Political System of Islam 7 – Imamite Concept 2
Channel: Jamal Badawi
File Size: 7.10MB
Today we have our seventh program and our series dealing with the political system of Islam. We'll be continuing with our discussion of the mandate or the concept of succession of rulers in Islam. I'm your host, 100 Rashid. And I have joining me as usual on the program, Dr. Jamal, by the way by the Dalai Lama, like Michael said,
can I ever very quickly summarize the main points that we touched on in our sixth program in the series dealing with the political system, as I'm sure, in the sixth program, we touched on the minority opinion among Muslims, the Shiite view, representing about 10%, roughly of Muslims. And more specifically, their view that Ali, the cousin of the Prophet and his son in law was the only legitimate heir of the Prophet and that the Prophet actually appointed him to be the ruler after him, and that all succession should be restricted to the descendants or progeny of Allah. And we'll discuss briefly why the other 90% of the Muslims do not share with their Shiite brothers, this
particular view. And we have given reasons why the rest of the Muslims believe that rulers should be chosen freely by the people. And it should be added here that the assumption that the Prophet before his death explicitly appointed Ali, to be his sole, legitimate heir and successor, is an assumption which indeed reflects quite negatively on the closest Companion of the Prophet, and even on the Prophet himself.
Or those who have explained your view as to why this assumption does in fact, reflect negatively on the other companions of the Prophet. What because after the death of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, there was virtually unanimity among Muslims, to choose the closest of his companions, Abu Bakr,
to succeed him, both as a ruler and religious leader, because Islam doesn't make distinction between those two functions. And if it was true, that the Prophet explicitly and publicly appointed Holly to be his successor, then the only implication is obvious here, that the greatest of all the companions of the Prophet, including the first three clerics who succeeded the Prophet before Ali became the fourth skillet,
deliberately disobeyed the prophet and disregarded his instruction, because they chose Ali only as a first instead of first, and they chose people who do not belong to the immediate household of the traffic, the first tickets will not have the relatives of the of the Prophet. And this assumption, of course, is regarded as totally untenable by the great majority of Muslims.
Now, could it be possible to assume that what happened was an innocent oversight, or perhaps forgetfulness on the part of the of the companions of the Prophet, even by choosing?
Well, in my humble understanding, this would be an impossible assumption also, because in the day when Muhammad died, there were sufficient discussions that went on, in which several suggestions or some suggestions were made as to who should succeed the Prophet. And these discussions ended by nominating Abu Bakr to be his successor.
Even though the nomination of abubaker did not take too long to arrive at because of his status and everybody's respect of him. The actual oath of fealty or die of allegiance or loyalty by the public, did not take place until the second birth, publicly in the mosque in the presence of other Muslims. And that's where Abu Bakr was installed officially as the clip or successor to the Prophet now, this person
vided the ample time
for the companions to remember the instructions of the prophets. And if it was true that the Prophet appointed Ali, somebody should have remembered that or reminded the others, especially, that it is said or believed by some of the brothers that made this appointment shortly before his death, it was too fresh to be forgotten, especially in such an important matter as to succession if, if it was true
or not, and oversight and capacity explained is as simple human error with good intention. When this is an assumption, but does not, again fully explain what actually happened. Because the most important evidence or indicators of goodwill, ever intention, as you call it, is that if I make a mistake or an, you know, an innocent error,
I would have to correct it immediately. As soon as the true test or the truth has been revealed to me, I should correct myself immediately. Or else there would be no good intention, the the insistence on that. And we will admit, historically speaking, the companions of the Prophet, including the closest and including such important figures, as the first three, careless, who preceded Ali, for almost a period of a quarter of a century, 25 years, almost, were chosen, and it was still there. So that span of time shows that
25 years expanding over three consecutive quarters before it was chosen, shows that if it was true that the Prophet gave such instruction, there is resistance in not implementing his instructions. And I should say here that if this was true, it's not a small error, or innocent error, it is a major sin.
Why is that? So why a major sin in your view? One because if you look into the Quran, you'll find that in numerous verses in the Quran, it warns against disobedience to the Prophet, Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him because what he utters are games of forbids is actually a revelation given to him reflecting the will of God. And the Quran makes it clear that obedience to the Prophet is like obedience to God, disobedience to the Prophet is like this obedience to God. In fact, in one verse in the Quran, verse 13, and chapter four, it indicates that whoever this obeys Allah, and His Messenger bots, Prophet Muhammad, he would be sent to or punished by the hellfire. Well, that's,
that's not a small, you know, thing to
commit, not a small error. But there's also another important point, which I think would be important, particularly important from the viewpoint of our Shiite brethren.
And that is, according to the Shiite interpretation, mmm. And also Lydian, which means that in my mind, or the concept of succession by appointment, after the profit
is a matter of which is of the fundamentals of the faith,
not as Sunni Muslims viewed as a matter of discretionary decision by the rule to choose whatever rulers they judge to be the best available.
In this case, then the failure to accept that particular concept of succession or appointment means that the person is rejecting one of the fundamentals of the faith. And if you reject one of the fundamentals of the face, of course, it's quite a serious matter. It's not just a small error. So if we were to be more candid and Frank on this, the assumption of appointment of it
seemed to imply that the most pious of the Companion of the Prophet, including such towering figures as a buck, I'm an awesome man, the first three kilowatts of power, in fact committing this measure sin and in intentionally disobeying the Prophet. And this is a matter that not only reflects negatively on those great and pious figures, but it even reflects negatively on the profit. No, that's interesting point. How In your opinion, does this reflect negatively or could this reflect negatively on the profit? Could you explain that? Why because if this are his closest companions,
and the most loved by him, then certainly this implies a number of things. It implies First of all, that God forbid, the prophet was very poor in his journey.
Judgment of people on who to choose as his closest associate and companion, which of course we know is not true. Secondly, it implies also God forbid that the mission of the Prophet was a failure. Because after 23 years of recruitment, selection, training of his close companions, educating them inculcating Islamic values in them. And after all of these efforts, minutes after his death, they are an age and go back on his instruction and deliberately disobeyed him, which, of course, is an untenable assumption because those companions were known to have offered to sacrifice their lives, to protect the prophet and to guard
And many people would say, if this is the kind of close companions what men was he the Prophet himself. So it's obvious for anyone who's familiar with Islamic history with the personality of the Prophet and those great companions that this assumption simply is just an impossible one. And contrary to lots of evidence, historical and otherwise,
will rule out forgetfulness, or deliberate disobedience weapon is the explanation of the Sunni Shia difference on the issue of succession of rulers. In my humble understanding, one of the most important reasons of the difference between majority minority on this issue of succession to the Prophet
comes from the understanding of some of the sayings of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him in praise of Allah and in praise of his household and commanding people, to be respectful to them and to follow their guidance.
Now, the, as we mentioned in a previous program, perhaps a quest quick cross reference here would be useful, that not only there are some, at least few sayings that are attributed to the Prophet, which are found in Shiite differences, which doesn't have a lot of parallels in insignia references. But what is more important is that even in the sayings, which was just I should say, is there in Shiite and Sunni references.
The wording sometimes, is not exactly the same. And in the Shiite differences, sometimes there are additions, which seemed to signify different concepts altogether from the flow of the saying of the Prophet. But the most important of all of these reasons, perhaps, is the way the saying of the Prophet are interpreted, because there are so many of those things which appear in virtually the same version are basically the same wording both in the Shiite and Sunni references of prophetic sayings. But the way they are interpreted many times is different.
In the Shiite understanding some of those saying, praising Allah, we're taking and the whole theory of prophetic succession and exclusive
you know, had a detailed type of succession were based
on the basis of the concept equilibrium area or general guardianship
Now, the things that are attributed to Prophet Muhammad, peace industry, Obama in praise of Le are these rejected by the majority of Sunni Muslims, no, not at all. In fact, a cross reference here would be useful also that in in the Sunday references, there are plenty of those sayings. But they have to be taken in context, because there are similarly, as you might see letters in this series, we have been also
numerous, similar or even better, or higher praises that the Prophet made also of other companions, including, above all the first three companions, or the first three successors to the Prophet. So there is no question about, you know, the presence of holly it is there. He was, you know, one of the best and closest Companion of the Prophet.
But like I said, it's a question really, of interpreting those things in the context of places of other companions in the context of the text of the Quran, in the context of other saying and other areas relating to the same topic and within the overall spirit and teaching of Islam. That is why the Suge Knight or the majority of Muslims, conclude that Shura or mutual consultation and freedom of choice of the ruler is a principle that is very clearly
enshrined in the Quran and prophetic tradition, a principle which
is very essential in the life of Muslims in general more particularly in a political
succession. In fact, I would say that
there is evidence that even Ali himself and his descendants believes in the same principles that the majority should not
accept consultation and free choice of
words to be important consideration in terms of himself and his descendants read this whole question Could you perhaps elaborate on this a little bit further and explain what it is a historical fact to start with that Allah May Allah be pleased with him himself accepted the leadership of the first three candidates and did not say no I'm you know, I was appointed what what are we doing there? And he actually meant by our or the author future additions to this three caylus and not assume that they are also fealty, it's not like some writers think on the accepted them as rulers but not as imams are leaders in religious method because Islam doesn't make the suppression and abubaker
actually made the prayers in the gym, the sickness of the Prophet leadership is more inclusive in Islamic understanding.
Not only this, we find that it did also serve under those three Caleb's and was quite helpful to them, and they praise them and he was very cooperative with them. And this is a clear admission on his part of the correctness of the way they were chosen by shora by freedom of choice by the people and acceptance of that principle. This is one indicator. A second indicator is that one of the children of Ali known as Mohammed Mahathir.
He himself, reported as merited in Bukhari, the most important authority of prophetic tradition.
He said that I asked my father, that is Ali,
who among all the people is the best, after the Messenger of God after Prophet Muhammad. He said that his Ali Abu Bakr was the first killer. Then he said, I asked him Who's next? He said, Amash, that's the second candidate. So Allah Himself, in all humbleness, admitted that Apple duck and Amr were actually ahead of him, in terms of the closeness to the Prophet, and in terms of the eligibility as such, to succeed. The Prophet.
One of the grandchildren of Ali is known as an assassin is Hassan. And his father also is called Allison, so it hasn't, Son of God hasn't. Son of Ali,
once was approached by some people who used to believe that Ali was the exclusive heir of the Prophet, and only his descendants, he will himself was a descendant, but hasn't, and they told him didn't the Messenger of God says men come to my lair, Salima, which means whoever I am his Patreon.
And he also is his Patreon. He said, Yes, he said that, but he said, by the name of God, the Messenger of God did not mean by that authority and government, because if he meant that, he would have said more explicitly, that is all people, this is your guardian, and the rulers chosen to rule after you after I die. So listen to him, and, and obey. And then he continued, that's a lesson. He said, In the name of God, if God and His Messenger if Allah and the Prophet
chose Ali, and appointed him to be the successor of the Prophet,
and it did not do that, did not let's say, fight for it to actually ask for, it would have been the first one to disobey God and His Messenger. So this is an interesting point, you know, where it shows that even Adi and his successors, did not necessarily believe in the concept of Marmite, which has been attributed
to them. But above all, the most important difficulty that one finds with the this theory of hereditary succession of the Prophet through one segment of his family is something which seem to be inconsistent with the status of the companions of the Prophet, not only the the first few characters, but the companions of the Prophet in general. And the great deal of praise that was mentioned about them in the Quran. And the prophetic suggestion was that we could turn now to some examination or some illustrations or examples of the praise of the of the other prophets. Could you perhaps other prophets, companions
Other companions? I'm sorry.
Well, to start with this, of course the Quran which is accepted as the Scripture and the book of God, by both majority and minority Muslims tonight and shy, there's no question about that. And we'll find the conclusive and clear evidence there's about the high status of this companies in general.
First of all, in chapter 48, verse 29.
In the rough translation, it says, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who believed with him, and him, they are stern with the unbelievers.
compassionate among themselves, you see them bearing and reconstitute, which are two movements and the prayers in devotion to God, seeking the bounty of God and His pleasures. And it goes on and on describe again, in a very tender way, the quality of those early companions of the Prophet in chapter nine, verse 100. In the Quran also, it speaks about a set of Kunal, a well known among Mahajan. And so that is those among the Mohajer in the migrant who went from Mecca to Medina, and the persecution of the pagans and unsired the supporters who received them in Medina and supported them and help them
and those who followed them and it says Raja, lon, Allah has been pleased with them. Of course, if Allah is pleased with some people, you know, and then you tell yourself that there are people who deliberately disobeyed the prophet and did not appoint whoever he appointed to be his successor, of course, does not seem to be quite consistent even with the text of the Quran. In chapter 59, in the Quran, verses eight and nine, again, it describes the eligibility of help for people who are poor among the migrants and praises also those supporters in Medina who were before then, and who provided all hell for them. And it ends by saying that this indeed are the successful
This is God's judgment or judgment, not any human being. And not assume that in these two verses, there is mention of the migrants and the supporters in Medina. And it were these two groups of people that Mahajan answered, who actually had a virtually unanimous position that other workers is the most eligible person to succeed the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. And here's the praise for them in the Quran, in chapter 48, in verse 18, also, it says that God has been pleased and accepted, those who made the oath of allegiance are limited to the Prophet
known as the earth under the tree.
And again, the prophet has confirmed this kind of praises in the Quran. He was quoted, for example, in Muslim collection of saying that no one who made this oath of allegiance to the Prophet under the tree, under very pressing circumstances, really testing circumstances, none of these people will ever enter into the hellfire. And
this were the people who again chose
to be the first successor of the prophet in another saying of the Prophet merited and Buhari he said that
the best century or generation, strongest believers are mid century and then those who follow and then those who follow.
So the in various saying also the Prophet praised segments of the Muslim community like unsired, for example, and said, loving them is like loving God and so on because of their high quality and, and piety. So it's, it seems that
any insinuation or indication in some way or the other that these companions were just struggling for, for power and authority and trying to push it aside, would be rather unfair, given the profile and description of those complaints. In fact, the profit
before his death,
made several warnings not to abuse, these great companions and apparently, maybe he prophesied but some people in notice times will attribute to them something of which they are totally innocent.
When I went to the Prophet say about that, could you explain it?
Well, in one setting of the Prophet narrated in three different collections of prophetic sayings in Bukhari and Muslim,
he said, let us support us Javi let's say don't you abuse my companions because by the name of he in whose hands
Is my life It means by the name of God. If one of you spends an equivalent to the amount of effort, that's a big month, mountain in Arabic, the equivalent of month in God, he would not reach even a fraction that has a fraction of the status of those great companions.
In another say,
it was narrated that the Prophet said, I asked my lord about the differences,
which will happen between my companions, because there were some differences of opinion, there's no question about that, we can get to that into the issue of Islamic history. They have been difference of opinion, Western with love and with respect between the two parties. So they asked better than whatever my companions differ there and after me, and God revealed to me all Muhammad, your companions, to me are like stars in the heavens, some of those stars are brighter than others. And whoever follows the guidance of any of those stars, he is regarded by me that's by God as guided.
In another shade narrated in October, Ronnie, he says, Don't abuse my companions, because the curse of God will be on those who abused my companions. In activity. The Prophet was clearly prophesying what may happen, he says, Allah, Allah, yes, he said, fear God fear God, in respect to my companions, don't take them after me as an object that's an object of attack. Because whoever loves them, he loves them because of his love of me. And whoever hates them, whoever hates them, he hates them because of his hate of me. So he Aquila, he made the love of the companions of His love, and the hate of companions as the equivalent to hitting the Prophet himself. And when He continued, he
says, Whatever hurts them, he hurts me. And whoever hurts me, he's displeasing God, and whoever is displeasing God, God is just about to give him a civil punishment.
In the Hadith narrated by MSF, nomadic and sheffey,
the prophet also said, in the later times, later days, they will become, or there will come, some people who will be material that has been written, thus companions, don't marry from them, don't give your daughters in marriage to them, don't pray on them, when they'll die, the curse of Allah would be on them. The deaths are very strong, saying of the Prophet not only indicating what is actually going to happen on the part of some people who might be might have been misled, through some intense emotional feeling, but not really rational and reasonable
consideration of the entirety of the teaching of Islam.
But the conclusion that is obvious from all of this, is that to belittle the companions of the Prophet, or to accuse them of just pushing it and trying to reach for power, and others people sitting there not objecting to that
is something that has no logical evidence in here of the pillars of them by the Quran and by prophetic tradition. This quality of people are not the type of people who would deliberately and knowingly disobey God and disobey his his messenger. And one final comment perhaps might be useful here. It was mentioned before that rulership in Islam especially in the early days, among those rightly guided caliphs, was not a picnic was that was not a position where a person just get all kinds of privilege. It was sacrificial, and all of them accepted rather reluctantly, including Ali Abu Bakr, the first case was pushed actually into that people almost appealed to him to carry the
responsibility because it is a position that requires much more sacrifice than than just privilege and this will not display people at all.
manner will listen to their program for the day one invite you back next week we will continue with our discussion of the concept of amendment in the place of the companions of Prophet Muhammad. Thank you for watching us I'm Aleikum, peace be unto you.