Channel: Jamal Badawi
Assalamu alaikum peace PMG Welcome to another episode of Islamic focus. We're continuing with our series dealing with the sources of Islam. And today we'll have a program of dealing with the topic of the authenticity of the Koran on your host machine. And I have joining me as usual, Dr. Jamal battle yo segment University of the demand assalamu aleikum.
Before we get into the meat of today's program very quickly summarize the main points that we touched on in our program last week Sure, must be continued the discussion of the third phase, as they call it, of the preservation of the Quran, that has to make copies of the original copy.
During the reign of the third, Kenneth Osmond, which took place
13 years approximately after the death of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon. And he said that there were at least four identical copies of that,
from that original manuscript, some
believe that there were as many as seven, and that two copies still exists. As far as we know, one touched on Russia, and one in the Tata power
Museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
He also indicated that
it's not the kind of give instruction to learn other copies, which were not consistent with this original manuscript. But this does not mean in any way that there were different core ons or different versions of them, but simply because some of them contained means of expression, which are different from the moment of crisis, in which the crown was able to profit 100 being Of course, a member of the tribe of Kailash
also indicated that this action was taken with the approval and consent of the
companions of the Prophet with the granting of participation and after very meticulous check with the memorizers of the Quran, to the point that even those who assassinated us man and netrust times never raised any question about his integrity and anything that means murder is tampering with the Quran.
We discussed the answer towards the end, the meaning of this modes of expression, the seven modes of expression, and give some of the various explanation given by scholars on it. But the main question that was raised is that some of those very intriguing modes of expression work sanctioned by the prophets in order to make local an easily understood and easily applicable for the variety of tribes who, even though they all spoke Arabic, they had some slight variations in the way they express the very same meaning
and indicating that this opinions in any case, regardless of which opinion is stronger or weaker, all of them agree on one point that they absolutely have absolutely no effect whatsoever on the meaning. It is a different simply as Dr. Dr. Pettit, on deference in terms of the scriptless executive, that's the term use the scriptless executive, but not that you're talking about other versions of
incredible time discussing modes of expression.
The modes of expression exist in written form,
there was absolutely no indication that this seven modes of expression or other modes of expression existed in writing, in the assertion, verify our original manuscript. That is the manuscript that were written during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad under his supervision, which was compiled or put together under one roof during the reign of the first case, Mr. Buck, but as far as the kinds of manuscripts that people wrote for their own, or copy for their own personal use,
to be fair, it's quite possible that some of them might have
included this very intriguing in writing
Again, we hear that Osman, asking that the other copies be burned. So it appeared that some that exists actually in writing some of those weren't nodes.
any of those private connections, if you will, that might have the exact same kind of exact material and verification, careful examination, as was the case with the original and verified manuscripts.
Can you give us an idea of the extent of difference between the modes of expression and the official one,
even then they are very, very insignificant and very minor. Number one, they have absolutely no effect on the meaning conveyed in the verses of the Quran. And they have absolutely no
theological implication whatsoever.
They were basically
a sort of concession that were given by the prophet so that people would not find it too difficult different types who do not use exact level of expression into the same meaning.
To express and understand the Quran to learn to understand it, but was not really meant to be the like fishermen manuscripts something to make it easier, especially in the early days of wasteland. In our case, it was the same
alternative test indicated that the differences that would exist were minor and eggs insignificant. Why question that raised white ended Osman or the burning of the other non official fragments, some people might suggest that this is a bit of prep. So overreaction on are a bit drastic action on his part.
Like his actual use a similar table also lastic X, on the surface, it appeared that the US man, you know, took a drastic action.
But if you really look carefully into the circumstances of the conviction and the preservation of the Quran, you found that there are a number of good reasons why he suggested this measure.
Well, first of all, the nature of the Quran, it's not like any other book,
when considered right, if you convey the meaning in some ways, it's okay. You know, the Quran, the way it was revealed to the prophet in the midst of crisis must be transmitted not only meaning in terms of official manuscript, but the, the fullest exactitude with the exact words, because it has arrived as the Word of God.
Secondly, the Quran was uttered by Khalid Mohammed, peace be upon him. And as he uttered the Quran, he dictated that the official appointed scribes of revelation like secretaries, and he recited that Quran in public and as you know, the over 23 years of his mission mission, he always used to recite the Quran.
And the prophets assigned to the Quran and dictator that was actually in the mode of expression of Christ, because he belonged to Christ. And that's the, you know, official
mode, if you will.
This necessitated that there must be a copy of a standard copy, which will just send it out that's not enough to dishonor what must be identical to the exact original manuscript according to which the Prophet uttered the Quran in public.
since, as indicated last time, this other variant modes which expressed the same meaning which were given by way of concession, sort of turned out to be a source, or a potential source of this court, an argument was the same as somebody might have not had one particular mood and saying, oh, you're headed this way, in some ways, you know, but I heard that this way, even though we're talking about the very same meaning, there is no danger really, because the meaning is the same. But the danger is inherent in the unnecessary disputation resulting from having this concession, continuing or carrying on for someone who has been the witness witness.
On the other hand,
if there was a reason for description or differences, slight difference, you might say, between the official manuscripts and some other fragments in private connection.
It could be either that that is there's a different mode of expression that they use that concession or it could have possibly been also minor writing or cooking errors. Unless you have a committee and you say, have this careful verification that you talked about last time in public, it is quite possible that people writing or copying
For their own, they're not angels, so they could. So if you thought about one individual copying that's different from a horn committee would be in publicly doing this type of job. So there might have been also some private collection with some slight, minor mistakes like this. And those kinds of mistakes, again, with respect to the Quran, not a method that one should be max with respect to or tolerate because again, it's the Word of God not just conveying genuine thought, you're conveying the Word of God itself. And that is consistent with the respect of the Quran, and the Word of God must remain an absolute purity.
And as indicated, in the previous program, the decision that our man took,
did not take on his own.
In fact, he took it after the consent and consultation of the major companions of the Prophet, the greatest people were well known like onionsand, and others, and not only the consent of the heads or the, you know, the people who are very close to the Prophet, but in the consent of the public, who were memorizers of the entire Quran as they heard from the Prophet peace be upon him. So it may sound like a drastic action, but in fact, it's actually very appropriate thing, having gone through all this process of public verification, seminaries have suggested that the consensus that you've just described
a result of some some pressure for conformity, how do you respond to that suggestion, when some some writers will say that the nature of the Arabs,
especially at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him? Well, let me first get a response to that issue, what by a Muslim writer but even by an orientalist, the very famous German scholars, number k, n, e, n, d. K, I hope I pronounced
as quoted by Dr. Jazz. It says that the text of the crime code was as complete and as accurate, as could reasonably be expected. And then he touches on the question of conformism or conformity, pressure for conformity that conformism can't explain the unanimous agreement of early Muslims on earth man's version that is on us man's verification, it's not enough man's index, expression that needs to be tied up into that. That means us man's connection based or copy based on the original manuscript, as we've seen before, but in addition to this coming from a person who was like, particularly sympathetic to Islam, or might be quite critical in many respects, in other respects,
but one should add to that, first of all, that
when we speak about conformity, we speak as if the sword of preserving the Quran was in writing, which is not the closest, so the word memorizers. From the contemporaries, how could confirm your counseling, writing and counseling writing? So, there is a
possibility. Secondly, the Arabs by the nature and the kind of environment in which they grew up, we have been very, very independent. And the question of just, you know, blind conformism
is something which is very, very difficult to, to achieve the fact that the word enormous means there are certain factors that determine that since this is the word of God that must be preserved in the utmost purity, that they could offer the Knights in defense of the Quran and against anyone, no matter what his position may be, who may have any attempt or intention to tamper with the Word of God.
So because of the evidence that you have seen, because of the verification, the things were done in public with transcript,
one can never really read the argument of concerns and really as a possible explanation. In fact, this whole notion of conformism is quite a contradiction
to the fact that during a smooth regime, or him, there were already some people who were dissenters to the point that some of the weapons even killed him, but those who came to him and were very powerful at the time.
No, that did accuse him of tampering with the Quran. nor could they hadn't reached power within just a short time after the Quran was was captured. They could have easily revealed that they were anything that they even even written copies were lost. They could get directness of memorize and say, Look, this paper was a contemporaneous concept. they memorize the whole Quran and they recycled so many times.
Now what they recite differently from the official manuscripts, none of them could produce any such evidence which shows beyond any shadow of doubt that the public way and very carefully strategizing approach that was for
everybody to agree with us man that it's better to avoid the confusion of this concession of other moons and just use the one that is already in the official manuscript.
Another objection that is often raised by writers is that by taking this action of destroying the manuscripts that Aslan has, in fact, destroyed further material, which might have been very useful in terms of later studies that couldn't be carried out about the origins of the Quran.
How would you comment on that? This argument could be valid only.
There were a number of officiant versions that are quite different as happened in the history of other scriptures, for example, the granting different titles, different biographies of a prophet or something like that, that could be applied. But in the case of the Quran, that's totally irrelevant, because it's all one book its own revelation.
Furthermore, the arguments may have some validity, for example, in the absence of a standard efficient scrutinize manuscripts, and dentists are right, why why don't you keep every copy so that everybody can come later on in the study. But in the case of occurrence different, you have an official, verified document, verified and writing verified by the multitudes of mobilizers of the courtroom. So what is the benefit of keeping something that might be less accurate, that might have contained a slight errors, like you said, on the part of individual copyist, and what what is the basic historically of something like that, if you have already been the original,
it should be added also that when our smart women are better, quote, unquote, the burning of other private collections or other manuscripts that will not confirm that you will be verified one,
we have no evidence in history that he sent detectives, to knock on everybody's home and, you know, try to inspect or make any kind of Inquisition, we never heard of any trials held for people because they possess them in a private collection is different from the standard one that everybody agreed to, or was punished because of that. There's no such thing. But
one even more important things seem to be forgotten. When I did that, he did it in one particular city.
And only by by you detain us mine, was the premise of the Muslim
Muslim community of believers.
Muslims were already in control of one half of the world at that time. And many of the measures in prestigious companions of the Prophet peace be upon him were already spent in so many different lands and living there or, you know, teaching people.
And they really have to have a very, very strange stretch of imagination to say that that really meant that there was complete disappearance of any other form of written manuscript that either might have displayed variation, even in, in
the mode of expression, it was more actual cases like an appeal. And people did that voluntarily, they did it out of conviction, out of being,
you know, cooperating to really make sure having a sustained and original copy has been preserved. Just you understand that copy and disputations, something which does not have again, this scriptless exact executive here, in terms of its copy, mentioned also that it was not only just one copy, because as my order several copies to be made, it was sent to different centers. And this were not kept in museums there. Now we find it in museums, that
the normal practice was to have that copies verified copy in the central mosque, place of worship, and it will be accessible to anyone who wanted to learn from it want to copy from it further on. So there's absolutely no question. In fact,
today, the greatest evidence that nothing was totally destroyed, that you sometimes hear or read about, you know, some of the most violent ways of expression
either explicit or other other examples of these modes of expression. Right? And that's why he's mentioning actually, that it is an evidence that there was no complete, you know, destruction or annihilation. Did you
any other living in fact doctors just one of the nature scholars in the Quran
Started them, he divided them into three categories, none of which have insignificant but let's even give concrete examples of
category. He said there were some kind of concession, which may or may not have been what actually another set of expressions could have been even as we see a surgical insertion.
For example, in Surah, number two in verse 27,
it talks about
Prophet Abraham and prophet Ishmael, when they started to build the Kaaba.
The official copy that we have in our hand says it's 99. And when Ibrahim
Fishman is the foundation of the house and say, Oh Allah accept from us,
in one of those
documents that you might say on
it is claimed that they were also the word miracle and
they say that in Arabic, both those expressed exactly the identical meaning
in your expression, Arabic that you don't have to say basically, you can use that but you show your family Brahimi
Bennett acaba Nunez implied without having to put the word the colon. But again, the meaning is exactly the same.
In some other
very few verses in the Quran, for example, where the Quran says, We sent such and such prophet to his people, or my people.
one instance, for example, has an insertion of a car. And he said, the mind people, again, exactly the same expression, you're talking about the profit killing case people are multiple. So when I say he said, and he said, Oh, he said,
continuing Without this, the word he said, you get exactly the same meaning.
According to Dr. dress, he says that this instances seem to be more of a work of a glossary, rather than than something even that was accepted even or consented by the prophet because it's not exactly even a very modern expression. a glossary is to simply added the word perhaps for explanation ad for his own understanding.
But of course, you could be more careful and by putting these words in between brackets or something like that, of course, they are not followed exactly the same method we use today. A second
category are words which express the identical meaning, but could be understood by one group of people among Arabic speaking letters, then another word,
he has two examples of that he attained and lookman both of them means to complete. And this is one of the things that some people have referred to another variant that some people claim
double bang, which appear in the official, you know, manuscript versus the word. So, does that mean exactly the same means one, just the two synonyms, synonyms match a synonymous words.
A third category that Dr. Does studied was the, what you might call a single inversion
knife for example, one mahogany family Nova ch la basura minatomirai. Both of them says Allah, see, what you do
is our of what you do you just a certain inversion, could be many other examples similar, but basically the same kind of a movie
as Dr. Dre's comment on this three categories. He said even if we accept our prayer life, you know, if we just accept
for the sake of argument, even the
variation that some people speak about, some writers mentioned a virgin, that which is a big question even not a lack of analysis, for example, not copyist errors, which is quite possible. Even then, with that assumption, it will not have the slightest effect on the meaning of the verse. It is interesting that some of the writers among the orientalist who keep digging into this, you know, the minute and villager type of things, they themselves acknowledge that this I'm not quite certain even about the origin as to whether you know, it is really attributed to authorities. An example of that is is Arthur Jeffrey Wilson says that the that about this other modes of expression that are rarely
attributed to authorities as appearing in that collection, but not often as a form in practice.
of the oral teachings of recitation. So it might have not originated actually from writing. But some people decided this way, some glossaries to add the meaning into that session. And then some sometimes later somebody put it in writing. And that has nothing to do with any if you compare it with the official, verified manuscript.
touch on one other area before we conclude today's program.
Some people raised the question that if the modes of expression were authorized or allowed by the prophet, what authority did often have to restrict them? Even just in the written form? Okay, first of all, there's no question that there are seven or seven hobbyists narrating the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him did and now or did get that concession? There's no question about that.
But that concession, I think the term concession is ruling itself
means that this equivalent modes of expression of the same meaning are not required or not encouraged but morally permissible. That's what concessionary means.
This means that we're permissible, or as a rule, also, anything that's permissible, which is not a requirement could be restricted if there is a good reason.
me that even today, if, for example, the government feels that certain species are threatened, of extinction prevent the material, there's no more hunting of this type of species. So just you know, permissive of thinking that if there's a reasonable ground for it,
and there was a reasonable agreement for it, because Quran was now recited by so many people in so many different names, with people from so many different and diverse linguistic backgrounds. And we have seen actually, the incident that led us man to really look examine carefully this issue and try to settle it is that people started more or less, to have arguments with each other.
There is no pregnancy rate with this mode of expression or death in terms of meaning, but to dispute concerning the Quran, even with the same mean, is nothing that could have led to, you know, further complications that was really needed at that time.
And then this was not only the judgment to us, mine as indicates your judgment of major companies, and nobody else agrees with it. There's no question about it says, with a smile really took upon himself to say no.
It is also interesting to note here that the Prophet gave this concession, as he himself expressed it in government and above the route and autonomy. He said, I was saying to people who are unlettered, among whom there is the small child and the old man. And obviously, to make it easier on them. He gave that concession, many scholars believed that this was a sort of temporary thing. So that universe who grew up with this kind of, you know, tank or well of expressing things, who find it difficult to change all of a sudden, can still continue to benefit from the Quran.
But there's something which is very interesting here, that is, after Islam spread, and the majority of people follow this and actual people, even from my head, back and forth. It doesn't make a difference whether you're preaching the Quran, in the crusher mode, which is the official one person either just like if you want to learn French now we can then try to, you know, classical French, or some other form of you know, accent. But if it doesn't make a difference to you, because you started to learn French already, either the limits were the right way. So that, again, was the rationale that you it doesn't make a difference for non Arabs.
So the proper and the more sophisticated form of recitations which the profit has resulted in public affairs, which was actually the way it was dictated in the original manuscript.
Thank you very much of our time for today has gone. We want to thank you for watching. Join us next week and we'll continue this discussion Assalamu alaikum peace