The History of African Muslim Slaves in America
Channel: Adnan Rashid
File Size: 37.63MB
The language that we live in now.
we we can all post a while You carry on Yeah.
Okay, on the lower status symbol. So today, we are going to be speaking about Muslim slaves in America, that there were Muslims who were kidnapped who were enslaved from Africa. And places like West Africa in particular, and taken across to America. And their struggles, their life is something which is sadly pretty much lost in history. So this is something that inshallah we want to highlight. And this will be a source of inspiration for many, many people. So I'd known
as an introduction to this topic, please get us started.
Okay, this was my
brother and sisters. Thank you so much for being patient with us. We had some technical glitches. Now we are back on course. And I thank you, brother Seville for inviting me to address this important topic, often neglected and understudied.
And Muslim, just Could you take out the headphones, maybe that's going to be easier.
me know. Me a much better. Okay.
So often, very much under appreciated topic, and understudied. And the topic is, Muslims in America, in general, Muslims in America, and African Muslims in particular, in America, we are dealing with African Muslims today, in particular, Muslims who came from Africa, right? If you look at Muslims in America, that's a very wide history that deals with a lot of people from different places, coming to America in different times. And it starts with the very discovery of America. As far as the Europeans are concerned. We know Christopher Columbus landed on America or at America, right? In 1492. And thenceforth, a lot of Muslims from Islamic Spain, who were later on called moriscos, also
came to the to the Americas. And there are histories written about them. So the Muslim existence in America is as early as America itself, okay, or the discovery of America itself. But today, we are going to talk about the Atlantic slave trade, which caused hundreds of 1000s of Muslims to be kidnapped from from Africa, and we're taken across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. When I say the Americas, I mean, North America, Central America and South America. So all of these regions were basically filled with Muslims, who came from predominantly West Africa. Now the question is, what were these African Muslims doing in America? How did they end up there? They were actually kidnapped
as I as I stated earlier, Atlantic slave trade was basically one of the most barbaric episodes in human history. Okay, it started somewhere around in the mid
15th century, let's say 1450s. And it continued for another 400 years until 1850s, until it was completely abolished and outlawed, and made illegal by Western nations that were indulging in it for over 100 years. So there were Dutch merchants, there were Portuguese merchants or merchant ships, there was a lot of mercantile activity throughout the Atlantic Ocean. And after the discovery of Americas,
there was labor needed to basically take advantage of the land that was newly discovered. The Native Americans proved to be poor labor, according to the settlers at the time. So they needed stocky, big men who are willing to work and they will be made to work. So Africans came to mind to some of these European adventures, so they found a solution to it. So what they did was they would come from Europe to West Africa, they would buy slave in large numbers, they would, they would park ships with the slaves, right? slaves were very often victims of wars. They had become capitals of wars, or sometimes they were simply kidnapped from their homes. So because slave slave trade started, the
Europeans became very interested in slave trade in buying slaves. Some of the Africans, they started to feed this demand of slaves by kidnapping the African brothers and sisters. So this is a reality that cannot be denied. Although
Some people do try to deny this. But at the end of the day, it was the Europeans who were feeding the slave trade. So a lot of these people were kidnapped. Throughout these four centuries, I mentioned from 1415 to 1850s, right?
And hundreds of 1000s of people, there are estimates, that minimum, at least 12 million people were taken from Africa, within these four centuries, and at least a million of them, at least a million of those 12 million people were Muslims. Okay. So the numbers, of course, our conservative numbers may be as high as 100 million people 100 million humans, kidnapped, bought as slaves by the Europeans, predominantly and shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas and put into slavery in North America, in Central America, and in South America. Right. So this is a summary. This is a this is an introduction to the problem we are going to be talking about today. The question that how
did the Muslim African Muslims end up in the Americas in the first place? So this is the answer. Atlantic slave trade, there was a bloody triangle. Bloody triangle is very well known to those who study the history of Atlantic slave trade.
Basically, what was this right triangle
ships would start their journey from Liverpool, they would come to West Africa. And they would sell commodities to Africans and in return, they would buy slaves in large numbers in 1000s. And they would pack the ships with the slaves, sometimes putting them in spaces as large as six by two, if not, six by three, six feet by two feet, basically as as much space as needed for a human being to fit in. So they would be lying in this position in chains, often being injured by shackles put on them often being, you know, Fred, in that position of often even relieving themselves in that position. So the stench would be completely unbearable, because these humans would be kept in this
position for weeks before they would be let out to go on the deck and relax their muscles for a while. And they will be washed with seawater, and they would be put back into the dungeon into the basement of ships. So the picture is absolutely horrendous. When you actually read histories. You don't you don't understand how humans can do this to other humans, right. And this was happening for 400 years, people talk about the Holocaust. We will talk about the massacres and the genocides that took place in the 20th century and the 21st century. But people often forget one of the greatest genocides in human history. I repeat, one of the greatest genocides one of the most cruel and
barbaric genocides in human history, was called the Atlantic slave trade,
completely funded, facilitated, and run by European powers. In particular, European colonial powers Portuguese, the British, the Dutch, the French, were all at it. They were buying slaves from West Africa, human called they call they called the slave human cargo, they call them cargo, they were cargo, they would be insured. And they would be dumped into the sea very often.
Basically, for for claiming insurance, right, that would be insured. And when some of these slaves got sick, when they got injured, the bones got broken because of the shackles they were in, they would be thrown into the sea. And then these merchants would claim insurance on the part of the slaves.
So bloody triangle was basically ships would start from Liverpool, they would come to West African countries like Sierra Leone, Ghana, or, you know, Guinea, for example, Senegal, these are the countries that were buying slaves from predominantly. So they would buy slaves, and they would sell commodities brought from Britain, and then these slaves would be shipped across the Atlantic. The slaves, then would they would be then sold to American buyers, who would be willing to pay handsome money for these Taki big men coming or women of course, coming from West Africa, healthy people, and they would be put to plantations and other work, basically into agriculture. And a lot of these
slaves were killed within four years, okay, the average was average life of men would be four years, they will die within four years worked to death in sugar plantations, because the work load was very, very, very hot. So this is a summary of what was happening in the 400 years.
From 1415 to 1850s. Now throughout this period, many Muslim Africans, some of them scholars, learned men, people who had studied classical texts of Islam, in proper institutions, some of them even royalty, princes were kidnapped, as they were captured in wars between African states and African
principalities, they would be captured, and then they would be sold. In spite of the status within Africa, they would be sold to these European slavers. And there are few exam examples, we will we will be discussing a new course. So at least a million of these if the number is probably a million, if it's not 100, maybe custom scholars, they claim the number is anywhere between 12 million human beings to 100 million human human beings it can be the numbers can be anywhere between 12 million to 100 million human beings, okay. And at least 10% of these slaves, at least, if not more, some say even 30%. Right? At least 10% of these slaves are or people who were captured from Africa kidnapped
from Africa, they were Muslims, practicing Muslims, and we find the evidence and whatever remains in the form of their clothing, the form of their writings, the manuscripts they have left behind, and it can be found in American museums, and private collections, and some of the museums even in southern Africa, suffering in South America, and Central America. So one book we strongly recommend for everyone before we begin, this is a book we only recommend for everyone to read. Those of you watching this live feed, please go and buy this book or get your hands on this book. This is the book that documents the history. I am narrating in a very, very short video. What is the book
brother Samuel, can you can you show it to our viewers?
Okay, this is the book. The book is titled, servants of Allah, servants of Allah. And we will talk about the man who is depicted on the cover there. Okay, his name is job, Ben Solomon, and the author of this book is sylviane ed off. So if you bring the book closer with the support, so that people can actually read the name of the author. Okay, Sylvia sylviane. Okay. He saw an ad off Sylvian ad off is an author from America from the US. She has written this excellent, amazing book, titled servants of Alliance he documents the history of Muslim slaves who were kidnapped from Africa and taken across the Atlantic. Let's start with the person who is depicted on the cover. They're the
famous or the most recognized face of Islam in America are one of the most recognizes faces of Islam in America. This man was a YouTube min Suleiman Diallo. Okay, are you Ben's film on the auto or also known as job Ben Solomon, job, Ben Solomon, in
the American history, okay. He was from Senegal, current day Senegal. And he was a scholar of Islam. He was a young man kidnapped in 1730s, early 1730s and taken across the Atlantic and sold into slavery when he was caught and sold into slavery. His buyer was a certain Captain Pike. And this Captain Pike was told by Solomon Are you been Solomon that his father can pay
handsome money for this?
basically, a huge Solomon. They all made the most of his,
you know, made the most of his literacy. He was illiterate man. He was a very, very literate man. He was a learned man. He was a prince. He was given a high quality of education by his father who happened to be a king of his principality. And,
uh, you Bill Solomon was caught by some of his adversaries, and he was sold to this Captain called Steven pike. Okay, who was the captain of a ship called Arabella Okay, for Diablo offered pike money in return for his freedom. The other two told pike Captain Pike that my father can pay handsomely for my freedom. So,
pike agreed and Solomon a messenger to his father to pay the money but by the time they came back to free him, Arabella had already left the port. Right. So as a consequence a you been Soloman was sold to an American
Master. And then later on, he wrote a letter in Arabic to his father, from America from Maryland, he was sold in to a plantation in current day Maryland. In America. He wrote this letter to his father, asking him to release him or free him from this slavery. And the letter was given to another slave trader, so that the letter can come to Captain Pike, who can take the letter back to Senegal and somehow get the letter to the father of Solomon, when you have the letter, never made it to, unfortunately, Africa, but it made to London made it to London. So in London, when the letter was discovered, it was read. And people who read the letter became very intrigued and cut the long story
are you mean, Solomon was freed from slavery from these scholars in London who had come to read his letter, and they were impressed by his Arabic skills? And they knew this is not just a common slave is a learned man, he's a scholar, and a you been Solomon was bought from his owner or his master in America, and he was brought to London, or you lived in London, for nearly, you know, a two to three years. And he was frequenting the streets of London. He was a celebrity or known celebrity in London, he met the royal family, he spent time with them, and he even helped
sir Hans Sloane, sir Hans Sloane, whose private collection was the foundation of the British Museum, the British Library and the Natural History Museum. Solomon helped him translate some of the Arabic documents in his possession. Solomon been a you became a celebrity, overnight in London, and he wrote three copies of the Quran from memory while he was in London. So if you look at, if you look at, if you look at his picture, again, on the cover of the book, Solomon been a you you see a copy of the Quran in his neck, if you raise Yeah, you can see a copy hanging from his neck, he was wearing this copy of the Quran he had written in his own hand from memory. So from his memory to the
man, when are you having being sold into slavery, then freed by some scholars in London and brought to London, and then was put to translating some Arabic manuscripts in the British Library collection and later on, freed, of course, and he was free to go back to his home. In 1734, he did return and found nothing much left behind. Unfortunately, his father was killed in war, he was told and his wife was missing, his entire family was displaced. And these were chaotic times in Africa at the time, because of primarily because of this evil slave trade. It was causing a lot of disturbance within West African territory. Because a lot of these raids were taking place a lot of people were
fighting was to acquire slaves to accumulate a huge number of slaves so that they can sell it and become rich.
So this is a brief story of Solomon been a YouTube I haven't done justice to his.
His history, there is a book that has been published by Oxford University University Press. It is titled of fortunate slave. The book is titled The fortunate slave. It is a biography of Solomon being a YouTube, please get your hands on that book. And you can get more details about Philemon and his whereabouts in the UK, in London. And when he was walking around the streets of London, wearing his turban and Islamic attire, and he became a celebrity. So people will think that Muslims just turned up in the Americas, in the 60s in the 70s. And likewise, in the in, in the British Isles, they are mistaken. Muslims have had a very positive
long term presence on the British, political, literary and intellectual landscape. I repeat, the Muslims have had a very, very long lasting legacy in Britain, when it comes to literature,
literacy, and other contributions, right. And likewise, in America, as soon as America was discovered, the Muslims were there from the very big beginning in the very foundations of the American civilization. And I am planning a lecture in the future where I will talk about Islam and America just like I've talked about Islam and Britain. You can find this lecture on my YouTube channel. I will be doing another lecture Islam and America and I'll be talking about the slaves and how they made a difference. So there are other examples, but there's a book while I'm going on, do you want to say something you want to do you want to clarify something? No.
But I did want to just highlight that I have the same reaction as many people in the audience which is just out of sheer astonishment at, you know, the I mean, a West African Prince in slaved, who goes on to the UK, and actually then mingles with the higher
aspects of society. And, you know, this is something unbelievable when you think about it, this is what the 18th century, right.
And he and he wrote the Quran from memory three times. So you know, this is really incredible. And one of the things I just wanted to highlight is for many of our American brothers are many of the people in the black community, we know that they convert to Islam in large numbers compared to other people in America. And this is something which will be a source of inspiration for them, that their blood is probably from places in Africa that were predominantly Muslim, or non. This is also something which I just want to ask you that, you know, from the slavery perspective.
We want to cover this topic again. But I did want to ask yourself a very basic question about they treated slaves as pure human cargo. So it was not just about, you know, okay, we're going to keep them in this particular way. This one, we're going to get insurance off because there's arms broken, but West Africans are known. I mean, you've traveled all over Africa for the last decade. So maybe, maybe you can correct me if I'm wrong. But from my understanding West Africa, which is predominantly Muslim, are is the place with the largest body, the people with the largest frames with the with the biggest heights. So for example, Senegal, Nigeria, we went to Nigeria together, the people were
huge, right? So the women and the men are actually tall, compared to say, Malawi or other parts. So is that why they were targeted? They were targeting that area because of the size of the people there.
Possibly, there's no doubt that the West Africans who were taken across the Atlantic were
desired, very much desired because of the frames because of the physicality of physiology rather, right? They were physically huge. You know, even if you look at West Africans today, like Fulani people, the Mandingo people, for example, they were very, very much they were very, very much desired. In America, because these these sugar plantations, they required strong men to work
through those hard circumstances and conditions. And that's why imagine a 20 to 25 years old Mandingo man, you know, maybe six and a half feet tall, very tough guy, a tough looking big, big muscle person, he would be worked to death within four years. What could he possibly What could he be possibly doing for him to die within four years is the question, right? So the average was about the lifespan of these slaves was about four years, so they would have to be worked. And their money would have to be worked basically out of them
within these four years, so this is how these slave traders and sugar plantation owners, they measured the value, the stronger the person, the stronger the slave, the higher the value. This is why when they would see that some of them got injured on route to America. Some of them got injured because of shackles, because of the space they were put in six by two. And obviously because of that they got body sores, because they were crammed in very, very small spaces. And they were put on wood they were they weren't put on mattresses or or some soft surface Rather, they would be lying on wooden planks, right? And that would cause body sores and the body sores would be infected. And
because of that, a lot of them got ill and they will be they will be thrown into the sea. There are books written on this topic by the Atlantic slavery. You Thomas you Thomas is a very standard book you can read the author called Hugh Thomas. He has written a book titled Atlantic slave trade read it and you will see on the reality Um, there's another one I hold here, the slavery reader published by the route, the route ledge. The route ledge press is a collection of articles excellent articles on Atlantic slave trade. So you must study this topic to understand how cruel humans can become due to greed and, and they aspirations you know, albeit misplaced, and very evil aspirations, but they
can inflict extreme harm to other humans. If they don't follow any set moral value if they don't, if they believe in God is not right, right. Because a lot of these people are Christians. All of these
People were taking all these. I'm not saying Christianity causes as well, somehow Christianity did not prevent this catastrophe of 400 years. This went on for 400 years. And most of the people involved were Christians, right? Of course, even abolition. The abolition of slave trade was also, you know, promoted by Christians later on people like William Wilberforce and john Newton, who himself was
a slaver once upon a time and he made repent, repentance, repented and even wrote a poem, titled Amazing Grace, Amazing Grace at this point, john Newton, who basically repented and he became an abolitionist. So there are both sides. But yeah, unfortunately, the 400 years It is unbelievable how these, these catastrophes and cruelties went on. Moving on to some other characters we want to talk about very quickly Muslims, African Muslims in America, there was another very interesting character called Omar mainsite. Rice born in born in second Senegal, if you if you put his name in Google, you will see his pictures the actual photograph, right? He was born in Senegal in 1770. And he was a
well known character. In the summer of 1863 newspapers in North Carolina announced the death of former mental Mr. He was called, he was called or he was known as uncle Mario, Uncle Mario, right. And he was a practicing Muslim. He was struggling to practice his faith, even though he was thought to have converted to Christianity, but he didn't convert great. He was given a Bible and some of these Muslim slaves to navigate through the difficult circumstances they were facing. They they pretended to become Christians, they pretended, right? They, they, they basically gave an impression to the masters and the owners that okay, they are inclined to Christianity to make the lives easy.
So Omar bin sola, sorry, Omar bin side is known for something similar. He was given a Bible, his personal Bible is still preserved. It is in a collection in America. And on the very first page of the Bible, there are Salawat upon the Prophet sallallahu sallam, no, can you imagine a Christian reading a Bible? Right and writing Salawat upon the Prophet Muhammad Salallahu Salam. So what he was trying to say is that, because those people couldn't read Arabic, he was writing in Arabic inside his Bible Salawat upon the Prophet sallallahu sallam, so he was hiding his Muslim faith, okay, from these Christian counterparts, so that he's not persecuted or brutalized by his master, and his
neighbor. So there are many more examples like that. I mean, generally speaking, there are so many testimonies.
And so many accounts of African Muslims trying to survive as Muslims in these extremely hostile circumstances, extremely hostile circumstances, and how they managed to do that.
Sylveon ad off gives absolutely fascinating details and evidence in her book. In this regard. She documents a lot of examples where Muslims are basically trying to pray. There are testimonies there was there was basically
a Muslim called bill Ali from Guinea. His name was Bill Ali, right. And he was from Guinea. And you know, in America, he wrote a document
that came from the one of the classical works from the 11th century. And that document was originally authored by a tea museum scholar of Islam, Ibn Abu Zeid, Altai Ronnie. So Bill Ali, in the US wrote a 13 page document, part of our work by the 10th century the museum aban, Abu Zubaydah, Cara Juana, okay. It was written on paper produced in Italy, for the North African market, which raises intriguing questions as to how he acquired it. It is possible that below he kept it with him, he brought it with him or he might have written it himself. But this was a Muslim from Guinea, who was copying classical works his classical Islamic works that are only known by scholars. This is not
a lay man. This is a scholar in America, writing a classical text in Islam on 13 pages, right. And the text comes from the 10th century from a scholar from Tunisia, Ibn Abu Zeid, altaira one, this is an example, right? Also there are other examples of Muslims fasting, and these testimonies were basically put down by other slaves, Christian slaves, were observing. The Muslims do all of this right. There was another very famous slave who was walking the streets of Washington, DC. His name was
Yaro Mahmud, Yarrow Mahmud, or possibly Yarrow, Mohamoud, another highly visible Muslim, was taken from Guinea in 1752, when he was about 16 years old after 44 years of slavery was freed and bought a house in Washington, DC Mahmoud was a kind of celebrity who was often seen and heard in the streets, singing praise of God and conversing with them. Right talking to God, maybe making the art to Allah. Okay, often heard loud in the streets of Washington, DC. This is Yara Mahmoud, who was basically taken from Guinea in 1752. Right as a 16 years old, and Islam never left him. This is a 16 years old who was kidnapped when he was 16. He did not abandon Islam, despite despite all the preaching of
Christianity, all the Christian preachers, masters and missionaries and clergy and going to churches, and all of that did not convert him to Christianity, kidnapped as a 16 years old child, still remain Muslim until his death. In fact, there are reports about him that he used to say, Do not drink and do not eat Pog basically will tell
people in Washington where he was living that don't drink alcohol is bad. And do not eat hog hog is pig, swine meat. So in other words, he was even doing power in his little capacity. So your mood, or your Mahmoud was doing Dawa in his little capacity in those extreme circumstances. This is the legacy of Afro Americans. This is what Afro Americans need to look up to. This is what they need to dig deeper. This is what they need to realize. This is why they need to realize why they are coming to Islam in such large numbers, it is part of the DNA. Islam was the original religion, many of them, not all, of course, hundreds of 1000s of your ancestors were African Muslims. So this Vicar
you are making today having converted to Islam or having reverted to Islam rather, is not just from a vacuum. It is possibly the eyes of your ancestors, the ones you descend from, they were making God or Allah protect our faith, our Iman in these extreme hostile conditions and make our children Muslims make our children Muslim. I am pretty sure some of these people made these doors. And that's why so many Afro Americans are coming to Islam and drove in droves. You walk through the streets of New York, you walk through the streets of other American cities, you will see black Africans, Afro Americans, accepting Islam in large numbers. This is not just accidental, my brothers. This is the
legacy of your predecessors, your ancestors, who were kidnapped in large numbers from Africa and brought to America against the wishes against the desires. And despite all that, they were still holding on to Islam. There is another example of a 14 years old, who was picked up from Africa, a 14 year old child. Okay, who was this? This is solly Malala. Okay.
For example, abducted in Mali, when he was about 1460 years later, he was still a strict Muslim, abstaining from liquors and keeping various fats, particularly that of Ramadan, wrote his owner, James Hamilton Cooper, so he's owner, solid Pilates owner. Okay. There was a man called African man taken from Mali. His name was solly ballari. taken as a 14 year old child, this is what I want you to understand the veracity of these people. They they love for Islam, despite all the extraordinary odds they were facing against them, right? Look at his love for Islam. This man was taken as a 14 years old. 60 years later, his master is writing, the one who owns him in America he's writing his
name is James Hamilton Cooper, he writes that he is still a strict Muslim, abstaining from liquor and fasting the month of Ramadan, taken as a 14 years old. This is the legacy of Afro Americans. This is the history of America, Africa. And by the way, Muslim slaves were singled out or separated from the rest of the African slaves. You know why? Because of the education Muslims had received in West Africa. This was a very vibrant period in West Africa, as far as the spread of Islam is concerned. A lot of these people because of being Muslims, they were taught how to read and write and they went to seminaries they went to Medina is they went to universities in some cases. In the
case of Bill Ali from Guinea, who wrote 10th century text from memory. Amazingly, what is the
tell you is writing a memory not Quran, because Quran was written by many, many slaves, the Quran, or you Bill Solomon was one example. But the Quran was written by many, many slaves from memory. Okay. And later scholars are still surprised as to how many neurons I mean how many Koreans ended up in America, because they were not allowed to carry books, they were naked, most of the slaves was completely naked when they were taken. So they had written these currents from their memories in America while they were slaves. Hello, my brother. This is what we have discussed with you today. They're popping, they abstaining from pig meat, they abstain abstaining from liquor, their
resistance to Christianity, and other evil influences they came across in America. Okay. And all those things, basically, you know, this is fascinating. This is amazing, this story needs to be told, louder and louder Muslim need to know about this, right? So we leave it here, because we don't want to exhaust you with details. But what we want you to do is, we will basically put a link to the book so that you don't struggle finding it. And we will put an article written by the same author, Sylvia an ad of in Al Jazeera or for for the Al Jazeera website, she has written an article and she has given these brief details, those of you who don't have the time to read the entire book, I
highly recommend that you read this article, it gives you a good summary of some of the experiences but I very, very strongly recommend the book to servants of Allah by Sylvia ad off, okay. And we will give you the link to the article as well and you can read both each other. I think we will stop there brother support. Definitely. So jsoc locker at nonparty for that very touching. In fact, there was one point where, you know, I got very emotional you said, you know, he wrote Salaam upon the Prophet,
you know, in the Bible. So, you know, for everybody watching, wherever you are in the world and hamdulillah I'm very happy to see, one of the sisters was actually saying that she's a Fulani herself, and she's from West Africa. And there's
people from all over speaking about this. So I just wanted to give one quick message.
If I'm not mistaken, a you been Solomon was Fulani. A you been Solomon was Fulani. So a lot of Fulani and mundane NGOs and other tribes and other West Africa, generally West Africans, they were taken right. And before I go very quickly, I want to remind everyone, Google slide bin, sorry, Omar bin site and read his Doc, his biography, possibly on Wikipedia, you'll find plenty of information. They also also Google Yarrow, Mahmoud Yara Mahmoud is why a r r o w. Mahmoud is ma m o UT, Google his name you will find his biography and then
also Google job Ben Solomon, job, Ben Solomon, are you been swell a man the yellow, the yellow di l Oh, you will see these three biographies and they will fascinate you and more are bound in the book insha Allah. And here you have a picture of Omar
and this is his writing. This is a surah of the Quran he wrote by memory, Allah Walker, lower
jaw closer for your precious time. We're going to be live again next week with a different topic related to this, we want to revisit this from a different angle. But the message to everybody that's watching this right now in sha Allah is that all of us as Muslims, we need to give Dawa especially to
the black communities within the Western world. And also many of the Muslims which are in Africa, they should be inspired by this to actually give our because if you look north is Muslim Central is mixed. And then South is Christian and even some of the Muslims in the middle have converted sadly so until next time, please keep in mind it is our duty to convey the message of Islam and we
before we and brothers a bow you know these African Muslim slaves, they were still doing our in America even though they were creating extraordinary odds. Well, why did our that the details the evidence you will find in the book written by Silvia and he do and there was actually a scholar among them, who basically there was a rebellion is called by a rebellion by your rebellion is b h. Ai, sorry, BIBHI ai bya rebellion, something like that. It's called okay. And one of the scholars he wrote a long text 50 pages text to encourage people to remain Muslim and don't abandon Islam for whatever they are offered in return and remain Muslim.
Continuous muscles that this kind of dour, allow awkward in these extreme circumstances when the when they're being killed, brutalized, lashed, cut into pieces thrown into the sea and being worked to death in plantations. They are facing extraordinary reward in the form of the cruelest masters and they're still doing our still holding, holding on to Islam praying, reading the Quran writing Quran and keeping up with the vicar enascar Allahu Akbar, these people were just, you know, well, I can't emphasize this enough that we need to read about them. We need to read about them inshallah. Absolutely, absolutely. So until next time, you know, this is something that we all need to action
and insha Allah in the future, we're going to be covering some of the things we described in more detail as salaam alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh product