the the four or seven couples that Osman, the third clinic, sent out there was a report narrated by ethnic Association. And an interesting to note is that that report was 700 years after the death of the Prophet, because it was done in over 774. From what should be about 750 years after the death of the Prophet that he saw a copy that he believed was the copy from the original
copy the timeless man
which was at a time when he hired which he thought would be canon Hi, it looks like come and hide in the masjid mosque in Damascus.
schiffman now in his book,
runners, you know, studies in the sciences of Quran which was published in 1976 motion that there are reports also that the the copy that was in Syria or Damascus ended up for some time in Leningrad in the library of Leningrad in a certain period. And then it was taken to Britain. This is an interesting method that requires further research.
there seem to be two manuscripts, the old ones, which are beloved by scholars to date back to the time
the Fed can get from this original four that were sent out
in Istanbul, Turkey,
and it was said that they still have some notes from the blood of a swan because massman was certainly not owned by the Romans while reciting the Quran. There are some people that
reported to me person when they have seen that in the Istanbul museum.
There is another cookie,
which is really Masterson in Tashkent, Russia.
I have seen myself a recent publication by a group called Hyderabad times,
which is actually a Xerox copy of
photographs on this original manuscripts. And actually, it shows that even in the old scripts, which didn't have the dots, and side by side, they published also the text that we have to go in our hands. And it's interesting to note is that they are identical.
A few passages
from that copy in Tashkent, don't just include that whenever you stop or begin, even in the middle of a verse, you find that identical to what what we have in our hands today. You see, my point is
I'm trying to be 100% of the manuscripts because whatever mistakes or stuff, for example, if humans are missing from the Tashkent manuscript, and you start from the third, when you compare it with the copy of the Quran that you have today, is identical, which absolutely shows that it is identical and that all the copies that you have today, were just
as this copy that goes back to those of us man, which in turn, were copied from the original manuscript written from the mouth of the Prophet, which was available at the time of the Prophet.
Just because of the age and the wear and tear on the manuscript for me, it could be that it could be that somebody
tried to take some parchment or something. I don't want the reasons for this.
word for word.
People can burn any copy which didn't
confirm with or wasn't consistent with the original manuscript. Can we infer from that there
different plans or different versions of the current existence, just wants to
actually ask people to learn, as I mentioned in the previous program to been
inconsistent with this, but this is a this has nothing to do with availability of different clans or versions of the Quran, they have always been one core answer our history.
First of all, we have to remember that as far as the set clearly did not do the copying by himself.
Nor did he assume that just one individual and depend totally on his integrity and knowledge. As mentioned, towards the end of the previous program, it was almost like a community of thought of the most prominent companions of the Prophet who had some knowledge of the Quran.
taskforce or committee, as you might call it today,
was not working in secret. There were it was open. And as I mentioned last time, that there was a general curve to anyone who had any copies to bring it in England who also participated in the in the process.
In fact, it was reported that on himself
after the Prophet mentioned that specifically and he said that what was
the copying of this copies of the
original manuscript was done, in the presence of all of us in that lesson, the companions of the project approved and so there was nothing really that was
done by some person to have anything.
It should be noted also that this
copying on the third phase was completed in the Euro 25, of hedgerows for migration, which was approximately 12 years after the death of the Prophet. What does that mean? It means that most of those who are living at that time were contemporaries of the Prophet,
especially the younger ones, or age ones. And those people, if not the majority of them, a large number of them were people who memorized the Quran, directly from the mouth of the profit during his lifetime. And as such, the cookies that are smart and suggested that people should burn
we're not really other versions of the Quran, but basically, coppers which might have been written in a sloppy way where there is a hidden version, which is not consistent to verify with one byte array, can we say that a friend both 19, and by normalization of the large number of triples,
or actually, in most cases, it was the couples that had different modes of expression, which are different from the quote unquote, of expression of price to which the profit
from birth we understand that preservation
of the Quran was something in question in terms of
honesty and integrity in which it was done in public, there's no report by this humanitarian Bossman themselves who are rebels, there is no proof of claim even that
change even a single word
or a change of a single word of the
A touched on this concept of modes of expression just briefly last week as well, I wonder again here today, I wonder perhaps we would have explained a little more detail what is meant by modes of expression, okay.
Let me give some reference to be useful. Among the best work in the subject. There are many but among the best is when congeneric Dena Swati in a book called and it can't.
And among girls interfaces, there are plenty but one of them is written by Shan
Shan make some reference to that, because it deals with the subject in some, in some detail
to start with the various tribes of Arabia, who spoke Arabic,
but each tribe had
a dialect in India that might contain more than need to be referred to. And that's why we prefer to call it actually mode of expression.
expression of the same meaning in other words, the same meaning the same message to be communicated. Some of them would use slightly different words, to convey the same message.
Among all of those tribes, the mode of expression of the tribe of Christ, that is from which the Prophet was born
was the most prominent
To the prominence of the Chinese accent, their closeness to the Kaaba
service to the condemns the engagement in trade. So there was a number of reasons why they weren't the most prominent, and actually, it was regarded as perhaps the most eloquent
expressions in the Arabic language.
That is why it was quite natural that the Quran would be revealed
in the mood of Christ.
But despite all of this, we found that the memorization of the Quran was one of the most crucial factors in preserving it from change or tempering.
For some times,
it was a little bit hard for them, especially for some expressions or words that express the same meaning to memorize or understand. And so when I wasn't thinking, actually to get into the understand
there was some kind of a sanction to them to pronounce.
Some words which they found difficult in the mode of expression of their own particular child
was sanctioned. who wasn't the sanction the mountain isn't any documentation
on that same type of documentation that says that, in the first part of the question, it was consistent evidence that the concession to is this variations are varying modes of expression of the same thing.
sanction by definition,
let's examine some of those evidences. First of all, in Bukhari and Muslim, most to trusted sources of prophetic scenes.
The Prophet said that Angel Gabrielle
taught me the Quran, a new mode of expression, apparently referring to the mind of Christ.
Then he asked him, or told him
to it. So he said, that Angel Gabrielle taught in the Quran again, on second mode of expression, that's the same thing, but in a slightly different way of expressing some words. And then he said, he repeated that also for the third time, he asked for more, the prophet asks for more
flexibility, so that it makes it easier for people to recite.
And in the first time, it was said that Gabrielle told him that
Allah or God, capital G, Allah commanded you, to teach your, or your followers
seven modes of expression, which means that the function was coming from the Prophet on his own was not coming from that, that laughter method. This was a revelation
on the basis of the request and pleading of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him for the purpose of make it easier on other tribes to to understand
another version of the sin.
Heidi's prophetic sale was directed also in Muslim route statistics directing even about Gabrielle coming to the prophet and giving him that particular directive and that the process committed,
basically, that my or my followers can
recite in a mode of expression,
contemporary, so this will increased until it came to seven.
There's never evidence also that the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him that he was
this modes of expression himself that it was revealed that's nothing to attain himself or anything.
Saying of the profits related in several prophetic sayings like Bukhari and Muslim
that one of the prominent companions of the Prophet said I heard a man by the name of a Shan in hacking, reciting surah from the Quran in surah Furqan. That was the lifetime of the Prophet.
But I heard him reciting the surah in a slightly different world that I didn't hear or learn from, from a discrepancy.
He said that he wrote to him after he finished his prayer plantation and said,
Listen, I haven't heard the proper training better than they started, you know, arguing
took that man mission to protect the homeland.
And I told him that he's, you know, reciting something slightly different from what he taught us.
So the classic said, tradition. So that chapter of surah, recited it
was, it was an event like that. And then he said to me, we recite it now. So I'm excited with that slight variation, modal expression. And the Prophet said, That's correct. Also, this is how it was revealed.
This has been progress than that. The President say this is why what I approved or sanction is illegal to what how it was removed, which means that live in this mode of expression was sanctioned, we'll get into to the project as they are
added after talking to both men, the prophet added, he said this Quran was revealed on seven modes of expression. So to say,
whatever is easy on you, is consistent with your ability
to this particular conditions.
According to Jonathan Stewart, he was famous scholar.
He mentioned as many as 20, new companions of the Prophet who narrated basically the same thing that they were permission in precession to recite the Quran. And with this,
there is no difference that I know of about the existence of these ones. But the difference may arise between scholars as to what exactly
are interpretation of knowledge, because the original Arabic word action,
we understand by net,
lots of specialized standards in existence in various sections
around a big topic, but I think it would be very helpful if you could, in a fashion as possible, familiarize us with the various interpretations of the mode of expression
occur due to genomic DCT. He mentioned that there have been so many opinions on that. In fact, there may be as many as 14 possible interpretations of the exact meaning of what constitutes modes of expression. But that number should not look alarming, because none of those opinions also are overlapping. So maybe you can just examine some of the major ones, instead of mentioning them and evaluating them. Perhaps we might also do that, at the same time just mentioned the interpretation and why not might be considered weak until we end up with one that seemed to be the one that is most jurist or scholars accept
one interpretation, which is a little far off, they say seven modes of expression that in the Quran, there are seven basic things, there is command
progression, there is nothing is unbroken, there is verses which are conclusive, that has a meaning that could not be interpreted into Taurus. And there is an American might be understood differently, and Proverbs. So, they say these are the seven
This is rather weak. And the reason for them they can be if you refer back to this songs or this tradition that we refer to, we found that the perfect function two different modes of expression, and there is no contradiction between them. But if we take the certain moments, for example, as local an under for them, they are doctors at each other. And they could not be assumptions
that seem to be, you know, philosophical subdivision, but not very realistic one.
Another opinion also,
it says that the number seven does not necessarily mean number 712347. No, but the number seven is used sometimes to refer to tune in. And the history of that in the Arabic language seven does not always use miracle seven. However, in the context of this particular sayings of the Prophet that we quoted, that he was unable to recite in one mode than another, and then he said he kept increasing unpenetrated seven, so it means action seven. So that again seemed to be sort of weak type of, of interpretation.
way of explaining it is that the seven modes of recitation
refers to recitation of the same way in a different
situation. If you want a woman example of this, just to make it easy.
For example, because women advocate
So let's say for example, that in some expressions, it may appear as
if the exact letter is the exact word, but
that's the kind of accent paradise.
That seems to be a, you know, a good interpretation, but that does not fully explain
you know, the notion of modes of expression because there's evidence that it was not only restricted to the exact words just to a different enunciation, but in some cases, there were even alternative loads reported to express the same route. So, that may not necessarily be a fair one, one has to look critically into the matter
is again, reasonably acceptable, but perhaps might have some weaknesses also is that it seems that
the modes of expression refers to aspects which pertain to the damage to the Arabic grammar. And they say for example, one of the statements could be heard and we speak about the singular or plural,
whether you talk about
putting one word instead of another word or one letter, instead of another message, one extra little here or there, to express the same thing.
It includes also among the seven, they say,
exactly the same meaning. Like in the Quran, for example, it uses the term
which was in different Arab tribes, and dialects. So, both have been.
So this refer to that as one part of it also, that's not to be
you know, support the title of expansion. However,
it seemed that reverse explanation,
which is very close to this one, seemed to be more likely.
And that is,
the term itself, which is known
or accepted by Arab tribes was also referred to refer to the identity counting. So it's not a specific number to this opinion, that actually fits directly to the valuations
the topic as indicates the
technical nature, but I hope that at least you can conclude from that that modes of recitation are not self expression, if you will,
interpretations, or at least major interpretations refer to the same meaning expressed in the Quran. The slight variations of expression depending on the binary or the tank, if you will have the choice
to make something so complex in such a short time. Thank you, brother Jamal for interesting program. I want to thank you for watching and invite you back next week. Assalamu alaikum peace BMD Thank you for watching.