Islam in South Asia Delhi Sultanate, Mughals and the Raj
Channel: Adnan Rashid
File Size: 62.72MB
Not everyone knows about the Mamelukes of Egypt, you know, a bunch of slaves who were bought from slave markets in Central Asia, and then they were trained into military arts, and then they became the generals and then the small towns themselves. Okay. This is what gave rise to the famous Mughal dynasty, the Mamelukes, who fought the Crusaders as well as the Mongols right later on to protect to protect or defend what remained of the Muslim civilization in the east.
Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato. My name is Ahmed Amar. And I would like to welcome you to the second episode of Revival, the McMaster Muslim student associations very own podcast series. Through this podcast, of course, as the name suggests, we hope to provide a source of Islamic revival for the Muslim student community and beyond. We hope to tackle some of the more difficult topics and answer the more burning the most burning questions that face our youth today. And, of course, we will be doing this by leaning on people with any distinguished community members, we're going to be leaning on their expertise and their wisdom. And, of course, without further ado, under
that we have very happy to welcome our staff, another shade all the way from London UK. Start at nine I'm going to be reading his
I guess his bio has been making mistakes that Adnan Rashid is a British Pakistani British historian and educator with a specialty in the history of Islamic civilization, comparative religion and Hadith literature. He embarked on his educational journey by pursuing a bachelor's degree in the history and history from the University of London followed by a master's degree in History and Philosophy of Science from the same university. He has gained ijazat and Hadith from a number of scholars and has taken a keen interest in Islamic numismatics. That's coin collection. For those who don't know, an ancient manuscripts. He is not only a scholar, but Alain de engaging in interfaith
discussions with many high profile figures in the field of politics, history, and Christian Islamic theology. If that was not enough, start at none has also authored a short book called Islam's war on terror, and is currently working on his next publication.
Now we're gonna get up getting into the episode. The title of today's episode is going to be beyond the British, the British Raj history of Islam and south and south Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
And we're going to be talking about, you know, the Mughals and their historical and political and Islamic importance. We're going to be then transitioning into the role of the British that ended in 1947, and the Indian Indian Independence Act, and then we will focus on the contemporary and social, political and religious struggles of Kashmir. So, start at none, I don't want to be taking any more of your time. Or, sorry, the audience's time would look with me very much like to hear what you
hear what I hear what you have to say about the topic, basically. So I'm gonna be starting us off, maybe with a brief introduction, myself being a Arab Muslim, I speak for on behalf of most Arabs, when I say that we don't really know much about Islam in India. We know there's Muslims in India, we know Pakistan, handler, almost all Muslim.
How did Islam get there? Maybe tell us a bit about Islam? I guess throughout? I know, it's a big question.
And we want to focus on the Moghuls. But maybe a brief introduction, so everyone's kind of to speed. Thank you so much for inviting me for this podcast is my pleasure, my honor, to be able to discuss a topic that's very close to my heart. I have spent much of my life studying the history of Islam in the Indian subcontinent in particular. And I have studied the history of Islam elsewhere as well.
Islam came to India politically speaking as a political power as a political entity. Almost a century after the Prophet of Islam himself, the Prophet of Islam, passed away in the year 630. To see by 711 See, Muslims had already landed in India, currently Pakistan, in the province of Sindh, this expedition, whatever the reasons were behind it, reasons have been debated and discussed by many different academics and scholars. And debates vary from scholar to scholar person to person like depending, I mean, sources are not very clear as to why the Muslims invaded this territory in the first place. There is a theory that there was piracy, and in response to piracy in the Arabian
Sea, some Muslim merchants who were traveling from currently Sri Lanka, back to Arabia were basically attacked in the sea by pirates. And this kind of incident
get to this particular expedition to liberate some of those Muslims from
the prisons or dungeons of these pirates. So Mohammed no Kasim attack of a was sent as a general by hijab new use of who was the governor of Iraq, the omit governor of Iraq. So this expedition of five nephew, right, he was his nephew. Yes. So these are 5000 basically Muslims who came to basically free the Muslims as the theory goes, okay. And became Long story short, they fought some battles with local rulers, most importantly, a ruler called Raja Dyer, or king Dyer. He was defeated and much of saint was occupied, it was conquered by the Muslims. So Muslims went as far as Southern Punjab current day Milton, and the Arabs ruled this territory for the next 300 years. Okay. Now,
going through that history of 300 years is going to take a separate pot podcast, so we're not going to go get into that. Okay. But first of all my kids came, okay. The only kids
sent their governors one after another, okay, we had governor's like Hukam min Awana. We had Tamim bin Zayed Allah or Toby, we had Omer bin Mohammed bin Qasim, the very Son of Samuel, the conqueror of St. And then we the list goes on, right. And we know the names of these governors by two
from two sources, one sources the literary source, the histories of the conquest, okay, for example, one of them is Albula dories for total Baudin photocurable. Don mentioned these names, this passingly very little information is provided. Unfortunately, we don't have details of the governor ship or the rule of these governors in the central territory of Pakistan or at that time greater India.
Then, we have coins, we have found numismatic evidence in the Sindh province, and these coins actually mentioned the names of these governors. I have coins in my own possession, you know, let me show off my coin collection.
Okay, so I have coin some haka marijuana. I have coins from Tommy Minzy. That oughta be I have coin some American Muhammad Qasim. And again, this goes on then the Americans were basically after the revolution, the ambassador revolution, the amid ruling send declined, then the Abbasids had to come back to reconquer much of sent again, for Islam and Muslims. And then they ruled from a capital called almanzora. The first capital of Islam in Sindh or let's say in India, for that matter, okay was Al Mufasa al Mufasa. Basically the protected one literally meaning protected project in my foods in the Arabic language means protected right. So Al baffles are the Protected one was a garrison
town established by Al Hakim in Arvada. Okay.
And then after al hakam, Amber bin Mohammed and possum Mohammed and cross him son made another capital not very far from the first capital called Al mon surah. So I'll muffled and also so almanzora remained the capital of Islam for at least two to 300 years.
You know, so long as the Arabs ruled the province of Sindh, okay, it's not to be confused with the monsoon on Egypt. No, it's not. It's not not to be confused on Surah This is the Missoura in India. And there were coins minted at almanzora some of which I possess Alhamdulillah. So
then for 300 years, the Arabs rule then came the Fatimids. Okay. They took some of this territory from the Muslims. Okay. And they came to rule
from Multan, the capital of Bhutan. Okay, fast forward, Sultan, Mahmud ghaznavi, from the city of asthma in Afghanistan. He decided to invade India for two reasons. One was to invade, to gain
wealth. This was an incursion to gain wealth. He was a king when needed money. Kings always need money to increase the number of the soldiers and expand the armies. So he came for that reason one of the reasons for that and the other reason was to subdue the the fat to meet the smiley, okay, government of Bhutan, which which was threatening the Sunni Muslims in the region. So Sultan Muhammad wasn't became for that reason, having taken
Bhutan, and some parts of North
northwestern India. He established His capital at Lahore, the city of Lahore, currently Pakistan that remained the COVID capital for the next 200 years almost. Okay. So from the year 1000, let's say to 1200, Lahore remained a very important city for the Garden of Eden, right. Then came another group of Afghan
rulers and invaders, called the whole ridge. Okay. This was a family of
rulers who ruled much of Afghanistan at the time parts of Central Asia and parts of current day, Pakistan. So they came conquering lands they took Lahore from the Gaza weeds establish their own government, and then they defeated the den ruler of Northern India called Prithvi Raj Chohan. This was a Hindu Rajput ruler, who was defeated in battle. Okay, in the second battle of terrain, he was defeated in
1190 to see, okay, he was a near contemporary of Sultan Salahuddin. So Don Saladino up was while he was fighting the Crusaders in the Middle East. The Muslims photons of Afghanistan were invading territory into India. And this gave rise to what we knew later on as the daily assault on it, the powerful daily sultanate now everyone knows about the Mamelukes of Egypt, you know, a bunch of slaves who were bought from slave markets in Central Asia, and then they were trained into military arts, and then they became the generals and then the small towns themselves. Okay. This is what gave rise to the famous Mughal dynasty, the Mamelukes, who fought the Crusaders as well as the Mongols
right later on, to protect, to protect or defend what remains of the Muslim civilization in the east. Because the Mongols came devastating, all the way, all the way from China to Syria all the way to Syria. It were the Mamluks in the Battle of Angel wrote in 12 1260, when the Mongols were decimated for the first time to that level to that magnitude. Okay, so that Mameluke dynasty is very well known, very well known, okay, because their deeds great deeds, like the Sultan Baybars, a very famous alltown, who was fighting the Mongols as well as the Crusaders simultaneously at the same time, he's the one who took some of the remaining strongholds of the, of the Crusaders in the Middle
East and that's why the Crusaders had to leave once and for all.
From the Middle East, okay, he's the one who ousted or basically expelled the Crusaders completely. Okay. Very famous Mameluke general and ruler, so town by verse, okay.
Now, the dynasty the Mamluk dynasty of India is very little known, especially by the Arab world, or to the Arab world and the rest of the Muslim ummah, in general, most Muslims don't know as to what the Mameluke dynasty of India did and achieved
similar to what Mamelukes are doing in Egypt, for Muslims and Islam. Similar deeds were basically or, you know, great achievements were done in India as well. Mongols, as they went invading the Middle East and, you know, all the way up to Egypt, okay. They came to India as well. They invaded India, they were invading India for 100 years, starting from Ganga ISKCON himself, Ganga is Khan came to India all the way
to currently Pakistan pursuing the son of a Sultan whoredom Shah, Jalaluddin quadrum Shah was basically was the successor of Sultana Laude, muhammad shah. He was the person who the Mongols defeated. The first king, the first Sultan to be defeated by the Mongols was allowed in Makarem Shah who died soon after his son succeeded him and he continued to resist the Mongol invasions and Ganga is Khan himself came pursuing him all the way to currently Pakistan near Bashar near the city of Bashar and then he turned around, so the Mongols never stopped, they kept coming to India, to take India from the Muslims, but the daily Sultan's the Mamelukes of Delhi, who ruled from belly as the
capital. They stood, like a wall of iron, or, let's say brick walls. They stood in the way of the Mongols. They expel the Mongols repel the Mongols. They kept fighting many of them lost their family members in these battles in these wars to mention one very important case soltana Raya
So, Dean Baldwin, who ruled from 1266 to 1286. See, right, this was the peak of the Mongol invasions, this period India faced, you know, immense, immense Mongol Mongol invasions of an immense magnitude. So in one of these battles, the Sultan's own son, his heir apparent, is wallula had was killed. So Don Mohammed or Prince Mohammed, he is called the shade, Prince in the history of India. He lost his life. And there was a famous point, Amir hospital Persian poet who was in this battle present, he was an eyewitness, he describes this battle in his poetry. This is a very powerful, very rich history of Islam and Muslims. I mean, I'm skipping through a lot of detail. And I'm just, you
know, basically hopping from town to slow down from period to period from Dynasty to dynasty. Okay, you really have to look into, you know, some basic works. To understand the Islamic or the Muslim history of India, I can quickly recommend a couple of books. One is by Richard
Richard Eaton. Eaton is spelt with E A T O. N.
Toronto Eaton center. Okay.
Okay familiar with Eaton. Okay, so this color is called Richard region. He's an American historian and He has authored this recent book titled India in the Persian it age Persianate age from the year 1000 to 1700 If I'm not mistaken Yeah 1000 to 1700 so he documents the history of Islam in India for the 700 years from the year 1000 all the way to 1700 very powerful book he calls it the Persian unit age because the language spoken at the time the language the court language was Persian Muslims was using the Persian language to do the administration and most work even in literature. I think they always said let's make Persian and
now we'll do used to be Turkish.
Now we'll do in fact we'll do has surpassed the Persian language when it comes to Islamic literature. I think the second most important language for Islam today is the oral language when it comes to the availability of literature. Okay, all do has pretty much most classical Arabic works are translated into it for example, we have the history of slavery in order to entirely or a Qatari is there. Yeah. And we are with our new hire in order to Okay, we have history of Ebola Thiele.
alcanada COVID Sorry.
Yeah, it's an order. Yeah, yeah. If you modified the Sahaba then we have Subhanallah, Imola, colic on that that's also in the whole don't, isn't.
no, not this word. Not theological works. Okay. These major theological works are not necessarily in order to you won't find on Morgagni of a Tilbury or you know, see Robin level. Yeah, these books are not in order to, but we have major literature translated into the older language based on the name of the nation that seems that far surpasses English. Oh, yes, absolutely. I mean, we have books of shareholders now we have 18 year old dogs.
With no primal jovia We have his books. hasm Hola. Hola. Hola. Hola. Mohalla has I did last I checked there were four volumes that were translated. So that's crazy work, right? Yeah. That's a lot of a lot of beer a lot. A lot of Arab scholars don't know this. But a lot of this literature has been translated into the doula there are a lot of native works as well. Yeah, just translate. Oh, yeah, absolutely. Not only translations original works have been authored by Muslim scholars from the Indian subcontinent. Some so unique that they have to be translated into the Arabic language for Arab scholarship. Like
Facebook was called.
No, alpha. Well, India you're talking about?
Yeah, that was originally in Arabic. Alphabet. Yeah. It was it was translated into later on. So he and him in the scholars he worked Arabic. Yeah, the original of Al fatawa oliguria. Also known as Al Fatah, well, India. It is a largest collection of Hanafi fiqh in the world. Okay, I think it's the largest collection is the you can say it's the alimony of the Hanafis. Okay, is the head of the hunter visa, Tommy. Tommy this for the formalities? Yeah, yeah, for the Maliki. Yeah. So so there is a lot I mean, a lot of people don't know this a lot. A lot of the Arab scholars don't know this, or do language has surpassed all other languages when it comes to Islamic literature, okay. And as you
said, there are a lot of original
works on specific topics. For example, in coral Hadith, in coral, Hadith was an Indian phenomenon. It came from India. Yeah, it came from the Indian subcontinent during the colonial period. It was started by a subsea that Matan, there was a man called. So Yoda, Hamid Khan. He is the one who came up with some of these ideas to question the veracity of this literature. And then later on, some other people adopted it. And then it became pretty widespread within the Indian subcontinent. And that's why the books against this phenomenon are all mostly authored in the oral language. Right? So what we then this this disease spread also into Egypt and other lands as well during the colonial
period, of course, but sorry, just to be clear, so in cattle Hadith in English as the rejection section of Hadith, yeah, Hadith rejection. Yeah. This is a very widespread phenomenon today as well, a lot of people, they reject these altogether. Okay. They think these literature is not trustworthy. And we've had debates with them, you can watch our debates in Speaker's Corner London, we've had some conversations with people from this background coming back to India. So sorry if I'm making it too long because we want to get to our main topic, but this is actually if you don't mind. So start at nine he has a FM I forgot to mention this but has a YouTube channel mashallah you go over? Many
of you mentioned many of the things that you mentioned, you have entire lectures about them you have
in the British Raj, all these things, Hadith, rejection, rejection, this is all on his YouTube channel. Yeah, this is more like a teaser. Yeah, absolutely. So these points I am mentioning today passingly. You can find as our beloved brother mentioned that we have lectures on some of these topics, or this rejection I have for four episodes for long lectures on this issue and they are very important lectures, they are in the English language. I've been requested to do them in the other language because that's where the real problem is. So I'm going to be doing that as well inshallah later on. So
the daily saltpans did it. Great deeds for not only Islam and Muslims were also for the people of India. Okay. Indians survived Mongol invasions. Because of the Muslim Sultan's they were spilling their own blood. One of the greatest battles in the history of Islam, against the Mongols took place in India. Everyone knows about Angel loot, every Muslim, or every Arab Muslim, let's say knows about Angel loot because of the importance of the battle. Rightly so. Exactly. Muslim woman was saved. But there was another battle that took place in 1299 when the chaga dies of
Chaga dies of Afghanistan. Chugga dies basically were the descendants of gang ISKCON chocolate icon was one of the sons of Genghis Khan, and one of his grandsons called Watlow quadra, Butler Quadra assembled the largest army of the Mongols to date in 1299. Right and he invaded Delhi, India. So the soltana at the time was so darn loud in Haji. Okay, so Tana Lau Deen Mohammed Haji, he was the Sultan and long story short, he defeated the Mongols. Okay, because of one general the Farrakhan he basically attacked the Mongols and decimated about 5000 5000 of the Mongols were killed in that very battle. And he himself lost his life with 1000 men. The details can be watched on a very powerful
video there's a there's a YouTube channel I strongly recommend for everyone, kings and generals. Okay.
You're absolutely amazing. This This is an absolutely amazing channel because they do a good job in telling history. So I want everyone to check out the Battle of Kili, the Battle of Keeley they have done an excellent video on this. The Battle of Kili K i l i Okay. The Battle of Kili kings and generals. Check it out you will be blown away like how important this battle was for the Muslims and their survival in India. And by extension the Indians the Hindus right. They were depending on the Muslims protons to to defend them to to guard them against this imminent threat. Continuous threat consistent threat for 100 years. The Mongols kept coming at times Eve every few months. The invading
India, the city of Lahore and Multan you're not people nowadays. They don't know this. Unfortunately, these cities were attacked repeatedly by the Mongols and the Muslims photons had a huge job and I believe it were the Mongols who made the daily sultanate so powerful. You know, when you have to defend yourself against continuous threats, you become strong, become very strong. You know what, what Nietzsche said Friday, Friday, Friday, Friday, Friday, which Nietzsche you're not the German philosopher, but he said it
What doesn't kill you makes you stronger. Okay, so that was the logic working there in India. Mongols the Mongols kept attacking the Muslims or defending themselves again.
So now we want to move on to the latter period the daily so sultanate survived from the year 1200 to 1526 until the Mughals came from Central Asia, another Muslim Sunni Muslim dynasty that outstripped the daily Sultanate and the remnants. Right. And then they came to power maybe
discuss Inshallah, yeah, so, okay, handle exact mafia for going through that. I know. It's very, very rich history. We have maybe 1000 years of history in India. Okay, so the next question, maybe now that we've got to the moguls, the Mughals what's the best way to pronounce it?
Models? M UGHAL. This is the best way to pronounce it currently.
Mughal is a word is a Persian word, which is a corruption of the word Mogol. Okay, so Mughal is
basically personalization of the word Mongo, okay. And initially it was a derogatory term used by the British to describe the models, or the team reads. The moguls basically called themselves Team reads, they did not they did not refer to themselves as models. This was only later on in the 18th and the 19th century when they started to adopt this title for themselves and what is from time origin to length yet Timberlane or Timo link, who was basically a central Asian conqueror in the 14th century and he devastated much of the territory around him. He went as far as Europe and came to India and even went to the Ottomans and defeated one of the Ottoman one of the Ottoman emperors.
Barges eat the JAL drum above the Thunderbolt. Okay. He was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by Timor and the Ottoman Empire almost fell completely disappeared, right? Because a 20 year civil war followed. So Timo was the ancestor of the models. So the models from Central Asia from the current day, summer canon Bacara territory, they came into Afghanistan.
The first Mughal emperor was called the hero de Muhammad Baba. Okay, he was a direct descendant of a Timor, okay, by, I think four generations or three, four or five generations. Okay, so he came into Afghanistan took Afghanistan and then he decided to invade India to attack one of the Muslim dynasties called the Lodi dynasty. Okay, and then he how he asked it, the last Lodi ruler of the dynasty and took the city of Delhi for himself. This happened in 1526. The reason why he did this was because he had lost his own territory in some erkunden, Bukhara, it was called Fergana. That time the territory was called Fergana, Fergana Valley was actually taken by some of his relatives,
his cousins and others who had taken this territory for him. So seeking a territory for himself, he came into Kabul, firstly to Afghanistan, and then he decided that he needs to expand. So he went into from Kabul to India at that time was not a very huge distance. So he decided that he should carve another Empire elsewhere, not if not in Central Asia, it must be in India. So he came to India and he only only ruled for four years. And he died in 1530.
Yeah, this is how the Mughal Empire started. We interrupt this episode to bring you a message from algorithm one attend directorships in the MSA, in which we seek the salary by Muslim students culture and creativity. Our directorship hold initiatives throughout the year to expose the McMaster community to the rich history of Muslim communities worldwide. Some of the events that we've included are Turkish water marbling, embroidery, poetry and calligraphy nights. And our year long work and with a combination of the communities written and visual pieces in our magazine and year end Arts Festival. The festival has art showcases student performances, guest lectures, the
opportunities are truly endless. And we really just want this to be a place where people can come and reflect on their lives in and out of the MSA. And it's also not only an opportunity for us to appreciate centuries of artistic traditions, but a way for us to come together to create new traditions. Now every year our magazine has a theme and the theme for the 2023 24 year is where we gather our truth and collective heritage gatherings holds such an important part in our fate whether this be gathering in the star table at a t 13 To play ping pong every Friday at the back to pray Gemma or the profound experience of hudge our community knows that when we gather for the sake of
Allah these gatherings are extraordinary. This team explores how is
Club our truth. Humanity's truth is the central focus of our lives, bringing us together to build families, friends and communities. Despite our different race culture and birthplaces, we really want the community to explore the intricate threads that build and nourish our Muslim identities to create a heritage that's worth leaving to stay updated on all things oh Gollum, follow our Instagram page Mac MSA underscore al Kalam we have very exciting developments coming up this year in sha Allah I noticed you mentioned you said daily now it's known as Delhi. So when when did the change happen? Kind of jumping the gun this is just this is probably the British period and later on. It's even
called Billy okay to make it shorter. Okay. Some people even call it Dilly Dilly D I ll I. But the real name of the city is Delhi the hilly dal ha olam ja okay. The E H Li. This is the real pronunciation or the original pronunciation that we can find on ancient coins like 800 years coins or the Muslims 800 years old coins of the Muslims you will see that Deray Baja the Sitka okay. We had strep B hazard daily, this coin was struck in Hazard Delhi hazard is basically
a title or a reference of respect to the city. So it was a very sacred city for the Muslim because of the because of the number of saints and mystics who had come from Central Asia to Delhi. The reason why they came from Central Asia Afghanistan to Delhi is because of the Mongol invasions, the Mongol came killing decimating every single town and city on their way to Syria. So many of these people who lost everything, okay. Among them were artists, scholars, architects, okay.
Brick workers, glass workers, bookmakers, scribes, poids, philosophers, intellectuals, you name it, the list goes on and on and on and on. All of this cream of the crop from Central Asia and Afghanistan ended up in Delhi. This is what gave rise to the powerful, the magnificent dailies ultimate. And that's why the small towns or the daily Sultan became such powerful towns, they had immense armies. They are some of the best soldiers, best scholars, best philosophers, best planners. That's why they lost it. That's why they lasted for so long, because they had the cream of the crop from the Muslim world. So some people ended up in Egypt and Syria because of the Mongol invasions.
And some people ended up in Delhi wherever they found a way to to exit their territory. They basically found the quickest and the easiest exit to safer territories. April of the year actually writes about some of these refugees
escaping from Mongol invasions or surviving Mongol invasions. He found refugees in Mosul, the city of Mosul and Eid Mussolini describe the condition. Sorry, I my parents are Formosa Oh, Allahu Akbar. Yes. So a brother theater was in Mosul. He was writing in Mosul. Yes. Okay. So he saw these refugees. He's an eyewitness. And he said, what I saw and what I heard
about the suffering, my pen cannot write it My hands shake before I write it. This is the obituary of Islam. Basically. This the janazah of Islam. I wish my mother did not. He died 28 years before Angela SubhanAllah 660s. But he had lived to see the Mongol invasions. And he's one of the greatest historians of the Crusades as well. He writes about the crusades, and the Crusaders and Sultan's Latina UB as well. So he's one of our main sources emila theory, but he also saw the Mongol invasions and, and the aftermath. So this is this is what what is the show us? This shows us that refugees from the Mongols basically ended up either in Syria or Egypt or in India. That's why the
Indian government or the Indian let's say, Sultanate, the daily sultanate the Mamelukes of India, they became so strong, because they received all these, you know, great scholars and thinkers and, and generals and you name it, you know, all of them ended up in India. Yeah. Yeah. It's very fascinating to see that the series never fell to the Mongolian they plowed through colorism. They they they massacred that, like the nose later. Yes. Yeah. So it's amazing to see. By the way, one of the manga one of the Mongol cons he actually, you know, accepted Islam. One of the greatest Mongol was actually one of the biggest Mongol cons. His name was Barack econ. Okay, he was one of the
grandsons of Genghis Khan. He was the son of giochi. giochi was the eldest son of Genghis Khan.
He never succeeded his father because of the
doubt because of the doubt on his
him being an actual son of Genghis Khan, that story is very long Genghis Khan's wife was kidnapped during a raid by another tribe and then Ganga has gone later on, liberated her, and took her back into his household. But it wasn't clear that she, whether she got pregnant by the man who had kidnapped her or gang ISKCON. So from that, basically, was born giochi, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, but it wasn't clear whether he was actually a son of Genghis Khan. That's why he never succeeded his father, but his son, Burkitt, Bercy Khan, who was the ruler of the Golden Horde that ruled all the way from Central Asia to Poland and Hungary, and is a huge vast territory, right? So
he became a Muslim and much of his army also accepted Islam. So the reason why you find Tata ours in Mongolia today, and in Russia in Russian states, to this day, Chinese looking people, you know, Mongolians they actually Mongols right originally, they are Muslims. They are Sunni Muslims. The reason why they're Muslims is because the great Han Bercy Khan accepted Islam, and so did many of his generals and his is men.
talked about the beginning models, how they came to power, maybe before we talk about the decline, maybe some, some of the positives, some of what made them so unique. They they led for a period of what 200 years almost
almost 200 years with with strength, I would say, to be precise, almost 200 years, you can say because Barber, he died in 1530, the first Mughal Emperor, who ruled only for four years, he died in 1530. And he left we had a son Homayoun. Okay, and Homayoun ruled first first rain was 10 years, okay, almost 10 years. And then the second rain was not very long because then the Mughals are ousted by another
dynasty, okay, that came to power for some period nearly 1516 years. This is called the Sunni dynasty. It wasn't a one general who rebelled against his moral overlords and ousted them and then took power himself Sher Shah Suri, his name was Sher Shah Suri, also known as a Lion King. Okay. Sher Shah literally means the Lion King. His real name was Fareed Khan. Okay. And he was he wasn't have gone general in the Mughal army. He had been he had been serving the previous dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. Then he had this he switched sides, but Mughals came to power. So he started to serve the Mughals. But then he asked it, that then Mughal emperor Homayoun Homayoun took refuge in Persia, and
then later on, took advantage of the weakness and the civil war between the sons and the grandsons of Sher Shah Suri. So, he came back, he saw his chance, and he took back India once again. So India, or the Mughal empire in India was reborn with the second coming of Homayoun. Okay, so Homayoun basically ruled for nearly a year and he fell from the stairs of his library, and he died. So then came to power is 13 years old son, Akbar. Gelato Dean Muhammad Akbar. So jalala Did Muhammad Akbar basically was 13 when he came to power, and he was illiterate. He had no knowledge of Islam didn't know how to read and write. Because he was on the run continuously with his father, his father lived
a life of turmoil as a fugitive right, because he had to escape with his life from India when Sher Shah Suri came to power. And then he took refuge in,
in, in Persia, and then when he came back to take his territory from his brother in Afghanistan, and then subsequently in India, he was on the run and Akbar had no time to study. Right. So now we have we have an emperor, a very powerful Emperor, who doesn't know how to read and write. So he depended on people advising him, okay. So, initially, he was very religious, very dedicated to Islam, okay, but later on, he started to change, you know, his mind started to change, he got some bad advisors. And those advisors started to, you know, flatter him started to make him feel as if he's Divine is divinely sent, divinely appointed. He has some different divine characteristics. So he came up with
his own cult called DNA ally, okay, which not many people followed. And the Muslim Allah ma, were very concerned about this situation, okay, because the Emperor started to basically even
despised Muslim scholars. And this is partly due to the Muslim scholars and the way they behaved at the time as well. The ones he knew at court, okay, the ones who were outside doing the trees and the Alim and modalities and institutions in India. So during the Mughal period, Islam flourished. Amazingly, Islam flourished. Islam spread many people except
Islam okay apart apart from the shenanigans the Emperor's are doing okay. Because the Emperor the Emperor's they have you know a lot of things going on in their lives you know they have they have you know certain cultures to
or certain certain protocols let's say okay because they ruled a predominantly Hindu territory okay Hindus are the majority and Muslims are a minority so they were ruling the Hindus. So they got married to Hindu women, they adopted Hindu culture in some cases mobiles were heavily influenced by the Indian culture, okay. So, Akbar became immersed into that culture then came in Sanjay Hungee, who also, you know, started to indulge in a lot of this culture. But Jahangir had to start, you know, he had to undo a lot of damage his father had done, then came Shah Jahan, Jiang us son, the father of the famous Orangevale and get shot, John was a bit more Islamic, or more Islamically
inclined, okay, you had more regard for Islam and Islamic scholars then came out and say, I mean, we are fast forwarding very, very quickly. Okay, I have a lecture on my YouTube channel called the Mughal empire, people can watch that. I have a lecture on Orangevale and Gil, where I cover some of this history as well. So people please don't feel frustrated if we are hopping from emperor to Emperor in sentences. Okay. Because each of these Emperor's you know, they need maybe five to six podcasts of their own. Exactly, we won't be able to do them justice in five minutes, we're not gonna be able to that was just mentioning them so that you know who they are. Okay, by the way, John is
the one we have to thank for that. He's the one who built Taj Mahal, in memory
of his, his wife, his beloved wife, he loved her so much, that even when he was later on, put under Palace arrest by his own son or exam, he he requested that he's put somewhere where you can he can actually look at the Taj Mahal. So he spent the last seven years on Palace arrest. Why is another question you have to watch my lecture on Orangevale of good why orange zip, actually put his father in palace arrest. A lot of people have this idea that orange killed his blood brothers and put his father in prison. And he was a very cruel man, very selfish, and self centered kind of ruler. No, that's not the case. If you study his history carefully, objectively, and one of the biographies is
authored by an American scholar, her name is Audrey truck. Older truck has written a brief brief bio of biography of Orangevale and given the English language, so it's a good read. So you must look into it.
For those people who don't like to read, it's only 100 pages. It's not a lot. And you know, earlier I was going to mention the books I will mention them very quickly. I mentioned Richard Eatons, India and Persian at age, okay. And there was another book I would like to mention is Islam in South Asia by Jamal Malik Islam in South Asia by Jamal Malik, very good book of very good, you know, treatment of the history of Islam in the Indian subcontinent. Then if you want to read a basic book on the Mughals, then there is
an author called John F. Richards, John F. Richards has a book titled the Mughal empire. Okay, just put Richards and Mughal empire in Google, you will see the book I'm talking about. Okay. The Mughal Empire is a very good introduction to the Mughal empire. What the Mughals did where they came from Okay, and Delhi Sultanate if you want to read books on dailies alternate they are a bit complicated, but Jamal Malik's book is a good one. Jamal Malik's good is a book one. Okay, so, moving from Shah Jahan, you see these two reins Zhang Yi and Shah Jahan, they were very important. In the Mughal period, this was the peak of the Mughal Empire, the peak of prosperity, the peak of military
dominance, the peak of let's say,
Islamic active activism, you know, a lot Islam spread. A lot of scholars were writing books at this time writing the series in the Persian language. They were writing commentaries on the Quran, they were writing commentaries of the Hadith literature, so the peak was before orang Xin. Yeah, it started before oronsay You're all exhibiting come from a vacuum. Of course, you didn't just appear one day and say, Look, I'm Islamic today. No. Orang zaev had basically learned or studied with scholars who were already there
active during his father's reign, and it was it were those scholars who prospered during Shanahan's reign, who started to defend and side with orange save during the Civil War. Okay. So I would like to very, very quickly give give you a brief summary what happened at that time, the principle between
In the Mughal princess was that if the father dies, the Emperor dies then you have to fight it out. Just kind of for the Ottomans as well, right? Oh, yeah, basically this tradition came from Central Asia. This is a Turkic tradition. You have to fight it out. You want to rule fight it out. You have to fight your way to the throne. Okay, so the Mughals and the Ottomans and the Turkish dynasties like Tim reads and all, they all follow the same protocol is not necessarily Islamic. It's not necessarily Islamic. Okay. This method of succession came from the Turks, okay, from Central Asia. So the Mughals because they were Turkic, the Ottomans because they were also Turkic. And but the
Ottomans came up with a new solution afterwards, what we call fratricide, okay, they started to kill the siblings to do whatever the problem, okay, the Ottomans, they realized that if they keep having rebellions, the state cannot make progress. Okay. So so to protect themselves against these rebellions, they started to commit fratricide. They, they basically, they will choose the siblings, the brothers or the cousins who will threaten the state or who had the potential to threaten the state, they will simply execute them, they would strangle them. Okay, so this is a very disturbing episode in auto ministry, no doubt, okay. But this was adopted for pragmatic reasons. I'm not
justifying it, it's not Islamic, okay? But the fatwa was given by the Olamide at the time that you can do it to save hundreds of 1000s of lives because what would happen if a prince rebelled against the Emperor, the sultan, as a result hundreds of 1000s of people would die during during the civil wars, because cities would be devastated they would be bombed, they would be you know, the Ottomans, like they were superpowers, even the princes, they had a lot of power, they had their own states, right? Similarly moguls basically follow this protocol, your duct, your tablet, okay? It's either the throne or the box. Basically, the box as in the coffin, you know, you got you hit go to the
grave, or you go straight to the throne. So orange volunteer had no choice, but to fight it out. So he had to find three of his brothers Joshua Murad bucks, and Dora Shaco Dara Shikou was on the same trajectory as his great grandfather, Akbar. Okay, he wanted to synchronize, synchronize, synchronize Islam, with Hinduism, basically wanted to create a new religion
potentially, and the Olimar were alarmed or the Anima they knew what trajectory data Shaku wants to put India on. Right? So they sided with oranges, Abel was very religious, or zaev was the best choice of the Allama. They backed him, they defended him and decided with him in war, and they even asked for people to support him, because he promised an Islamic domain Subhanallah this idea of trying to combine religions is not something that's alien to us, unfortunately, you see that very commonly nowadays.
That's a bit tangential.
There's just a very sad reality. Okay, so for the sake of time, maybe I can combine my questions.
I wanted us to go over maybe some of the things that led to the downfall of the Mughals so that we may, hopefully as any I mean, what's the point of history is just to learn from the mistakes to be able to identify the patterns and to learn from it. So we don't repeat the mistakes. So maybe talking a bit about what led to the fall of the Mughals and what led to the
I guess, conception of the like a British rolling roll over India. Brilliant, okay, good question. You see, what was the peak of the models we have to first understand before we discuss the fall, the peak period you can say lasted from 1556 to 1707 Until orange a was alive. Okay. This is the peak period this was this is when the mobiles are at the peak of the power this is when mobile's created the greatest monuments like Taj Mahal badshahi Mosque of Lahore, the LOL killer, the Red Fort of Daly, and, and the city of Fatehpur Sikri. All of these great architectural artistic monuments were developed created by the Mughals. During this period, the Mughals had had reached the pinnacle of
their civilization, what we call the Mughal civilization at this period. You can say it's pretty much about 150 years ago, from 1556 When Akbar came to power, and when until when orange zip died in 1707, orange zip ruled from 5016 58 to 1707, nearly 50 years 49 years to be exact. Okay. So in these 50 years orang Zeb pretty much took most of India, moguls never ruled that much land in India until orange zip ticket orange they've ruled pretty much 95% of India, the only parts left for
The jungle in, in Southern India, Tamil Nadu jungles were orange, and his military couldn't penetrate those jungles. But they took pretty much all of urban areas and remote areas of India, you know, so and that's why Orange, orange orange gear spent nearly 25 years of his life in southern India. He never came back to Delhi for 25 years. He was absent from the Capitol. Can you imagine? Just because he was fighting wars and battles in Southern India, trying to subdue the Murata was who became a very big power later on, okay, and other
other tribes, other local tribes in southern India. So orange a was the most Islamic King, the most Islam observing King, that would be a better way to put it. Okay. It was during orange zaev or Zetas reign when fatawa Alfetta. Allah media was compiled at the orders of the Emperor. He's the one who patronized the whole project, a number of Allama Hanafi Allama from the Indian subcontinent. They came together and they compiled this compendium of Hanafi fiqh, which to this day is referred to and of course, this knowledge is taken from previous books, okay, fatawa Katsucon, and fatawa Tarhana and other Hanafi compendiums. That were, that's where the source of the knowledge came from. And one
very quick question I want to address is like, where how did the Hanafi school of thought
become prominent in India? Why in India, okay. You see, Islam came to India, in three, how can I put it episodes? The first was during the Arab period, the Arabs are pretty much you can say, you know,
the earliest version of Islam, which was the Quran and the Sunnah the Arabs when they came in, right, because even the schools of thought are not established. Okay. In 92 Hijiri, when Muhammad Qasim came to send, you know, Imam Abu Hanifa would have been 12 years old. Okay, Imam Malik wasn't even born yet. One year he was at this one year before he was born. Yet two years before 94 Imam Malik was born 9493 or 94 because it has been Malik that is me and my mind. Yeah, yeah. I mean, some people say 94 Some people say 93 Yeah, yeah. So it's, let's say 93 I trust your Yeah, yeah. I mean, the year I remember is 94. When honestly Mark died in 94 and the same year Imam Malik, so honestly
Malik died and Malik bananas is born is just like Manuel Hanifa, died in 150. And Nima Shafi is born the same year. Okay, so, so these guys these early Arabs, they followed, Radi Allahu Anhu Majima. They follow the early version of Islam, the Quran and Sunnah, whatever they could receive from the Prophet and his companions. They followed that later on. When the Gaza weeds came.
When they took land of Milton from the Smiley's they brought the Shafi the shelf and the school of thought with them. So the gardener Vito Shefali, because of the scholars that the court were mostly Shefali as as the weeds were so many vessels, again, this is a very long story they want to go. People might be thinking what what is going on here, the history of that is very interesting. It's very political, absolutely very political, and very circumstantial as well. Now, how did the Hanafi school come to India is the question again, the Mongol invasions, all the cream of the crop from Central Asia, okay. And the greatest scholars of Hanafi fiqh or Hanafi school, we're in Central
Asia, this territory this region is called ma na, ma na her basically land beyond the river, which river the river Oxus transect, Sania, that's why this region is called trenches. So that's these colors. They either went to the land of Syria, or they came to India, and lo and behold, the Hanafi school of thought so the chef
the chef is the chef is left with the gardener, which they left with the Garden of Eden, right. So the daily sultanate was predominantly a Hanafi enterprise. Okay, that's why the Mughals later on also adopted what was already there. Okay, so that's why I'll fatawa la Gurria is a companion compendium of Hanafi fiqh, right. So how do we Vic was dominant in India until some other schools of thought came about with primarily with people like sha Allah, Allah de la vie, who was also born when Orangevale and Gil was on the throne. Okay. So oronsay Bottom gear, he had been influenced by scholars, and he even imposed Jizya and even minted Shari Durham charity, four grams of silver for
that purpose. So he tried a lot of these things, okay. And he is the most hated
by the current Hindutva extremist Hindu, a right wing, almost terrorists kind of people who hate him because of his excessive Islam. Okay? The only reason he's hated the most is because he was the most Islamic king in the history of India the second most disliked. Indian Muslim King is debo Sultan, again because of his love, excessive love for Islam. That's another episode in itself. Okay, that's another podcast okay. So, so, the Mughals basically ruled with iron fist or you can say with much success and power and prosperity up to the point when orang zaev was alive or dies in 1707 then comes to power his son, Bahadur Shah who rules for another five years and then he dies then all hell
has broken loose like you know, all these princes, Mughal princes, they became puppets into the hands of ruling families around Northern India, and then they started to basically fight each other. Okay, long story short, within the next 50 years, almost 13 emperors sat on the moral throne 50 years 14 years of one person and then no you had 150 years of four Emperor's 150 is with four emperors you have we have Akbar you have junkie you have Shah Jahan and orange zip for Emperor's sat on the Mughal throne 450 years hence the stability and stability. But after the death of orange zip from 1707 to 1757, in these 15 years, sorry, 50s in these 50s 13 Mughal emperor sat on the throne,
some of them for few months, some of them a few months, like one of them, we even sat on the throne for like two months. Okay, so
this was the chaos that followed, the Mughal the Mughals declined, because they started to fight each other, they started to become puppets into the hands of King making families like say brothers, one example is said brothers, then there were some other powerful ruling elite, you know, who were trying to use these Emperor's as puppets for the gains and that's why it was very easy to not put an emperor on the throne and remove him, you know? So these guys would come the say brothers, okay, there were two brothers, who became very powerful, very influential, they would put an emperor on the throne, okay, and if they didn't like him, if he wasn't listening to them, it wasn't toeing the
line, okay, it would just be removed another emperor would be put. So Muhammad Shah, who ruled for almost 30 years from 1719 to 1748. Okay. He had realized that until he neutralizes the sacred brothers, he cannot rule. So he decided to do away with the seed brothers, and then he ruled for 30 years. This was the longest reign after all exuberant, but the problem is actually shot and the second was longer, but this was with some level of influence and power. It was during his reign, Muhammad Charles rain, when the most devastating event in mobile history took place. The city of Delhi was taken by the Persian ruler called nada Shah in 1739. Now, the shine were in India, and he
took the city of Delhi and he broke the back of the Mughals, basically, whatever remained on mobile prestige and mobile power, he took it away then followed
a reign or a period of land grabbing enterprises, okay. So these land grabbing enterprises basically, initially were initiated by a number of different foreign and local dynasties, the Sikhs declared the independence in the Punjab, the Murata was in central India, they started to take territory from the Mughals and so did the British who were they thus far watching and waiting for the opportunity to come in and take as much land as they could and in 1757, they defeated the den mogul, governor of Bengal in battle.
The battle was called the Battle of philosophy and thence forth, the British slowly and steadily took pretty much all of India within within 100 years, okay, this is how the British Empire came about. Firstly, it was ruled the British Empire or the British Raj consisted of the government, the government of East India Company, it was a trading company, it was a trading enterprise and one of the one of the best books on this is titled anarchy by William Dalrymple. So, you can look into that book that documents the history of the East India Company, how the East India Company as a
Trading enterprise took land from the Mughals in India and started to rule India as a trading prospect. And then it was only after the mutiny of 1857 when the British government in London took full control of India because they didn't want a trading company to rule a country of that size as a trading prospect anymore. Because at the time India was the richest country in the world when it came, absolutely. But oranges have died in 1707. India was the richest country in the world, it had 24% of global GDP. And when the British left in 17, sorry, 1947 Okay. They left India with 4% of global GDP 4% from from a quarter of the global wealth to 4% of it. Yeah. And I think yeah, Muslims
mourn, rightfully so the loss of endless of course, but the loss of India, the Muslim, which the Muslims have led, or ruled for, what, 1000 years, and I think it's the best example of
our best proof against the people with the notion that Islam is a warmongering, bloodthirsty religion, you have 1000 years of Muslim rulership and the country started off as a Hindu majority and ended up as the majority. Absolutely. you contrast that with Spain? Yeah, exact opposite. Exactly. Exactly. Even in Spain, Muslims were completely forcefully converted by the Spanish Catholic Monarchs, okay. Ferdinand and Isabella, they came and they made treaties with the Muslims. They promised security and protection of religion. But as soon as they came to power and Muslims dropped their weapons, all of them were forced into Catholicism forced forcefully converted to
Catholicism, and they became a risk cause that's another story in itself, which you have videos about? Exactly. I have I have a port, I have a video. I mean, you're making me realize how much work I've done. 100 Sometimes I forget myself.
When I came across your channel, it is definitely a goldmine. For history lovers. And as Muslims, we should all be thrift lovers. Yeah.
Of course, I want to apologize to the audience. We won't get time to go through everything. But every topic we mentioned, do you have a video on so there's, you have a mashallah two over two hour video about the British Raj? The how it came to be and the devastating effects
you have, of course, we wanted to talk about Kashmir, but unfortunately, we won't get the time but you have a whole I think hours 10 minute lecture or something about Kashmir in the history of Kashmir. Yes, I think we talked we said that we talk we want to touch upon the most burning questions. And I think in light of what's happening to our brothers and sisters, and then of course, the Kashmir issue, which has been ongoing for over 50 years now. And of course, all the revolutions here, you as a students, you sit here and every time
I feel like sometimes we forget, yes, as time goes by and then and then the wound is reopened through the news. And then you're into, you're thrown into that frenzy of what cocaine do. What where do i Where do I sit standing of this? And then again, many it's an ongoing cycle? Absolutely. So what can what can we question, what we can do is educate ourselves. First of all, we need to learn about the history of Palestine and the history of Kashmir and understand what's really going on. Okay. And then what we need to do is we need to do positive activism, we need to educate people about it, the media is clearly in the wrong hands, okay? They don't do it. They, if anything, they
want to completely brainwash the masses into thinking, the complete opposite of the situation on the ground. Okay. So that's why it's very important for us to educate ourselves and then educate the masses, we need to go active on social media, we need to write letters to our MPs and our prime ministers, we need to raise awareness, not only at university campuses, but also reach out to the masses, somehow the normal the common people, the common man, okay, we don't have access to mainstream media, we don't have access to CNN and Fox News and NBC and Sky News and BBC, we don't have access to these platforms, or we do have access to social media, right? That's when they will
start to listen to us, okay. So we need to raise our voice. Silence is not an option. Okay. Lack of activism is not an option, okay? You cannot remain silent in the face of oppression and injustice, you must speak against injustice, okay? So you need to know your circle of influence. You need to know how much you can actually do. And whatever you can do within your capacity, do your best to raise awareness, awareness is the best thing you can do once enough people are aware of the situation and they know where the injustice is, things will start to change, pressure will build and inshallah these oppressive, tyrannical governments will realize that they have to give freedom where
it's still okay, whether it's Kashmir or Palestine. Once people are aware of the situation of the people there, most people in the world don't know what's happening in Gaza, letting people have guns
are just, you know, they're just a bunch of spoiled
you know, people and they don't, they're not grateful today, well wisher call the State of Israel. They don't know what's happening in Gaza, Gaza has been under siege for the last 16 years. Okay? They don't have access to medicine, they don't have access to basic human needs. They are drinking sewer. They're not they don't have clean drinking water. Okay. So just like our brother Mark Jobs said in one of his recent interviews that it's like, you come into someone's house, you force them into the toilet, and then force them to drink sewer while you have a party in the living room. Right? And then when they want to come out of the toilet and take some part of the house, or the
house that belongs to them, you call them terrorists, you call it the start to call them, you start to kill them, you start to beat them up. Why'd How dare you come out of this toilet, remain in the toilet. And thank us, for thank us for keeping you in the toilet. You must thank us for coming. If you squeak if you if you squeal, or if you make any noise, we'll come come hard on you. So this is the situation same in Kashmir, Kashmir, the people of Kashmir are in no different situation. They don't have the freedoms we enjoy. Okay, their youngsters live in a state of fear. Okay. Kashmir is the most heavily militarized area in the world. If it's a democracy, why do you need to keep nearly
a million soldiers in this little territory called Kashmir? Why? Because you're suppressing oppressing people. That's why you're suppressing the will. You're suppressing the desire to live free, give them freedom, let them choose how they want to live. You talk about democracy, India, ironically, everyone talks about democracy, the democratic values in India and Israel is the greatest democracy in the Middle East. These are the two democracies that need to think about what democracy actually means. Are you giving democratic rights to the Palestinians? Okay, Palestinians are not necessarily Democrats. They may be Muslims don't some Muslims don't even believe in
democracy, the system calm. But if you hold on to these values, and you celebrate them, let them show in your actions and your actions how you treat others. That's the point.
And life we had the time I would have loved to double during duration of the interview. But unfortunately, we have to wrap up the atmosphere. Very beneficial informative discussion, I hope that you guys benefit. And we will be putting links in the description if you're watching on YouTube. We're going to be having links to all the lectures that we spoiled or gave a spoiler for mentioned.
thank you so much for having me. It's my pleasure, my honor. And we would like to do more Inshallah, when the law permits, whenever you come more than happy to host each other. We are honored to host you.
So this episode will be on will be posted on YouTube. It will be on my channel as well. We on the McMaster and meccsa YouTube channel on start adding Russia, Rashid's YouTube channel and also be on
LSI for listening