From Morocco to Spain to the Americas #4
Channel: Abdullah Hakim Quick
File Size: 78.09MB
pain of hunger Allahu Akbar Allah Alameen wa sallahu wa salam ala Sara Lee will Arkadin the Vienna Muhammadan ala alihi wa sahbihi wa barik wa salam. O praise the dua to Allah, Lord of the worlds and peace and blessings be constantly showered upon our beloved Prophet Muhammad, the master of the first and the last, and his family, his companions and all those who call to his way, and establish his sunnah to the day of judgment as to what follows my beloved brothers and sisters. As Salam alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh Alhamdulillah, we are continuing in our study of the Mediterranean region, Morocco, Spain, and its connection with the Americas.
We've gone through a lot, and we need to remind ourselves where we are at and then collect our thoughts before we make that major move across the Atlantic. And so today we wanted to do a little review and at the same time, to give more focus on Al Maghrib itself on Morocco, and North Africa. Again, we have to keep in mind that we are dealing with the Mediterranean region and this region that surrounds the
Mediterranean Sea has been interacting for 1000s of years. And so when you talk about Mediterranean climate, it's a type of climate that's not severely cold, it's not severely hot.
It's got a particular type of breeze that's in it, there's a certain type of trees that grow. There's some similarity in the societies that have coastlines with the Mediterranean. When you talk about Mediterranean culture, it is, you could say, a type of melting pot, where the culture is coming out originally from Africa. And then people migrating to parts of Europe and to the east, and then coming back in the form of different civilizations,
and mingling with each other, and forming great societies. So we have to keep this in mind when we look at the region. And we deal with the people themselves. And for our intensive purposes, probably the greatest influence, in the last few 1000 years, was the Roman Empire. And that is the Roman Empire that was based in Italy. And it's important, again, for us to get these terminology straight. And these are the great Romans, Augustus Caesar, Julius Caesar. And you can see in on the map, the green color, that shows you the influence of the Roman Empire.
You can see
that the Empire spread
from what is now east,
in Anatolia, and in Syria, and even far north, and also the African continent,
and into Europe, and as far up into Europe, to Pretoria that we now know as England,
the United Kingdom. And so all of this, at one point, was underneath the central rule of Rome.
And so this is where the name Rome, you know, comes from Romulus and Remus, these two sons and his mythology, you know, based upon this, but the Rome that we know that Muslims speak about is the Rome that comes in the Quran, and that is the Byzantine Roman Empire.
And we call it Byzantium, the Byzantines. And their base was not in Rome, because Rome, by that time, around the third fourth century, it was destroyed by by the Germanic tribes, by the different nations
that had been subjugated by the Romans. And so the Byzantines then collected the power of Rome. And they sent it themselves in Constantinople.
And Constantinople, that you can see on your map
is a center point where Europe in a sense meets Asia,
and the Black Sea, you know, on one side of the Mediterranean, very important base. And so the chapter of Rome, sort of Rome, the Rome that we know about, was was here. And today, they would say, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Greek Orthodox Church. So you have the Roman church and the Orthodox Church itself. Okay. And
we recognize the fact that the wrote the Byzantine Roman Empire had become corrupted,
and the different places that they ruled, considered them to be foreigners.
They did not consider them to be the native people. Plus the fact that as we learned, they were trying to enforce the Council of Nicaea. And you remember, now we review in our minds, Council of Nicaea, 325 ad, right, and the basis of that council was the Trinity.
That they established the Trinity. They established the present day Bible that we know before that time, the Christians had no Bible, because Bible means like bibliotech It is a library of ancient scrolls and teachings because it contains the old testament New Testament, the Psalms, Psalms of David.
historical writings, the Injeel the Gospels of the came to Jesus easily salaam, it's all in one book. Okay, and that was put together from 325 on in a series of
Conferences and gatherings that the Christians bishops had under the rule of Constantine.
It reached the point where
the Romans were threatened by the new Muslim community. And they attacked, and Muslims responded to the attack. And that led to a series of confrontations that eventually led to the fall of the Roman power in Syria and Palestine and Lebanon, where we now know as the Middle East,
but the Muslim didn't stop there. Because they recognize that the Romans were an oppressive force. And so they moved to take back all of the Roman possessions. And Amaya last Rhodiola one great Sahabi Julio was the general that entered into Egypt.
And this was an important move. And again, this is much about Laos and Egypt, the first master of Egypt. And so the Muslims then went right across North Africa. And you can see on this map, how it moves, they took the Byzantine holdings straight across. Okay, so this was not done, just to gain gold and silver. It was really to liberate the people who were living in these areas. And we found out that many of these people were actually believers in one god monotheists Mojito.
Okay, so this was very important move that was made. And if the Muslims like some Orientalist claim, we're like, Mongols,
killed, destroyed. And then and then leave,
you wouldn't hear about because the mangoes had one of the largest empires on land that human beings have ever had. But what do you know about Mongolia? Now, it's a distant country far out in South East or North East, Asia, Russia, Mongolia.
Nobody knows about them, even though the blood is all over the place. But in the case of Islam, this was not a physical conquest. Yes, there was a military confrontation. But it was a movement of ideas. The idea of one God, the idea of freedom, breaking down the power of the Roman Empire. Okay, so this area,
up until today is 95 or more percent Muslim,
right across the same area that was taken over 1400 years ago.
And we also remind ourselves, of the indigenous people of North Africa, were the MSC people that the Romans called Berbice. And Berber is not a nice name. It's a barbarian. Right? But there's indigenous people, as we learned
that their society existed for 1000s of years. And MSC imagine is the plural, it means free people.
Okay, so these are the still the majority are up in that region. And very important to the history of Islam and the region.
And, and so if you look at a map that gives you the movement of Islam, the dark green, are the areas that were taken by the Muslims. Within 100 years, you can see where Muslims have moved even less than 100 they had reached this area, but by 100 years, you know, they had stretched even to the borders of China.
And the center was the capital was you see that right circle there? That was was now Tunisia Tunis Badewanne.
And pay the one became the Western capital of Islam. It became the educational center. That's Masjid Akbar urban mafia, who was a great Sahaba you opened up the area, this is inside the Masjid. So this is considered to be one of the oldest remaining matches in the Muslim world. Because it remained intact, so to speak. It was improved over.
But it's this is a place to try to visit
because it is in these walls, that the great Maliki madhhab was put together some unknown and the great scholars there and an en de Lucia. It's a very important place and it was the base of Islam in that part of the world. We also recognize that the Muslims needed a leader who would consolidate
their gains. And so Allah raised up Musa Ben Lucero
and in 708, he was appointed as the as the governor of the western lands of North Africa. And he was an open minded person. He gave upward mobility to the Amazon and they entered Islam in crowds.
Okay, paid one remained the base. Okay, now we also remember that across the streets was an endless. Remember van de Lucia de Landa, the vandals
and at that time, it was being controlled by King Roderick Visigoths, who was representing Trinitarian Roman Empire
it's a long story that we've gone over. But Musa then seeing the importance of going over to the other side to confront Roderick. Because of his oppression, remember again, and because of forcing Trinitarianism upon the people who believe in one God, okay, he sent his general Tata Gibbons Ziad,
and he landed on a mountain or below it called Jebel Tarik, the mountain of Tarik, which is now called Gibraltar.
So 711 That's one of the dates that should stick inside of your mind. 711 Because this is when the Muslims entered into this area, Allah gave them victory. And they opened up just about the whole of Spain and Portugal, at that time that people were opening up the gates, because they recognized that these will liberate us. They were not just Congress, but they needed a leader. Because after a short time, Tarik and Musa returned to Damascus. They were there was a change in the leadership. And so they were called back to Syria, they were called to Syria. And
it turned out that the people of Andalus needed central leadership, and Allah raised up Abdur Rahman Ibn Moussa
Rahima. Hola, who was Sokka Quraysh. He was the Falcon of Quraysh. of German even while he is so important that Allah ma woulda said
Lola Abdurrahman lentil Islam for endless if it was not for Abdul Rahman Islam would have been finished. In landless, that's how important he was. And sometimes they call them up there man, a dark Hill,
the one that enters and that is because the Halima say, Oh well, Mendala quarterback, Ben Ben Omega Hakeem. And so he was the first of the Omega dynasty to enter into Cordova, Cordova as a ruler. So they call them absorb mana data. Okay, so that's one of the names that he also has. And he governed by example, he gave upward mobility.
It was an amazing time the growth that happened during his years. And you can see he traveled all the way from Syria, Iraq, up into that area, and he governed in that area from 755.
You can see that you know, he governed to 787.
He was, you know, an amazing leader and amazing ruler, and he brought major changes to the society at that time.
Okay, so this is where it stands under loose, is now under the Romanians, even though they were defeated in the east, but they were emirate. Okay, it was not the Khalifa. The Khalifa was the Abbasids who were ruling in Baghdad okay. Now, remember this now, and if you look at your map, you will see if you go south into what is now Morocco, you will see
that is there and you will see robot and Casablanca because this this is a sort of a present day rendition but FES is the important place, okay? And fares to a certain extent, represented Morocco in those days. Now, we have to step back a little bit because we were studying
the movement of Islam into Al Andalus. And then we looked at the history of Al Andalus. Okay, but now you got to sort of step back
back in time,
this is how important Morocco was. And this is a part of history that many people are not actually aware of. That's why I wanted to bring this out, you know, clearly
in our course, and that is that fests itself,
you could say was the first major city of Morocco itself. So I'm using the word Morocco, because the, obviously the first major city is beta one, but that's present day Tunisia.
But going west to Morocco, is FeS and an FES or FeS, you know, it is like a, you know, a stick, you know, a pole a tool, as far as I understand that the founder of Fez, used, you know, a golden pike, or silver Pike, you know, to start to found found the city.
Okay, so, let's look at FES. And this is important for us, because I'm just coming back from FIS Alhamdulillah, we took a group, which included some of the students from this class. Some of you even attend the class, someone were online, who traveled with us to Morocco, we went to the city of Fez, and it's so it's so interesting. The information that comes out. Now, remember, absorb mana Dhaka law, right, you remember 755 Okay, now, in 797 90. So we went back now, look at his time Abdurrahman. Wow. Yeah. Right. 787 is when he died. That's the foundation of the domains, but domains continued.
Okay, so, after this time, another major incident happened.
A very important individual named Idris. They call him Idris, the first. And sometimes he's called Idris Al Akbar.
Right, you know, which is the major injuries, okay. And you'll see why they use that, that term. Now, he is, and again, this is a part of history that a lot of people are not familiar with. And it's a really significant thing. Now, this is a genealogical table. And when you look at this table itself, you will see
Fatima and Ali.
Okay, and this is a little bait. On one side is is Hassan.
And the other side is Hussein.
her son, by some people will the Shia and some people, they consider him to be the second Imam. So I mean, this terminology came, it just put in there because of this chat that I got.
But Hassan was an Hussein, with the children of Ali and Fatima. So they were the closest descendants you could say, to the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.
Okay, because he had no sons, the prophet had no sons. So it was through Fatima, and his cousin Ali that his bloodline was there, and we know that the bloodline is not the most important thing for Muslims.
Right, but for most people, the bloodlines represents the king
and the Dynasty and the prince. Okay, and other bait is important to us. There's no doubt about that.
And based upon her deeds of the province and salamin, if we can find somebody from our little bait who is a just ruler, we would actually prefer to have this person to lead because he reminds you of the prophets or something. If not, then other people can lead like our leadership is not only them,
okay, this is a mistake, which has caused major ideological differences. But now, look at this chart and you will see that on the side of Hussein
and this is the sine side that is more well known. Then on that side, you have
right. And then it starts to move down. And Muhammad Al Al Hadi having trouble seeing this thing now.
Yeah, I'm back. Yeah. Yeah. Okay. And then after him, Jaffa Assad. Okay, so this is how the Imams go. Jafra sada could have been. Number six.
then it goes down unto him,
Right? And then on the other side, you see is my yield right?
Musa okay, right above was number six now this would be number seven and seven for many ancient societies is a mystical number number seven, seven appears in a lot of ways even in the Koran, seven heavens seven Earths, you know seven is a very important number, right? But there's no mystical significance in the number seven for us. Like we don't do magic on it tell fortunes on seven, but seven for many people's an important number.
There's a number of reports about what happened at that time. And it appears that the decision for the leader of the family of the Prophet SAW Salem, and not to be the leader of the Muslim world, but to be the one who took care of the family. The main representative at that time
was you know, coming from Jaffa sodic.
The decision was made for Musa
and it's my eel, according to many reports, some say even had a drinking problem or personality problem. He was not suited to be the one to take over as the leader of the island bait. So then Musa was taken but the followers of his meal loved him so much that they said, No, it doesn't matter. This is the email.
Okay, and so they formed a group coming out of him, which in English, we say the seven years or seven year
Serbia, the followers of the seventh Imam. Right Ismail. Now from him
comes down a number of different groups. Some of the followers went to Yemen.
Some of them went were in Syria. Some of them actually went over to Egypt. First they were in Tunisia, in Ethiopia, in Tunis, and then they went to Egypt, and they will call far teammates
and they ruled over Egypt. So but the problem was that the original teachings if you go up the line, we see Jaffa sodic Jeffers sodic was a bonafide authentic scholar of Islam. Imam Malik Rahim Allah used to talk about Jaffa Asad.
Imam, Jaffa he was a great scholar, they were friends, they lived in Medina together.
So there was no Sunni and Shia at that time, by the way. Everybody's following the Quran, and following Prophet Muhammad salah. There's no Sunni group and Shia group.
Okay, it is later on when the Muslim world is spreading out now. And it goes to Iraq.
And in Iraq, there were a number of people who were calling towards underground cults.
Iraq is the basis of magic. And the Quran talks about Babel, that the angels have roots and Marut brought magic to Babel as Babylon as a test. So there were a number of underground cults that were there in that area. And so, the people who were supporting the Al bait some of these cults because they were defeated by mainstream Islam, they took another shape and they intermingled with the supporters of eyelid bait and came up with a new type of ideology that combined combined Islam
along with magic and with a number of cultural things. And so, this is why a number of schismatic groups develop on this and we have done a course you can see about the different groups and sects within Islam. You can get it on islam.ca and you get the details about this. So from that side, right, the side of Ishmael
came to 40 minutes. Also there came a group called hash machine.
And these are the assassins Hazara saba.
Right, and they actually, were assassinating many of the great leaders like the Seljuks.
Okay, this is called the assassins. So a number of these schismatic groups came out and they were actually considered to be by the
Alexandre outside of Islam.
And great Salahuddin Allah UB Rahim Allah you know Salahuddin and the Crusaders. The first thing he did when he took power in Egypt was he established the Sunnah.
So the Fatimids were taken out of power. And as high unit University was built by fatty meats. It was originally a Shia University. Okay, and from Sariah Dean's time, it became near the space of the Sunnah.
United the Muslims and then they fought the Crusaders. But the point is, the schismatic groups existed. Some of them were in Yemen. And in the southern Yemen. The merchants were traveling the seas, the Yemenis and Omanis. And so they ended up in East Africa, they ended up in India. Some of them even went as far as China, Japan, traveling along. And so,
the schismatic groups formed a group we now call Ismailis.
Okay, and the leader was called Agha Khan.
So this is where the ismaily thing comes from. So when you say the word ismaily, that group was not the original Ismail it's like way down the line. But they're using the name Ismailia.
Right. And another group in East Africa, Bora Bora
share as well there are some here in Toronto. And you see the men have a particular type of cap. And women have sort of bought a car that they were you can tell them, they have some they don't even pray so that like we pray, they won't let anybody inside of the temples unless you're a member.
Okay, so these hidden mystical groups develop on this particular side. But what is not so well known is the other side.
Okay. And on the other side, this other side of Hassan, Hassan actually had they say he had around 21 sons. He was married in divorce many times. So he had 21 sons and for monks, the famous ones, of course, was Imam Zaid
and Imam Zaid
who was against the acid rule. And he was approached by some of the extreme members of the group that had now identified themselves as Shia.
And they came to him and they said that you should curse the Sahaba
and he said, I would never curse our Walker and Omar, you and those of my family and and so they left him
and so he said referred to Mooney you denied me. So these people will call Rafa
Rafa that they deny us because they denied Imam Zaid
he was eventually killed in the struggle against the Abbasids his father was went to Yemen.
Okay. And it is there in Yemen that
okay, so I think this might be a mistake. Yeah, this is side. Okay. But Zaid is coming along okay, let me correct that side. This writing is really small side, underneath person because he directly on the half. He ended up in Tabata, Stan in Central Asia. So there are Hassani she is in Central Asia, you know as well. And later on further down the line came Imam Zaid, okay, he comes further down the line and this particular chap doesn't doesn't bring on Imam say Okay. So but what is important
is on the side of Al Hassan Al Mutanda so this is the second Hassan so to speak now from his sons, right you have Abdullah Al camel.
Okay, and then
you have you know, on the other side
the sun and where the Imams came out of Yemen but the important person is Abdullah Al camel you know and from him you have a number of sons Musa Mohammed and then you see on the right Idris
Okay, so this is Idris the first so you can see how close he is and I live bait. So this is not some outside. This is directly dealing with Allah debate. And people when they talk about eyelid bait, they have a tendency to only talk about the children of Hussein.
As I look bait right now, what is the reason for that? Allah knows best, but there are reports
What's that when the Muslims defeated the Persians, that the princess Shara Babu, who was the princess of the Society of dynasty, she was captured. And she was given to Hussein as a right hand possession. And he freed her and he married her.
So the children of Hussein had not only the prophetic blood, but they also had the blood of the Persian dynasty,
this very significant point, right? Because some people would say, why are they like glorifying that side and not the other side.
But if you look at it in terms of Persian dynasty, because the Persians believed that their kings were divine,
they like connected to the fire into the sun, it is dead, like literally manifestations of the Sun God.
you see, this god like relationship that the followers have with the children are Hussein.
And this is not to blame any of the Imams themself. Because from what we understand the Imams are basically knowledgeable people
is the extreme followers and these magical cults that twisted things around and added numerology, and other ideologies, to their beliefs. They came up with this hybrid form that is now known as the Shia. And they say the 12 because they had 12. They say they had 12 Imams
the Shah had here, the important point for us is, is the other side. So what about Al Hassan?
Why isn't he important? He was actually the second Imam before saying
he was the one that took the leadership after Ali was assassinated. Read the last one. So Hassan is important.
And from him, you see his great great great grandson is Idris, the first.
Okay, and sometimes he's known as Idris, Allah Akbar.
Idris, Allah Akbar. Okay. So this is where this is established. Okay. And again, this is part of history. It does not come out in a lot of history books that you know, but very significant.
Very significant what happened.
And it reads, then, because of a struggle that was going on, there was an uprising in the year 786, against the Abbasids. And this was led by people who were upset with the Ambassade rule, they had become corrupt again, maybe have been called loons theory, right. So they have become corrupted. And so there was an uprising. And he escaped, and he went to Egypt. And then he went over to a mothership. He went to beta one, and he ended up in what is now Morocco.
Okay, and he took refuge with a group of robber amazi. It's a group called Orava. And he ended up in a place
vulnerable Lis and vulnerable. This was the site of
an ancient Roman capital. It's still that vulnerable to study we use that term. tourists go there because like they had some of the biggest coliseums in the world. We're actually there in this area. And so in that area, we're Lili you know, that area known by the mosaic people, the Berbers, he married a woman named Kansa.
And she gave birth to their son Idris the second.
Okay, Idris the second. Now this area well, Lily, it's near the city of Mecca Ness. So if you know modern day Morocco, and you're leaving Rabat and you're going to Fez,
you run into the city of Magnus.
And so, it reads the first riesel Akbar. He establishes his rule. And he with the Berbers take over the territories of surrounding. They even reached Tulum, sand, which is part of Algeria today. And they were controlling, you know, these areas. And
he found it, he found a small village, you know, by a river. And he established this as one of his bases of operation, and this was called fests. So this is where the word fest, you know, starts to come in,
unfortunately, because of this dynastic struggle that goes on. I mean, there's a lot of reports, but one of the reports
which could have been true is that the Abbasids
for fear of him gaining strength and coming back against them, they sent assassins.
And the they somehow reached him, and they poisoned his food. And he died.
And so he died in this area of willy nilly this near Magnus. And it's now known as Moley Idris Zerhouni. And this is a picture of it, it's high up on a hill. And this is where he is buried. So this is not infest, not in back NAS, it's like outside in a village. Okay, that was his base of operations.
And his son was then taken by the robber, Berbers, they protected him, because there might be other Hitman around other assassins. And
he eventually moved in the 808.
To FeS, so he's around 17 years old. He's got leadership skills already. And so they made fez as the capital of their base of operations. Okay, so this is under Idris, the second. And, you know, he became known, and people started to migrate to that city. And it's amazing, Allah knows best, you know, the power of the city. But many of the Arab tribes, you know, migrated there, they heard about the leadership of a little bit. And again, this is not shared, and none of them as yours, right? They're all Maliki's, right, the Sunnah. That's hard to get in your mind, right? Because when you think of a little bit you think sheer, right. But I'll make a whole debate is not just the sheer
other debate means the family of the province on both sides for us are important. So the city then becomes a very important
base of operations.
And this, it becomes one of the largest medieval cities. And eventually, there's changes that it went through, and waves of people are coming in. And some important waves actually start to come out of Al Andalus. And we were studying about the Inquisition.
And about how the Muslims became more ESCOs. And how they were driven out of their, out of their cities, by the 1000s. This is one of the places that they went. Because first, you know, had a little bait. You know, it had scholars started coming there. It was a beautiful location. It was protected, you know, from the fitna of many of the places, you know, and so that is the walled city. And so this is how it looks. Up until today. When you're in Fez, you go through sections of it, you see the walls like this.
It's a beautiful place.
And so in Fez, there's the tomb of Malaya Idris, the second, so his tomb is there. And there's a place you know, for that. Now 859 So this is way back. Remember Andalus? Quote, Cordoba doesn't reach its heights until around 1000. Right.
So this is like 100 years before
859. A woman by the name of Fatima Al feria
and Al Pennell fair fair is one of the tribes of Kurdish but she was of a wealthy family of of eight AWHONN. Men remember Qaeda one in Tunisia. So she and her sister
moved to FeS and her lifetime project was to establish a beautiful house of ALLAH and a university. That's what did she she adopted this as her project. And so she brought in the money and the wealth and they established Halloween Masjid that later became a university okay. And this is considered to be the oldest degree granting institution in the world.
And, again, people are very
subjective. Because Chinese had universities, the ancient Egyptians, at major universities like in 2000 BC, right. They are building pyramids, they had universities but from what we know of the establish, you know, Mediterranean, you know, that region from what we know from Dr.
admitted evidence, they were actually giving degrees, some call it a degree II Jazza. I'm Jazza
which means permission. And it's interesting because
they, one of the names that they were using was
be hardcore, rewire, and be hardcore rewire means you have the right to teach. So in other words, you sit with your scholar, and you're studying Tafseer.
And you reach the point where the teacher feels you are now a teacher. And the teacher then gives you a test. And if you pass that test, then he will give you the permission to teach biohacker rewire.
And this was later adopted by universities and Al Andalus, and other places. And interestingly enough, because Al Andalus became the base of the knowledge coming into Europe. Up until today, they use this name that we say be a what is the BA? What's the Latin word?
baccalaureate. Now looking at Baccalaureate biohacker, rewire
this where it comes from,
because nobody knows what Baccalaureate means, right? There's biblical rewire. And if you see when a person up until now, graduates, they put on this black thing and they put on you know, this cap, you know, they flattened it down as was like an imam. Right? You know, or a fez, right, or the mom originally was a turban.
Right. And later on, they use the fez. Because again, Fez,
it's an important city, right?
And, you know, the fez, they were the ones actually putting out the fez caps. Now they say Tada, whoosh.
The tar Bush is the red fence, right? It takes the name of fists, and Ottomans adopted this, as well. You know, some say it was even something from the Mediterranean region because of Byzantium, it's, you know, the amongst the Byzantium this call is had sort of a reddish you know, kind of a cap.
But you know, but now it takes the name fez there, and Europeans took it and so when you graduate, you get your Bianca rewire. And then you have your, you know, your cap on and you think, okay, so this is one of the amazing, amazing things caught a queen, Masjid, that's a picture of what the master looks like today. It expanded till it became one of the largest splashes in Africa, if not the largest 22,000 worshipers, you know, could worship within this complex of Kirrawee. Okay, now, some of the famous students see the Amazon hook was very famous Maliki scholar, Ibn Khaldoun studied here,
lb through G, who was a great scientist, even allowed to be, who is a great master of Fick even was Zan was a great scholar. Now, interesting. Even Mark moon, who is known as Maimonides, he is considered to be the greatest Jewish scholar in history. He studied here.
Even Pope Sylvester the second. So what is the pope doing? Studying in Islamic University right? Is he learning Alif Bata? Oh, yeah, if we had to learn Arabic, but no, is because they were studying science, math, geography, medicine, all types of Sciences in the university, right. So the best education you could get at that time was there and fast. So even the Pope went there to study.
Same way people will go come to Harvard, or McGill u of t, you know, or to sawbones or to Oxford.
Now, so keep first in mind now, right.
Now, look back a little bit at Al Andalus. to May, it's now arising until they reach the point of their man or NASA leadin Illa.
Now, what was important about Abdurrahman? Can anybody remember that?
What was important about him? Of germana naset. He's a key person to remember. What was difference between him and the other rulers of the Romanians and the dynasties.
He consolidated but it's more than that.
He would have been the third.
Right That's it, he declared Khalifa.
He declared that he was the Khalifa
And then you know, a ruled for from 912 50 years. Right? He abolished the taxes you really good leader, okay, but this is the thing look at him here.
Now why is he, you know going to declare himself you know as the Khalifa.
And that is because the Abbasids in Baghdad had become weak.
The Fatimids were in Tunisia and then Egypt. This was the Shia
so there was nobody to represent the Sunnah.
No strong leader.
And then also, there was an emirate in Morocco, and that is FES. There's a little bit too so who is the real strong leader of the other Sunday? Well, Gemma, he declared this the philosopher now.
And it's interesting because he is the Europeans who paid homage to him, because they used to visit his capital Cordoba.
They were not going east. They were going west.
Now this is deep concept, you going west to visit the Khalifa?
You see most of the time we think East right? They even call Muslim services. The people of the Sharpie Yun
but no, this is west of Germany, of France of Italy. Of all of those areas. Okay, and this is interesting because you have all these rules. Most people don't even understand the importance of FeS that while all this is going on, you have an island beit ruler and families you have an important city down there and FIS okay. Now we know the confusion that happens in Andalus it broke up into 22 Amir's by 1086 Right and then they called in L Morabito. Right you remember amazi they came in,
right, they defeated the Christians Trinitarians and they brought a revival of Islam back.
And these are the territory you can see in the green Almoravids oil Morabito, right, that's 11 1100 1100 ad. Okay. But of course, as we said, Love the dunya the life of this world divisions argumentations, split
even Khaldoon cycle. Remember the new group that came up, Elmo, he don't remember
what the leader Intermat of the Masuda Clan of the Berbice. Right, they came up and they took over the Morabito and will become corrupted. They took over most of North Africa, all the way to Egypt, the borders of Egypt, they controlled, it took over Al Andalus.
And they're great leaders, Abu Yaqoob, he made their their their center as Seville became their capital, right? That isn't a landless, but then after about 100 years, they start going down. And the major defeat that we studied in 1212 500,000 men died. And it was like a drought in all of the areas Trinitarian started to come back. Cordoba fell in 1236 Valencia fell in 1238 Seville fell in 1238. The These are major places that are falling down. Right? And the Trinitarians are now on the move. Could you Are you close the door
Trinitarians are now on the move.
Okay, this is a little bit of a review. And finally, they ended up the Muslims ended up in the South in Granada.
Which Granada became the stronghold for the Muslims. For 250 years. It became their struggle. And we studied this. It was made up of Granada of Malka, Al Maria, that whole section in the south right 15% of Al Andalus. The great Yaqoob almanzora al Marini right. They protected the South who was the piano Marine.
That's another great group. They were Berbers as well. That was the territory that they controlled, the better money right now.
Let's look back a little bit now.
Because we were looking at Morocco
The basis of Morocco was Morocco itself. Right because we're in Morocco comes from Rakesh. But after that the capital switch to great center of learning. The great center of trade became fast because fast was actually the first city before Marrakech
first was established. That's an important thing when you're understanding Morocco itself. It's like the cultural center and so use of Yvan Tashfeen Rahimullah of the Morabito and he put a lot of effort and time and money into fests
and they made it the center of Maliki teachings. This is why the great CD Ahmed zaru, great Maliki scholars and they are coming from from this area, from fairs, but it also became a trade center.
So caravans are coming from different parts it becomes a very important place. Okay. And
the bento Marine.
Now the more he do, they also they built the walls, strengthen the walls, somewhat. They did, but they were more interested in Seville and in Rabat and other areas. But the bento marine under the bento muddied fests became really really important. They put a lot of wealth into into fists, okay, and they controlled, you know, a lot of territory. Okay, and
it actually became one of the largest cities in the world.
Okay, this is the city of Venice. And it's a beautiful place. These are some of the ancient fountains from the 11th and 12th century. You can see some of the fountains and why you don't.
It has 9000 alleyways.
And we were just marching in some of these alleys. I'm telling you, it's move you would not believe the hustle and bustle and the movement going within the walls of the city. And when you're moving around, you're not going to take your Uber you're not going to jump into your car. You're going to if you want to drive you drive donkey
because you only walk inside it isn't.
Car free Urban's zone.
Okay. It's probably the largest one in the world. This is an urban zone, but it's coffee.
All the movement is done on foot. And it is done by donkey.
It's all alleys. Everything. There's no There's no streets that can take any automobiles, or anything like that.
Yeah, no, it's made up. Yeah, of course, when you go around the edges, you'll start to but basically, we're inside. That's it.
That's interesting to think about. The people are in good shape, too, right? Because they're walking around all the time, and are jumping and Ubers.
And they know this, they're alleys and there's different sections, as you're going through fests. These is this craft zones. This is an area that's dealing with leather crafts, if you visit there you go to the leather place, and shows you how they tend to leather.
There's you know, porcelains is a place where you'll see beautiful porcelain being done.
And as you enter different sections of Fez, you'll enter a gate and based upon the color of the gate, if it's purple, or if it's blue, you know, I've entered the and the Lucien quarter.
I've entered, you know, another section. This is based upon this, you know which section that you're in. And you're moving around and face. It's a it's a beautiful city. So that's how it's a mystical city. Look at it. arches and mash Judson.
You know what, not crafts.
And there's my dresses there too. And especially under the bento marine banner marine really put a lot in here and this is one of the masjids that's still
And you see it BU and Ania.
And you see the beautiful designs, this is inside them adresa.
Okay, and students come there and they study the different sciences.
Okay, with the ancient calligraphies
you know, so it's, it's an amazing place, you know, and, again, you know, it speaks about, you know, the importance of
the movement, you know, of the culture, and you know the importance of this civilization and sometimes
History is hidden in plain sight.
How many people when you say as little bait, they will think about someone in Morocco?
You won't I mean, of course the King may say, Okay, our dynasty is a little bait. So he may but other people said the island bit you know you're not a Shia
This is not shear. This is pure Malachy.
Right and it is coming from the side of Alaska.
Okay, so, this is the movement now, we want to get this in mind, you know, as we sort of wrap things up, and we start to move across,
because we want to look about movements of people, you know, here in Morocco, and then also across the ocean, that we will be looking at Inshallah, in our next class, but I want to open up the floor for any questions anybody has, you know, concerning this anxious history in Morocco?
Any questions online now?
Main Learning Center.
Yeah, so fez now has gone through a lot of changes, because, you know, as of, you know, it was considered at some point to be they call it the mecca of the West, the mecca of the West, the Europeans call it the Athens of Africa, like Greece, right? Athens. Okay. And
but, you know, it's, it's gone through a lot of changes.
Now, you know, whether it's people, you know, what not. And, as of 19, it was the, you could say it was the capital of Morocco. But by 1912 1912, there was a change in the leadership, and they moved the capital to robot.
So Rabat now, is the political capital. But before it was really an ancient times, and I'm Robbie Turner was maracas, right? That was the capital. And then why are you doing but then after those groups fell, the capital switch to fifth? Because fez was always the cultural center, the intellectual center. The religious center, was always fists. That's the base of the whole culture itself.
And anti Trinitarian Christian,
Okay, there's Abdul Malik. I'm not sure which one you're talking about this Abdul, Abdul Malik,
the ambassador Oh made.
Now there's Abdul Malik Ibn Mattawan. But he was omitted.
That's not the facets.
So are you saying is was he a Trinitarian?
Anti Trinitarian. Christian? No, no, we don't have any information about that. Yeah. So what is the state of Morocco look like today with the government?
Like the sentiment I received was that
like, sort of practicing well, and even when I was much it's like, they weren't really as big or like attacked as I thought they wouldn't be. Yeah. So like, I know, like that government did politician and overall they really religiously aligned.
Alright, let's get to Morocco right now. Well, you know, Morocco, Al Mahara, like, many Muslim countries, went through the colonial period. Now you have to realize that when bento Marine, you know, 14th century, and then you have some other groups around the 16th century, 15th 16th century, you have some Arab groups that came in, you know, they they're also considered to be a little bit, one called sadiya. And what acids and groups and they ruled, and then the other way, and they consider themselves under Hassan to.
Okay, now, Morocco suffered under the colonial colonial period, they resisted the French as much as they possibly could. But their countries were governed by French rule. And so therefore, in order to raise up you had to learn French, you had to be very European, Islam was suppressed. And so, but in the village areas, the people maintained, you know, their religious life as much as they possibly could.
You could say that now, in a sense, there's a new resurgence of Islam. This has happened from the 20th century, because in the early 20th century under colonial rule, you could hardly find where
Men even who would wear hijab, in the cities, or anybody wanted to go and get an education, or work for the government, you had to take it off. Okay? villages they weren't. But when they threw out the colonial rule, it starts changing, then you have feminist movement that hits your communist socialist movement. And then that failed. And so all of the Arab countries in that area, now start turning to Islam. And this, especially in the 60s, and 70s, you know, used and it's still coming on, I would say now, I mean, in terms of the visible hijab, that you'd say, I would say, three quarters, or more 80% of Moroccan women wear hijab. And that's a major difference than what would have been,
say, 40 years ago, or something like that major, it's changed. Also, in terms of men, you know, dressing or wearing beards or praying and mustards, it's much more, you know, now than it was before. And you can say, it's sort of a resurgence happening now.
You know, and really, what really proved that, to me was the World Cup.
Because during the World Cup, you see that whenever the Moroccan team would score, they would all come together, and they would make prostration, to Allah subhanaw taala.
That, that's serious thing to do, right. And they would do it as a group.
You know, and, you know, the way that they dealt, and the way the people that you can see the, you know, the religious feeling, you know, bubbling up in them,
it's just a matter of for it to take shape, because of the colonial rule and what I call Neo colonial rule, that is people who governed, you know, in the, you know, they're not colonial, but they're, they're like, the colonial master, right. And they hunted down, they had their war on terror. And then you had extremism that came in the Muslim world, you know, with the diverse groups and all that stuff coming. So they had some extremism there. But then you had a big rising up called the Arab Spring, right? This is only a few years ago. And it started in Tunisia. That's where the Arab Spring started. But it turned out that that Arab Spring was not a real
revolution. It was like a social media revolution. It didn't really have strong base, and it was crushed. It was basically crushed.
But the feeling of wanting to return to Islam, is there. The challenge facing Muslims now is how to bring their Islamic practice up to date. And to be usable within modern society itself. There's a lot of pressure on Muslims, the main Islamic party in
Tunisia, you know, they're under tremendous pressure.
But in Morocco itself, you know, the king and his family, they are religious in a sense, but they still they rule in a secular type of way. But they don't stop religion itself. They pray, and they fast. And, you know, like, you know, in that big match that in Casablanca, they say is like, I know, 2 million people come out, make Tada, we're together, it's like, unbelievable, man. It's like Mecca or something.
So, so there is a feeling there, you know, within the population. But
people don't know how to express themselves. And the social media is so filled with confusions, like, you know, so people are finding their way. But I say that, you know, it's coming. It's like, mass, just farming and farming and farming and farming. Yo, and by the World Cup, you could see that Morocco demosaic spirit, they could be one of the leaders of the Muslim world. You know, as they were, you know, before Algerians have the spirit to Algeria was the first country to decolonize the first country to defeat the colonial masters. Who was Algeria, this MSF, right, that fighting spirit, you know, is there and it still exists there in North Africa? Not many other general
Were the first inhabitants of Morocco, were they black people? Yes, the first inhabitants of the world were black people.
So there is no place on Earth. The first Benu
Homo sapiens sapiens were black. Right? You gotta you gotta get this in your mind, man. It's hard for people to realize, right? But that's Homo sapiens sapiens in spread out of them. So the first inhabitants of Morocco coming out of the south, you know, were the indigenous people, you know, and they settled on the Sahara, they went north, they came across, and when they came into Europe, and then they went into Asia and you know, you'll still see black people all over the place in Pakistan, you know, you have you know, you know, you know, you know, black people you have an
India, you know, you have black people, you know Macron is Macron isn't in Karachi.
Clearly Africans, right? You have people in you know, Australia is clear with the Aborigines, you have an in India you have even in China everywhere, because people went through
changes, environmental changes with skin color changes and you know, but below the skin, we're all the same.
It's just a change and people we the closer you are to the equator, is the darker you're going to be. Why are you dark? Why are people in terminally ill people? dark in here in Tamil Nadu? You're India, because you need it for the sun.
melanin, you don't need sunblock.
Right. So it's a natural adaption being dark has nothing to do with your caste. Like some people think.
And the further you go north, the melanin is not going to help you there. Right you there, you get lighter skinned, your nose will get more narrow. If you have a broad nose, you'll freeze to death up there. Right. But if you're in a tropical area, you need a broad nose. Because moist.
So a lot of features are adaptions to climate, right. A lot of the features that we have, so the answer yes. The first people were, you know, black people. And then they were met by people who came from, you know, the Mediterranean region and whatnot and intermingled with them. The Nile Valley, you know, they came in and met with the people.
The other general
population in Morocco as well. How did they get there? Yes. So that's that's a good question. In especially in FeS, that this is a section of affairs we visited actually on our trip last week, as called Mala. The Mullah section is to do with Mila, which is salt. Because remember, the Jews that left in 586, when Nebuchadnezzar sacked about Jerusalem, and they went to Al Andalus. Right. So some of them went down into North Africa, too. So from that time, they were Jewish merchants on the routes. And the main things on the trade route was salt. Because you had no refrigerators then Right? Salt is preservative. So salt gold, right. So they established himself, silversmiths,
Goldsmith's merchants along the trade routes, and they actually had a section, you know, they're in an infests and the section is still there today.
it's called Bella, you know, section there invest. Now, any other general questions, anybody has? floor is open.
Like you just mentioned, I always had it I knew
from shear whenever you also mentioned.
so while they were establishing
know when the Fatimids established us Ha, they were Shia. But they were teaching Shia thought. They have their own books. They have their own ways of interpretations. That's what they were teaching. And they built a lot of the buildings in Cairo. And sometimes Salahuddin, you know, then a step made it sunnah. No more, she has teachings, Imam Shafi, his teachings, you know, came in and it was converted to a Sunni, you know, school. So as I was actually originally Shia, a lot of people don't realize that. But it was originally Shia. And, you know, in some ways, the Shias are similar to us when you have FIP you know, obviously, Arabic grandma literature, you know, so many things, they're
the same. When it comes to fic questions of jurisprudence, they're very similar, especially to the Hanafi school of thought. Like they're very similar. You know, but Aqeedah the belief you did it ideology, they believe that's where you see the major differences in the Shia but Allah a lot of the other stuff is the same. It wouldn't be that much different.
We have another question here. Shit, I still have a blur understanding the lineage. You mentioned on Hassan, the grandchild of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam in this lecture as an important figure during the seven hundreds
Yes, so again, when you're dealing with the Prophet SAW Selim, and then you have you know, Fatima, and Ali, and from them Hassan Hussein right now under Hassan side, there was Hassan was Sena was the second level Hassan
Okay, and then from him, came another of
of the children, you know from there was Idris.
Okay, so this is what is called, you know, 100 bait. It was not a sect like shia sect. They were also nice,
Maliki and fetco You can call it even in those days that didn't even call themselves Maliki's.
It was basically, you know, Sunday, it wasn't like today. I'm 100 Fiamma Maliki. Now it wasn't like that, right. So so these were other people's known as Sharif or Sayid's. And some of them moved to Hadramaut. You can see from the chat, some of them even moved to Central Asia, you know, they're and this Hassan is, you know, they're in Turkey and Central Asia as well. And some of them moved to Somalia. Some of them moved to Ethiopia to the city kohara. They're the science right? Some of them moved over to Afghanistan and India, there are different parts of the move to Indonesia. You know, there are different parts of the world, those who can, you know, trace their lineage back to the
Prophet saw something they are known.
So you mentioned that you actually prayed
library, why did they do that? Like, was it purely religious? Or? Because it seems to be a lot of like socio political inspiration as much? Yeah. Well, you know, if you go back and again, this is a long, you know, thing I have this group sects and groups in Islam, which goes into the whole detail on this. But if you go back to the struggle between Mao here and Holly,
right after the death of both men, and so then when Ali was assassinated, you know, and then eventually, you know, his son, Al Hassan, who took over, you know, people elected him. You know, he gave the rule tomorrow. Yeah. So there's no more fighting. Okay. But still, there was discontent, not with Wailea so much, but with his son, yes, eat because he has a bad character. You know, so, so discontent with him. And so there was a struggle that was going on in the most dangerous people to the roommates would be the eyelid bait. Because Jose and of course,
you know, Hassan had died and Hussein, but they are children and they would consider it to be the most dangerous threat to leadership. So this is where the star so people gathered around them in order to protect the family of the Prophet.
Not for ideological reasons, saying where she is and your Sunday's No, it was protection, because they were slaughtered by the Romanians right? By Yazeed. And his people, they slaughtered Hussein's family and caterpillar is a tragedy for all of us.
it was originally protection. So you could say it was political Shiism? Because she I mean, sect. She means a group. That's all the word means. He originally it was she had to ally and she had to bow Yeah, that's what they call the two groups. The group of Maori, the group of Maori became the Khalifa. So the ones around, it became known as Shia to ally.
So that's where the word Shia comes from. But at that time, it was not an ideology.
When it went into Iraq, and all these groups, may Moodle, Kedah and all these people came in who into magic and stuff. So they came with this stuff where they thought the Imams are like prophets, and, you know, they all these mystical things. And this all got mixed up there from out of Iraq, you know, and then it starts spreading around
to different places. So originally, but the Imams themselves,
were not, from what I understand. They were basically following Islam.
But they had to protect themselves because they were the government's the mayors, and then the ambassador, they were afraid of them.
And then some of them led uprisings against the Abbasids when the ambassadors became corrupted, they rebelled against them, and people would naturally follow them because they are the debate.
So therefore, there was there was always a protection for them. But this political this, this religious ideology really develops much later. It's really the 16th century in Persia, and a group called Safavids. The Safavids you know, they they're, you know, Ismail Muhammad him smile, you know, you know, suffer we, they found the Safavid dynasty, right, he was actually Turkish, because you have to remember when you talk about Persia, it was a Sunni area. Behati tears to me, the Abu Dawood Desai, all of those cities are because all the other cities are in Persia.
So what do you think all of the
Books of Sundar and Persia.
Right? They're all from there. So why would they all be because it was Sunday. It wasn't until the 16th century, when the Safavids took over. And then
Sharon smail, he enforced the Shia ideology.
And then he drove the Sundays back. And the Ottomans, he was gonna fight the Ottomans, Ottomans, defeated, defeated them. But they didn't want to go into his country. They just stopped him. And he took Persia in these areas. And then he starts to develop, like a state becomes a state religion, Shia.
But still, in Iran, there was a lot of Turkoman and other people were Sunday's, and up until today, there are still a lot of Sundays. But originally, Iran was a Sunni area, the Seljuks. And these people, there was Turkish, you know, Persian Sunni area.
And that's where a lot of people get confused. Because they think she goes way back to the title Ali does not.
At that time, the Shia was political, Shia, it was only the people supporting the family of the Prophet saw someone so they would not be harmed by the corrupt governance. That's all. It was not an ideology.
But later, it becomes an ideology.
And that's the problem we face today. And he tried to say the world is broken up into Sunni and Shia. That's not true. 90% of the Muslim world is Sunday, or maybe 85. It's also not, there's no half and half. It never was. They were always a minority, right.
But it's just politics, you know, where they want to divide and conquer the Muslims. So they divide us into pieces. And the other questions online, you know, for us.
was it like really an ideology they believed in? Or was it again, like a political?
No, they actually started to take on the ideology. And this was
based upon the infallibility of the Imams, because they started to believe that the Imams on Hussain Syed Hassan said that all of these Imams were infallible, they do not make mistakes. All creation submits to them. They're like demigods.
And then they start cursing the sahaba.
They start hating the the sahaba. And they start doing things that were not some of them. So the current is not complete. You know, they start doing things. It was like, you know, way hours outside,
you know, and then little groups broke away from them. And what even further, like the Smiley's and hasha sheen, and eventually there's no Sadie's to rules, the rules and Syria. That was another break away, you know, from the Fatimids. So there's a lot of splinters that broke away from this. Some of them went totally out of Islam, by the Bahais. They were shear.
But then they went totally out of Islam. To list Ali knowest Islam left in the middle, they don't pray, they don't do anything.
You know, so, you know, when you have a historical understanding of it, then then you can put it in perspective. If you don't, you can get confused.
And think there really was a problem in the beginning. And it's a division that came in Islam.
Right, you think they take it's not from the beginning. It's much later it was always a tiny minority. You and the Sunnah is up until today, the vast majority is the Sunday
so I think with this, we'll we'll end the class today and inshallah next week, we want to see the movement out of North Africa, out of St. Lucia, which goes west, it starts to move, and we'll see some amazing information Inshallah, you know about the travels of Muslims in the world, coming out of this very important area. So I leave you with these thoughts. Well, I could adapt why now and hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa sallahu wa Taala Seder Muhammad Ali, he was happy he was adequate. Salam Subhan Allah bigger bellezza DMARC phone was salam ala mursaleen Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salam alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh