Ramadan 2014 – Tafsir Surah Al-Fatiha – 02

Yasir Qadhi


Channel: Yasir Qadhi


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Episode Notes

Shaykh Dr. Yasir Qadhi continues the Tafsir of Surah Fatihah divulges key details on the following aspects:

  • Discussion on the origin of the names of Surahs .
  • The division of the Qur’an into Surahs and Ayahs and the one who is the first one to be credited with this important task.
  • The meaning of Audhubillah minash-Shaitan Ar-Rajeem (the Isti’adha).

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Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala Sayyidina Muhammad in whether it was ibH marine Mubarak. Yesterday we had mentioned that of the names of suta till facha is of course Al Fatiha, which means the opening in the beginning and Allah azzawajal called it the fact to have because he began the Quran with this surah we also mentioned the names of Al Fatiha his omal, Kitab and Oman Quran, which is the gist of the Quran and the gist of the book. And we said of the names of Al Fatiha is a sub and mahtani are the seven verses that are repeated all the time. We said that there are other names as well and of the names that the surah has been

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called by some of the Sahaba and Barone. It has been called surah till hemd, the sutra of praising Allah, it has been called surah to Salah the surah of the Salah, because no Salah is accepted without the Fatiha and because in one Hadith, we're going to come to this later on. Allah Himself calls this surah Salah the Hadith goes as follows that the Eliza says Hadith is Hadith bootsy I have divided the Sunnah between myself and my servant, half and half. So half is for me and halfway through my servant and the half that is his he shall get it. And then the Hadees goes on that when he says that hamdulillah I say this when he says I'm under him I say that until finally the Hadith

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finishes. So the beginning of the Hadith says what I have divided the Sunnah half and half and then the Hadith explained suited Fatiha. So from this some of the earliest scholars said of the names of a Fatiha is Surah to Sala, it is as if this is the essence of sada the surah has also been called surah to Shiva, the surah of healing because there's a hadith that Abu Salah the hoody narrated in sahadi, that once a group of Sahaba were going in the desert, and they pass by a village. And this village was not a Muslim village and the the, from the village, a young girl comes out and says do you have somebody that cures diseases in your gathering? And somebody stood up and we didn't think

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he was a doctor? We didn't think he was somebody who cures diseases. The Arabic word uses Rukia and Rukia is spiritual healing. Do you have any rock? Do you have anybody who does Rukia somebody stood up and we didn't think he was somebody who cures and he said I can help. So we took him to the chieftain and the chieftain was sick in bed, and he came back and lo and behold, the chieftain was cured was healed. So we asked this hobby, what did you do? Were you a doctor, did you learn how to do Rukia or any spiritual healing? And the Sahabi said, No, I'm not a doctor. All I did was recite fatty hetal kita All I did was recite the Quran Fatiha. And I kept on reciting until Mashallah

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diabolical that he became cured. And so from this, some of the scholars have called In fact, the Heart Sutra to Shiva, because it is a sutra that cures others have called this sutra to work here not working out with an iron worker with a and waqia means the protection and I've called it suited to Kapha the one that is sufficient, and so on and so forth. Now, this leads us to an interesting question. And that is, where did these names come from? Who gets to name the sutras? And in fact even before we asked this question, there's an even more fundamental question who divided the Quran up into sutras and is and this is especially relevant for certain factor as we will see inshallah

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tada and we're not going to go into a lot of detail but we need to know some basics before we get to the fact that

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the Quran has been divided into sutras by Allah Himself. And a lot of references in the Quran sutras for example, Allah says, surah to an answer, now, we have revealed a surah and Allah says way, the answer not sure when a surah with our own zealot surah when a surah comes down. So Allah references the concept of surah. And by unanimous consensus of all the scholars of Islam of our time, that the sutras of the Quran have been told to us by the prophet Mohammed sysm himself. So by unanimous consensus, 114 sutras in the Quran, and by the way, the word surah comes from the same Arabic route as means a fortification or the wall around the city. So and the Arabs called the walls around the

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city they call it the sword or the the, the the fortification of the city. So it is as if every surah has been fortified. It is as if every surah has been demarcated. You know what is in the sutra. You know what is out of the sutra, just like the walls of the city, you know what is inside, you know, what is outside? Where do the names come from? The names actually

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surprise you to know that the bulk of the names of the sutras of the Quran do not come from the Hadith literature. Rather, the prophet system only told us some names. Barely a dozen or two. That's it. The rest of the surah names were allocated by the Sahaba and their students. So the names of the sutras of the Quran, some of them, our prophets, or some gave some names to, and we gave some examples that even those he named sometimes he gave multiple names. So in the Hadith, we find Surah Al Fatiha surah, to run sudo, to own Mel kita. And he said this surah is sub l mahtani. So he himself named the same surah with multiple names. But the fact of the matter is that most sutras of

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the Quran were not named by our Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Rather, the companions name them and their students after them. So we find even those suitors that the professor might have named, the Sahaba had no problems, adding more names, because the purpose of a name is a label, just to signify This is the surah. So they realize the label is not necessarily from a law, that they could give a label to the surah. So they said this is Surah Shafi, surah, surah, Al Hamd, surah, Salah, all of these are the names of the suitors from the Sahaba. And similarly, we find multiple names for almost every surah. And that is why To this day, my dear brothers and sisters, for those of you who

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are paying attention to the various Korans, if you find a Koran printed, let's say in the Middle East, and you compare it the Table of Contents with the Koran printed in, let's say, India or Pakistan, you will actually find over a dozen names or a little bit less than a dozen names of the suitors are, in fact different from one another, right suited in San is suited, suited up, right. What are the examples that anybody has quickly? So rotten mustard is

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I need the pseudo tilapia. So we have surah, noon is pseudo column. Right? So that's about a consumer milk, right? So how many surgeries to the moment you have all of these different variations? And where do these variations come from? They go back to the Sahaba themselves. Therefore, the names of the sutras have been allocated primarily by the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. As for the IRS, as for the verses, now, this is where it gets a little bit interesting and I need you to pay attention because later on, we're going to come back to this fact here. The IRS Yes, Allah mentions the Quran is divided into is Allah azza wa jal specifically

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says, For example, way that I attend McKenna is when we abrogate an ayah when we lifted it up, so Allah mentions there's something called an ayah. And what does it mean? It means a marker an indication, a mortgage is a miracle. It is a marker or an indication or a miracle, as if every verse is an indication that this book is from Allah. every verse is a miracle that nobody can replicate. So every verse in the Quran is a sign that this book is from Allah subhana wa Tada. That's why Allah calls it. So Allah mentions surah, Allah mentions ayah, Allah azza wa jal divided the Quran into sutras. And even the Quran is divided into ayat. But here's where it gets a little bit deep here,

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and that is, the prophet Mohammed says Adam did not sit down as we know and write the Quran and put a full stop at the end of every ayah. We know that the Quran was dictated to the Sahaba and the Sahaba wrote down the Quran. So the ayah were not clearly indicated. Rather, it was left to the Sahaba once again, to figure out where one verse ended and the other began. What does this mean? This means that the number of verses of some suitors are different in the recitations of the Quran. Now, this might sound strange to some of you, but let me assure you, we're not talking about different ideas that don't exist. We're talking about one is split into two in some recitations. We

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know from last year we talked about this many years. We talked about this, the Quran has many recitations, there's 10 recitations that are well known in our times in the world and they are if you go to North Africa, for example, they're reciting the Quran slightly differently if you go to certain areas as well, they said, recite the Quran slightly differently, different intonations, different Tajweed rules very minor my new shape, but of the differences is that there are differences in the number of verses as well. So for example, Surah Baqarah is how many verses

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two 256 guys seriously 256?

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Two, sorry, to 286 now what are you 286? Yes, okay, now to get to 86 to 86 now 286

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According to the Quran that we recite, which is everybody should know the Torah we recite halfs from Kufa, the city of Kufa, in the city of Basra.

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They had another recitation of Ramadan. And that reputation has 285 verses. What is this means? Is there a missing verse? No. Two ideas are merged into one, clear, there is no extra verse and you will have to do that the Quran has been preserved, right? No problem there. But every Torah has a slightly different numeral numeration system. Now why do I say this? Because there is one very big controversy that we're going to have to talk about with pseudo factor, we're going to come to it but this is the prelude we're laying the foundations. And that is, there is only one verse that is really controversial. Is it an idea of the Quran or not? And that is the very first verse of the

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very first surah.

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This smilla rahmanir rahim

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al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen matter him to the end of the surah this Bismillah Is it an ayah or not? This is the only difference of opinion in the whole recitations of the Quran, where there's an actual afterlife of a verse, is it a separate verse at the beginning of Fatiha, or is it not a separate verse? And this is an issue he had from the Sahaba that some of them said it is, some of them said it is not. And we're going to come to that when we come to it, but I just wanted to point out that issue before we get to the before we get to the particular issue of the ayat of the Quran, for the next brief, five minutes inshallah Tada, before we conclude today's hotter,

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it's the other or do Billahi min ash shaytani r rajim. This is something that we recite before we recite not just the fact that habit, any recitation of the Quran, and even though it's not linked to the fact they have because it is the beginning of the Quran, it is useful and essential that we understand what is the history either Allah says in the Quran in surah verse 98, that when you recite the Quran, for either karate or on First there is Billahi min ash shaytani r rajim. Then seek refuge in Allah from shavonda regime, and also as soon as they are off verse 200. Allah says that whenever shavon whispers to you something, then first aid Billa in the who was Samuel Allium, seek

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refuge in a law he is a semi Allium. So what does this is the other? What does it mean?

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The word either I live that the word either means to turn to somebody for protection, to seek help, to tell somebody that you're in danger, and you cannot defend yourself. And you need another entity more powerful than you to help you spiritually not to help you physically you don't say the word either for physical help, what is physical help dialing 911 or calling up somebody helped me on being attacked in Arabic you would not say it's the other or other who this is a spiritual help you turn to a god, you turn to a divine power, physical help you say help me nudge the whatever you say whatever the phrase might be. It's the either you turn to an entity that is all powerful, and

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therefore it's there it is an act of worship, turning to an entity in this manner, is only done to Allah subhanho wa Taala. So when you say Ooh, beloved, you are saying, I have no power to protect myself. I need to turn to the all powerful, I am incapable I turned to the capable I am weak. I turned to the Aveda Aziz, yeah Allah I seek your help against what against shavonda regime, what is shavonne What is our regime shavonne comes from the Arabic shodhana and shodhana means that which is far removed. So shaytan is the being that is far removed from Allah mercy from Allah from righteousness from piety shaitaan is far removed from the straight path. So shavonne is a generic

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term that applies to any being in orgin that is removed from the path of Allah shavon is not one being that is a belief if this is the head shape on it believes is the leader of the shale team. But shavon is a generic term that applies to every entity, human origin.

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Arm Am I saying that our human shell thing? Yes, I am saying this because Allah says so. Shout out clean and NC will gin in the Quran. The shale clean of the ins and jinn and the Hadith and muslimah Muhammad the Prophet system told us a hobby about Shelton and ncwa Jin the Sahabi said he

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Even the ins have Shelton and the President said yes, even the ins have Shelton. Even the men have Shelton those men that are preventing you from worshipping Allah, those men that are calling you to worship other than Allah. Those are shale clean ins, and they're also Shelton Elgin. So we seek refuge in Allah from shavon shavon, who is what regime regime is an adjective is describing shape on regime is an adjective describing the shape one and regime comes from rajamma and Raja means to pelt with stones. So, even when we

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the stoning issue is called rajim. You know the regiment Lj jurmala, even you can say your stoning it right. So the rajamma is to cast aside to pelt with stones. So our regime is the one who has been cast aside, pelted by Allah to go away. And in fact, both the word shape on and the word regime have a similar meaning to them shape on the one who's far away regime, the one who has been cast out, so shavon, by his nature is far away and shaped on by his nature, his regime, sorry, shaitaan by his nature is far away, and she has gone by his actions Excuse me, I want to say his regime, I repeat, by his nature shavon is far away the meaning of shape one, and by his actions, he is regime he has

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been thrown, pelted with stones, people don't want him Allah has cast him and flung him away. So by his nature he shaped on and by his actions, he is regime so we seek refuge in a law from the shavon a regime and therefore when we began reciting the Quran, we cleanse our heart we purify our intention, we indicate to Allah Oh Allah, I am helpless, I am weak, I am turning to for help and protection, and how do we say the is the other day I did have a number of ways to do so, and I only mentioned three The most common one or the Billahi min ash shaytani r rajim. And the second most common and the process of would regularly say this especially in the Sala as reported in widowed and

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others that are Sahabi said I heard the process and when he stood up to pray, he said who do Billahi min ash shaytani r Rajim in hempz he whenever he whenever he he from his whisperings and from his products and from his blessings, I will do Billahi min ash shaytani r Rajim Min hempz he won, he won a fee This is another variation. And then there is a third variation that sometimes as well our Prophet system said and that is by adding a semi and adding rule to builder his semi real Alimi Minar shaytani r Rajim or we can say our whoo Billa his semi retired him of course similarly means the one who hears the one who sees rubella his cemetery the Alimi min ash shaytani r Rajim min

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Hamza, he wonderfully he won a fee. This is the longest version and our Prophet salallahu it he was seldom would sometimes say this as well. So to conclude, what is the purpose of the str the why do we say I will do Beloved, first and foremost to purify our tongue from the filth of speech that we have said before recite the Quran. This is like the will do is to our Salah, our tongue is going to recite the book of Allah, we need to get rid of the filth so we say our rules Billahi min ash shaytani r rajim. Then also we do this because we want to seek protection from shaytaan. corrupting our understanding of the Quran. We say our hoodoo Billa. To indicate to Allah Allah, I want guidance

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from this book. I want this book to help me to the Serato Mr. Team, I don't want to be dis diluted away from the from this path, we say our will to be left to show a lot that I am weak and you are powerful. We say our Oh to be left to indicate to Allah and in front of Allah that Oh Allah, no harm can come to me, except if you have decreed it, because you can protect me from shavon. So if you protect me, Oh Allah, then no other being can harm me. And we say this Lastly, so that whenever we we recite the Quran in a lecture in a speech, we always say, Allah says in the Quran, then we set out to build. And then we quote the verse because we never only try not to add up its proper

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respect. We don't mix the speech of men with the speech of a law. We give it a indicator that the speech of men is coming to an end. Then we say ooh Billahi min ash shaytani r rajim Bismillah R Rahman Rahim we are putting a clear marker. This is the speech of men on one side, this is the speech of Allah. So we give the introduction so that we make dalim or we respect the speech of Allah subhana wa tada and inshallah tomorrow we will continue on the str that and move on as well to the best Mehta was Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.