The History of the Islamic Hijri Calendar and why does it start with Muharram
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
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Bismillah Alhamdulillah wa salatu salam ala Rasulillah while early he was supposed to be here, woman wala Hammerberg first and foremost, may Allah subhana wa Tada bless all of us and the entire Ummah, on the first Muharram of the year 1443 This is our new year, our new Hijiri. Here, we make dua to Allah subhanho wa taala, to allow this year to be a year of happiness in the year of peace and a year of lifting of the COVID crisis and the year of return to normalcy. And the year is for the Islam and the Muslims in the year of protection for all that are persecuted from the Uyghurs in from our Syrian brothers and sisters in the Burmese and what is happening at Ivana Stan, and all the
places we want to have peace and security, because today is the first time how wrong it is useful to remind ourselves of the reality of the Hijiri calendar where it came from and some minor issues about this insha Allah Allah miscellaneous thoughts is going to be a bit unstructured today insha Allah. The first issue, of course is where did this calendar come from? We're all familiar that in the 16th year of the hijra, there was no Hijiri calendar and open on the hotdog or the or the Allah one had to set up a court case where two people were arguing, and the contract said, you have to return the money in Shaban. And the guy said, No, this is next shotgun. And the other guy said no,
this was the previous shotgun that went by. It didn't have a year. So I realized we need a calendar like the Persians have a calendar and like the Romans have a calendar, okay? They understood that for a civilization to come, you had to have some independent realities of your own. You cannot be linked to other civilizations. This is the reality of any great civilization, so that we needed our own calendar, another 30 years would come and Abdul Malik Ibn Burdwan realized we need our own currency. We cannot work with the currencies of the Romans and the Persians. So the human to the first OMA yet currency. So the point being we needed our own civilization. So we're going to realize
we need our own calendar. So he called the sahaba. And he said, What should we do? We need to have our own years now, what did the Quraysh do before the coming of the history calendar? How did they mark the years, the Quraysh were of course not a global civilization, they were a small regional tribe, and the Arabs would mark the years like
uncultured civilizations would witches, an incident would become the year something major happens, then you will say, that is the year of the elephant, I will feel that is the year of the peace treaty of the such and such that is the year of how to vote for job, whatever it might be the became the year and if nothing happened one year, they will say one year after horrible Fajr. Okay, two years before I'm gonna feed. So every few years, as you grew up organically, you began to memorize the dates based upon a major occurrence. So in your lifetime, 1015 major occurrences plus or minus a few you have your years you get the point, right. That's how the calendar system was pre Islam. So
very rudimentary system, which is what we expect for a rudimentary peoples like the Quraysh and like the pre Islamic Arabs. Now, Islam is becoming a civilization we need to incorporate we need to have independence. So I'm going to talk about the law one calls the Sahaba in the masjid of the Prophet system, what should we do? They said, Yes, we need our own independent calendar. We cannot follow the Romans and the Persians. We should have our own Okay, when should we begin? Multiple suggestions, once a hobby said with the birth of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam another Sahabi said with the beginning of the Dawa when the Islam began to be preached, okay, coming down,
and it is said that, you know, the Allahu Anhu said, we should begin the calendar from the year of the hijra, because this is when How can Boston were separated. And this was when there is was manifested in the OMA and Obama. Kotov said, Yes, that is the date we should do. The Hijra is what separated the time of stress and the time of humiliation. Humiliation is a harsh word. But you know, the time of oppression is a better word, right, versus the time of public reason. That's the clear cut distinction. in Makkah, you are oppressed in Makkah, you cannot be public. In Medina, you have your own independence. So this is the beginning of our calendar. So they unanimously decided that is
going to be from the Hijiri year. And by the way, it's interesting to note, they're even thinking maybe the birth of the Prophet system. They're thinking, you know, the beginning of the Dawa. These were suggestions that were debated, but then eventually, they decided this was in the 16th year. So in reality, the Hijiri calendar was instituted in the 17th year and they back projected the 17 You get the point right for the first 17 There was no Hijiri calendar and the 17th year of the hijra, this is when they back projected. Okay, you have the year, the year is going to be the year of the Hijra. Which month should we begin the calendar because before the Hijiri calendar, there was no
system of the beginning month, it's just to continuous 12 months all the time.
Back and forth. And by the way, pre Islam they would swap the months this is another pre Islamic custom that the Quran mentions and the Prophet system forbade this right? If they didn't like a month or you know, the, the four months of the season of non fighting the Ashura Iran, if they wanted to wage war, there was a okay actually, it's no longer there. Hey, Jenna, we'll just pretend to suffer right now. They'll swap it just imaginary, you know, and they will do this. The Quran came and forbade it and said, No, you're gonna keep it as it is in the shoulder. And Allah has an ASHA Sharon is in surah Tober. So 12 months was there, but there was no first month, there was no first
month, it's a perpetual cycle. Now that you're going to have a calendar, you need a first month as well. So then the second discussion began, which month should be the first month, the most obvious candidate was Ramadan. And Ramadan was discussed, and Ramadan was almost close to adoption. But then it is said either with money but I found or I'm going to hotdogs, so the calendar, it comes from audit or the law one and Earthman and Omar, and then the sahaba. All of them unanimously agree, but the main minds of it are these three that are doing the soap, then the suggestion came, actually, and actually there was also a suggestion of Raja, believe it or not, there was a suggestion or a
beard. Oh, well, by the way, Imam Malik 160 years later, no, 150 years later, would say that it should have been it should have been revered. Uh, well, Imam Malik opinion was that they should have chosen a beard. Oh, well, why are a beard Oh, well, not why most of you think that's not the reason why Imam Malik said because it was the month of the Hijra. The Hijra actually occurred and repeated over by the way, so common misconception, especially amongst our youth, that the hijab occurred and will haram because it's our first month. So the assumption then comes it is in Muharram. No, this is a false assumption. No scholar actually said this, the Hijra occurred and robbing a well. This is
testimony of the books of Hadith had been his house had been Hisham al Walkley had been silenced. Because they all mentioned the Hijra occurred in the month of revered Oh, well, it is well, no, no dispute there. So there was a position of your audit was basically not adopted, and Imam Malik wished they had a doctor appeal Oh, well for the first month because if you want to do it the way the hijra, then you should do it. Roberto will hijra, right so that's when it began. Nonetheless, they began their discussion with Mandra the Allah one or Omar or the both of them, they came to the conclusion should it be more haram? Why more haram? So this is the reasoning that they had, they
said, and remember, and those years, pretty much every McKee or Madani person is doing Hajj, right so it's a regular thing. When you're there in Medina and Mecca, you're gonna go for Hajj, the majority would go for hedge every single year. It's close by you're not going to why would you not do your hedge? So rather than the hot tub set, and by the way, hedge would take around two weeks to come back to from Medina. Okay, so two weeks have suffered time, not four hours and we're complaining about four hours in the bus. These days, that four or five hour journey, we find it difficult, okay in air conditioned sitting on coaches, and we get irritated at that. Can you imagine
if the Sahaba saw us and we are grumbling, we have to be in Iran for four hours in this air conditioned coach sipping our teas and our juices and whatnot. Can you imagine walking from Mecca to Medina in a haram two weeks journey by the way, on average, right? That's how they did it. So hamdulillah ALLAH blessed us but he also only tested us in this regard. So our Buddha hottub reasoned that look, by the time we get back from Hajj, okay, we are now you know, everybody knows hedges a rebirth to new opportunity. So when we come back, you begin maharam So it's as if every single Muharram you have a new opportunity to be a better person to cleanse your sins to have a new
year. So he goes no more harem is when we come back, you know from the hedge and we start you know life again, because again, when hedge finishes you stay there a few days you come back, you're literally going to come back to Medina you know, two three days before first and haram and then the first time what haram begins, so they decided to make it more haram. That is why Muharram was chosen. It has nothing to do with the month of the Hijra. The year of the hijra, is yes number one. Ah by the way, for the youngsters in the audience, there is no zero Ah, okay. Do you have the first year of the Hijra is the first year there is no zero in time you have negative one and then you have
one one year before the Hijra than one year of the Hijra. The Hijra occurred in year one not year zero time is not zero. Unless you believe in quantum that was a whole different case which we're definitely not going to go into in a Tuesday night caught it after Isha. So what was I? We're talking about the what are we talking about? I forgot
the hedge we finished the hedge. Mahara Okay, well haram So Muharram was the month that they decided okay, now, another scholar by the name of a Swahili he died 850 Something great animal of zero interest.
You see, right and literature and history. So Haley said, I have a Quranic evidence that Rama Rama hardtops decision was correct. I have a Quranic evidence that yes, that should be the Hijra should be the first year of the Islamic calendar. How can you have a Quranic evidence for something that's historical? This is called back projecting. Like if you want to find evidence you'll find something. So he found a verse. I mean, your he constructed an argument from the verse in Surah Toba right that lemma Student Society Taqwa mean oh Awali yo, Min Harcourt and Tacoma fee, okay. And so Haley says min William the first day. So the verse goes that remember the process of migrated to convey the the
first message he built was Koba right. And then there was some tension between the magnitude of the roar of the monarchy icon and Oba and whatnot. There was some tensions so Allah praised Koba and Allah said, the Masjid you established from the first day, that is where you should pray mini Masjid Koba, okay, so Allah says from the first day, so Haley says that means Allah intended, of course, this is a stretch but still, it's interesting point that Allah intended the Hijiri calendar the first day to be the year of the of the Hijra. So anyway, that's the story of the Hijra. One other miscellaneous point, which again, FYI, I did find Inshallah, then we're done.
The issue comes that okay, I'm gonna instituted the hijra, and we now have this, you know, civilizational, calendar and whatnot. How about saying greetings and making dua and blessing the OMA like I just did, and the beginning of this talk, okay. Is this something that might become a bit?
Or is this something that is John is an allowed? Because the Hijiri calendar is not from the Sunnah, quote unquote. Right? So should we give congratulations Mabrouk Today's the first of Mahara New Year's Yanni our New Years and may Allah make this I just made a long dua. So you already know my position because I made the DUA, but now the question arises, Okay, should we do something like this? Or is it a religious innovation? This goes back to a much deeper topic, I have a longer lecture online, you will find it I gave it four or five years ago about the definition of Buddha. And depending on your definition of Buddha, you will then have a position based upon your
definition. So there's a small group of scholars you will find there fatawa and those who read Arabic and you're on Facebook, you know, these fatawa have been floating around every single year, the same thing that you should not mention, that is the first and muharram do not make dua for the OMA do not bless anybody robotic, but do not do this, it becomes a bit. Okay. Jay, we respect that position. Always. We respect any item that says that's their opinion. But of course, there's always alternative viewpoints. Right. And in fact, Mr. Su 3600 years ago, wrote the treaties and in it, he says in this that, you know, I was asked, Should we greet one another and the beginning of the new
year, until you make dua for the beginning of the new year. So Mr. Masucci, died 911 Hijra we're talking literally 500 600 foreigners and 500 years ago, that he I was asked this, and he quoted an alum of the Shafi school I forgot his name and I was in my head somewhere who died 200 years before him. And he says chef, so and so Imams, so and so mentioned this as well. And he said that, giving greetings and wishing well for people at the beginning of the new year. Listen to this. It says neither sunnah, nor Buddha, it is permissible and it's not a part of the deen.
And this was the correct opinion. Okay, it can't be sunnah. Because there was no Hijiri calendar at the time of the Prophet system. But it is not be the as well because Buddha means you introduce a ritual that you expect to be a part of the deen and that Allah is going to reward you for now making dua for somebody on any occasion. Is that a ritual in and of itself? Or is it something generic? Somebody gets the job? May Allah bless you in the job, okay, somebody gets a house, may Allah bless you in that house, making a generic dua. Do you need a specific evidence to make a generic dua? Yes or no? No, you can make a generic, what's wrong with making a dua for me I can make dua right now
when I see you may Allah azza wa jal bless you and your family, and you problem with that. So to make a DUA, knowing that this is not Allah didn't tell you on this day, make dua, you know it, but it's just you want something good. And by the way, by the way, if you want it to go down this route, which is the bigger quote unquote Buddha, making dua for your Muslim brother or sister or bringing a whole new calendar that the process of did not have, or whatever the top did not view this as beta Aditi to bring in a whole new calendar. He understands this is the world
Old needs to work as dunya with no problem, and it becomes religious and it becomes a sign of Islam. Right? Not everything that is dunya, which is separated from religion, it becomes sometimes religion, even though it's not religious, per se. And if you listen to my longer lecture on this, I give it to academic lecture what is the definition it's a bit you have a shelter B's opinion, a Shaffir his opinion and to me as if you need an address opinion, different definitions of it are based upon that you get different understandings. The bottom line is that wishing somebody generic drop on any occasion is permissible and to make dua in the beginning of the month when they get a
new job in the beginning of the Hijiri calendar is something good overall, it doesn't become something that is of the negative without because you are not making it into a ritual. And so with that, I once again make dua that ALLAH SubhanA wa Tada bless all of us in this year and make us all better Muslims than we were last year. And may Allah azza wa jal show us there is of Islam throughout the world may Allah azza wa jal Grant peace to all those that are suffering. May Allah azza wa jal live from us this COVID crisis, which is our Kamala, who was Salam alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh