The Theories Of Morality
Channel: Isam Rajab
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The Perfect Character
smilla hamdulillah salat wa salam ala rasulillah
salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato. All praise is due to Allah alone and may his peace and blessings be upon the final and last prophet muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, welcome to your program, the perfect character. The talk today will be in sha Allah, about the theories of morality.
Some people say that we already know the virtues of the morality, and we already know the traditions that came about the good character. But is it possible that we are able to perfect our character or this is something that is innate that comes by nature, that Allah subhanho wa Taala creates people with it from the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam we know that a person can change his behavior, he can do that,
at the time of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam when the delegation of Abdullah a scheme, the one of them, who was injured in his head that was known as
the prophet SAW, Selim told him there are two qualities in you that a lot loss, forbearance and tranquility. So he asked the prophet SAW Selim or messenger of Allah are these two qualities are these from Allah subhanho wa Taala, that he gave them to me by nature, I was created with them, or they are two qualities that I acquired, that I gained by practice. So the prophet SAW said him told him no, these are two qualities that Allah subhana wa Taala gave to you. If it was not possible for a person to change his behavior to change his character, the prophet SAW, Selim would have told him, there is only one way to have a good quality, but the prophets are selling approved, that there are
two ways and in another Hadith, the prophet SAW Selim mentioned that he who attempts to be patient, Allah subhanaw taala will give him the ability to be patient. So it needs practice, it needs struggling, once you try heart once you strive, then you will be able to change your character, it is not difficult and it is not very simple, but it will be easy inshallah, on those whom Allah subhanaw taala blessing on those whom Allah subhanaw taala gave the ability to do so.
So the purpose is not only to know the virtue of the perfect character, the purpose is to implement what you know, because knowledge only will not help you. Even Satan, he has a lot of knowledge more than most people, but that knowledge was not helpful for him. That's why we at least 17 times a day We seek refuge with Allah subhanaw taala, from being of those whom Allah subhanaw taala was angry with those who deserved the Wrath of Allah subhanho wa Taala. Why? Because they knew but they did not implement god they knew. So therefore, knowledge is a key, but this has to be matched with the implementation with the practice. So what is the morality? What is the character? One of the
scholars Allah razali Rahim Allah, He defined the character as a settled state of self from which actions are generated. actions are taking place
easily without thinking.
That is the character when you act spontaneously, without thinking. So the purpose is to be able to have these actions as a second nature. You don't think you don't stop? You don't wait and then you act. What counts is the spontaneous the first reaction, what was your first reaction at the time
of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, once he passed by a woman who was sitting on a grave, and she was crying. So he told her fear Allah and be patient.
ask Allah to reward you for the tragedy that you are afflicted with. So she told him go away. You don't know what I am dealing with. She didn't know that he was the Prophet sallallahu sallam. So once he crossed her companions blamed her told her Didn't you know, it was the profits on them. So she regretted that she came apologizing to the Prophet sallallahu wasallam. But the Prophet sallallahu Sallam told her patience is at the first stroke. That's when patience counts at the first stroke. The same thing also, Allah subhanaw taala says in the divine narrative, when Allah subhanaw taala takes the life of the son of his servant, he asked the angels, did you take the life of the
son of my servant, the love of his life? And they say, yes. So Allah subhanaw taala would ask them and he knows better. What did my servant say? They say, he praised you for Allah. He said that hamdulillah. And he also believed in the other and he said that to Allah, we belong and to Him, we shall return. So Allah subhanaw taala would tell them, build for my servant house and call it the house of praise, why this servant deserved that great reward. Because his first reaction was being pleased with Allah subhanaw taala his father, with a lost destiny. And therefore you don't wait for first couple of days, you are angry, you are upset, you are unhappy with the destiny that Allah
subhanaw taala decreed. And then after you realize that this will not change the reality, this will not bring back the last one. When you say Alhamdulillah now I'm patient, no, it counts as the first spontaneous reaction. So therefore, the purpose is to be able to react immediately to have this perfect character immediately. And philosophers from early on, they had different approaches to the theories of morality, what constitutes a moral act? One of the theories, which is the theory of john Stuart Mill, the British philosopher, it's called consequentialism. He says an act is moral, only, if it maximizes the happiness of the largest number of people.
This theory seems fine, because it is maximizing the happiness of most people. However, because of that theory, people enslaved other people, as long as the majority agrees, then there is no problem of abusing the minority. And this is what happened for a long time. So this theory actually is invalid. Then came another philosopher,
Emmanuel Kant, and he came with the deontic theory of morality. And he said, that the morality is based on principle. And that is model only if it
achieves happiness to all people, to all people based on the principles. That was the second theory of morality, but also this theory is plump, because it doesn't look to the objectives of the actions. Yes, we act based on the principle regardless of whether people are happy or no, as long as my intention is good, then I have to do it. However, many times the intentions do not match the act itself. And therefore, even this theory was invalid. But then we have another theory of morality, which is called the nicomachean ethics. It is the theory of Aristotle, when he says that an act is moral only if it contributes to the virtuous character. And we can know what is virtuous by looking
at the means of the two extremes. Anything that is between two extremes, there is a virtuous quality like carriage. It is a virtue between two extremes between
recklessness and cowardice.
And Aristotle also said something beautiful. He said that it is best known by a virtuous man. However, again, even this theory lacks the knowledge of that virtuous man. In Islam, we have the prophets of Allah subhanaw taala, the perfect human beings, they are the ones who came with the commands of Allah subhanho wa Taala. In Islam, any act is mortal, when it is commanded by Allah subhanho wa Taala, or his messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, because we know for certainty that this will add, will contribute to people's happiness. Allah Subhana Allah is the one who created us, and he knows best, what suits us. He knows best, what gives us happiness, and therefore, these are
the commands of Allah subhanaw taala, and all of them are moral. So the Islamic theory of morality, unlike the theories of the philosopher's, the Islamic theory of morality, is based on the divine command, it comes from Allah subhanaw taala, our Creator, the one who created us and the one who knows us best. And it is valid for all the times for all the generations for all the people, it is not only for a group of people in a certain country, it is not only for a certain time for a certain generation, and then it will be outdated know, from the time of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, until now. And until the last day on this earth, the character in Islam was perfect. And it will remain
like that, unlike any other system, look at the other theories, how much they were amended, how much they were changed. Look at the secular systems, how many times how often they are changed, while in Islam, we have things permanent, and they are valid, and they achieve happiness for people. And Allah subhanho wa Taala summarized the good character, the morality in one ayah
when Allah subhanaw taala mentioned righteousness, in Surah Baqarah that righteousness is not to turn your faces towards east or west, but rather righteousness is to worship Allah subhana wa Taala to believe in Allah, the final day, the prophets and the messengers, the angels of Allah, and the books of the messengers of Allah, and to believe in Allah, and to give the needy and the poor. So in this ayah all acts of goodness, they are contributing to morality. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam also mentioned that the righteousness which is a concise word, that it's a broad, concise word that includes a lot of things. righteousness is the good character, and we wrote personal hulak
that's what the prophet sallallahu Sallam said, you want to be righteous, you have to have a good character. Without good character, you cannot be a perfect believer. I asked Allah subhanaw taala to perfect our Amen. I asked Allah subhanaw taala to make us among those who listen to the guidance and follow the rest of it. Head on salatu salam ala nabina Muhammad Allah Allah savage nine. salaam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.