Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 67
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 42.61MB
Mr. Hains hamdulillahi rabbil Alameen wa salatu salam MBIA vamos was set in unbeknown to them, Muhammad Ali, he could have sought out as good esteem or Lahoma on him there may in fact, no one found I mean, that antenna was in Manero. But I mean, so that, everybody welcome to beginning classical Arabic, we're moving right along, our lessons are in the 60s on the data.
And we're going to just do a very, very, very brief recap of some key points just because they dropped some really nice tables on us, and the previous few lessons.
So here we have, for example, a bomber.
Bomber, air is the plural of beaumier. Damir literally means something that's hidden, but in Arabic grammar, it means pronoun.
Okay, so we have a bone that is either the way that we divide pronouns in English and in Arabic are different. Okay, so in
English, we divide program pronouns into three things, we divide them into subject pronouns, and Object pronouns, and possessive pronouns. And this is the one place in the English modern English language that these grammatical cases pop up, right? Or they they remain, right we have,
he went to the store, I talked to him, right, he and him are different because he is a subject pronoun, an OG and M is an object pronoun. That book is his. Right, his book is a possessive pronoun. So each has its distinct forms. And we use that frame to think about pronouns in Arabic because it is useful to think about
what does it look like to have an A subject pronoun at a center, right, versus an object pronoun.
right column to write in and or outlaying, Qaeda, Al kills, etc, etc. But that's not the way that Arabic grammarians differentiate between pronouns they have kind of an easier way or maybe just a different way of looking at them. They categorize them into two categories, Moon fell, sila, and tell sila Okay, mon Sol, sila means
separated, detached pronouns. And then the opposite is most tell sila as a solid in there. Tama Ruta and this means connected. And that's simply to say that
we're talking about is this pronoun, its own separate word? Or is this something that is attached to another word?
Now, why they don't divide pronouns into the way that we do in the English language is because recall that the forms of the object pronouns, and the possessive pronouns are the same in Arabic. Let's give an example if I want to say your book, I would say Masada rots what would it what would we say?
Yes, keytab Buka. Right. And I couldn't hear your
your audio very well, but I'm pretty sure you said keytab Buka Okay, so what's the essential part of the word here is keytab. And then what's the possessive pronoun? Oh, here it is the cast your book.
Right? archetype key? Yes, yes, defending office masculine or feminine. If we wanted to pick a verb
I wrote to you or like that, you know, old way they used to say in English like write me or I wrote to you, right, we could say like, cat tab to care.
Recall our conjugations. Here we kept up to meaning I wrote GitHub to ca. Okay.
So this is exactly the same thing in the sense that the pronoun here is the same.
Looking at it from the lens of English grammar, we would say all these things can serve completely different functions and it's true there
This one is a possessive pronoun. It's attached to a noun. This one is an object pronoun. It's attached to a verb. Arabic grammatical categories don't care. They're like, look, that thing is attached to that word right there. So that makes it we'll see that
that makes it more popular of beaumier ultimate posse that makes it an attached pronoun.
And the same thing with all the other for his right keytab whoo hoo right Kitab to who? Or if we wanted to say to her keytab whoo Ha, Khattab to her et cetera et cetera all the pronouns are the same.
So in our in Arabic grammar we say they are they'll say that they are
attached as opposed to these right here. A will matter and when Fossella which from the English lens are the subject pronouns? Who
here right they're independent words they stand alone on their own. And it was a really nice What's this This is PAGE
PAGE 92 is a fantastic chart because it breaks it down into such nice
pairs here on the right we have a little more for them in singular right now we have little January that means plural. And then it goes by person. So we have right here the third person we have the second person and then finally we have the first person all the
subject pronouns who Bali boon and then you get to see how it changes the cover after it home to lab on our home so lab here for libre tune one remember that's our exclusive female group body Batson that's the third person done. And body bone and T for libratone. is enough. And Tom balaban Anton Nah, that's our second person exclusively feminine group Baliga to him.
And then finally, Anna barley boom, Anna barley button, the pronouns to stay the same national level and national volleyball and the pronouns stay the same. So this is a super super, super helpful chart and I'm a big chart guy, I love charts and diagrams, I was just showing my son I came across one of the kinds of charts I had made, I basically like when it was time for final exams and Medina would try to summarize the entire class and like one chart
and then we have the same thing here.
And then the next chart that we have is shows us the
demonstrative pronouns, okay? A smart will Isha. Okay, we call these in English demonstrative pronouns are not really considered pronouns in Arabic. They're called
demonstrative nouns. But in English, we can we think of them for the English grammar nerds out there, we think of them as demonstrative pronouns.
And we have different ways of categorizing them, whether they are a singular or plural,
whether they are masculine or feminine, whether they are close, or far away.
And finally, whether they are off, these are all often whether they are intelligent beings, or I don't know what it was, like humans, let's just say humans are not humans, okay? So both of these, both of these are for human beings for human beings. This one is for close by, and this one is for far away. Over here, I'm gonna move this out of the way let's see, this is for
masculine this is for feminine.
This is for singular, this is for poor.
Same thing masculine, feminine, goes all the way across. This is for singular, this is for plural. We have had either one of them masculine Bobby Boone. Had he one of them feminine for Libra tune.
Hola, e to learn plural masculine or mixed? Ha Hola, E for feminine or mixed? Easy. The
demonstrative pronouns don't recognize gender in the plural. How would I barley bear to me the same thing etcetera, etcetera, Danica Tisca, Hula, hula. Okay. Any questions with any of that? This person
That one, this particular chart is on page 96. Two very, very, very useful charts to help us keep track of all this stuff.
Any questions up until this point?
And for those of you who missed the previous two lessons, they are coming, we have someone assister who volunteers to edit them and then put them on YouTube and they have not been completed yet. But in a couple days and shall be done. Which one would you say is not impacted on?
Which one is not impacted?
The demonstrative pronouns are not impacted by gender in the plural, in the plural, okay. Yes. So how would I, how would I, there's no feminine or masculine form? Well,
there is no masculine or feminine form, they're the same. However, in the singular. Now we have a difference between gender that ICA tilde had the
the next chart, same page 96 goes over demonstrative pronouns for non human beings. And this was one of the big things of I think, last class, right? And the big giveaway, the spoiler alert, is that for plural,
non human beings,
we use singular feminine linguistic forms. Oh my goodness, what on earth does that mean?
It just means that you're going to use the singular feminine form
to talk about floral objects.
In Arabic, yes.
If that's strange to you, it was strange to me too. Are you allowed to use
plural? The monster pronouns? No, you're not. So this is a must do? We have had beaten Havey do you turn
if this were a person, this would be for singular feminine here. It's not a person. And so it's for just it's for portal. And there's no gender.
The thing that comes that's consistent between these two sharp charts is that there's no floral Excuse me. There's no gender in the plural. He had to he had to he
had to he heat say yeah, rotten. How the heat sejarah turn.
Yes, the only way that you can tell that one is singular and one is plural is by the, the actual noun itself.
That it can be eaten. We're talking about far away. tilaka say turn.
Tail caribou. uten teleca sejarah.
All right, any questions about these?
It will be new for those of you who missed the last class, but it's not too crazy. It's a similar thing. It's just a little bit of a wrinkle that we haven't heard any questions
so I'm talking about books or pens or this or that anything that's a non human objects we're going to use if there's a group of them we're going to use singular feminine pronouns here. We're going to use half are going to use
have the end Tisca good. And that brings us to a new lesson does to set the I set off the 17th lesson
let's have our both sides with us tonight.
I know we don't have a conversation actually. It's just one to assist enumerator so let's just go out be even better everybody will get a chance. Let's go if with Dr. Mister Could you please do number one for us?
I'm sorry. No worries.
Okay, of level maths GED.
Must do Hatton good that's excellent. translate that for us. What would that mean?
Mas its door is open. Yes. Very good at with the only wrinkle that EdWeb is the plural of Babs.
And so we have the doors, doors. Yes, doors of the masjid are open. Okay, and the point that they want you to get here. They're going to still be teaching the same lesson as last lesson except now instead of just looking at the pronouns, we're going to be looking at the consequences of these words being having singular feminine forms. So this is a gem that is Mia. We haven't looked at that hover. Okay, here's the move to the right. It's more for the bomber. This is my boss move off eBay, because that's what construction of web was SGD
What are we saying about them? What's the hot mess to have to
mess to hatoon is an adjective that is in this singular feminine, right? If we would say a sale or two, that's too hot, it would be the car is open, singular feminine. Here we have a plural a plural subject, however, because this plural is a non human being, then we use the singular feminine form to talk about
instead everybody on board with me, does that make sense?
So if it were singular, it would be bad would MSgt mess to one
just like that mess to one. But since it's floral, it is a Blab was an SGD not too hard too. Little extra time on Bucha there makes it a singular feminine form. And the meaning is that this is a group of non human things
okay. Is Dr. Syra there
Yes. Okay, let's go with number two all right.
Lehman has a he'll be what do
we were told yesterday
that to good excellent
Saudi Gotti Very good. Excellent. Okay. You want to take a stab at the meaning of translating
your other work as a pair New York has a couple
is this new
Is this new car?
The youth means cars.
What's that? Okay, so we'll use I'll give you a heads up the youth is plural. So what's the singular
Oh, do you know that
the youth, I don't know.
bait is the singular and beautiful tour okay. So I spotted you the noun. So if that is bait his house Okay, so these are houses now take a crack at
this new house? Yeah, because
these new houses right now we can you know, probably translate it a few different ways. The idea is whose new houses are these? Or Whose are these new houses however you want to phrase it good? And then the really interesting part here is the answer here. Li Mo Da Shari Kathy.
Literally an English they belong to the Madeira of the Seneca. Seneca is a corporation.
I'm not sure if we've heard that word before.
Or corporation or company
literally from Shiva trait you guys know she had seen raw CA is to join the joint partners. Right? And so not all she had, I mean, all should have been religious about of course, right. But the * in
trade is like sciatica has to do with like a partnership or a corporation or company.
Okay, let's go to the beginning of the sentence. Let's break it down.
Okay, we have a W two. All right, we noticed that that is the plural of baits. So now remember what we're learning here we're learning about groups of non human objects. Okay.
The first thing we notice is that they gave us have the heat.
Instead of have the
if it had been singular bait the men, it would be Lehmann has al bait,
right? Because it would be singular and bait happens to be masculine.
However, here we're working with a plural
object, a plural noun that is not a human being. And so now we're going to use the singular feminine form instead of how the we're using havee. The men have the EW two and we see the consequences of that play out in as a Jedi the two or excuse me as a Jedi that too.
We want to say that their new houses how are we going to express that their new houses if it had been singular how the
A total Jedi do, right? masculine, singular.
If it had been a person, let's say if it was Raju,
or I'm sorry, if it had been a person and it had been plural,
then we would have to pluralize the adjective it would be a Reja
l Jude. Remember that's the plural of the deed.
But, but we're dealing with non human plurals here. Yes. So we can't say LG indeed. And we can't say LG. We have to say a Jedi. That's who we stick a time on Bucha. On the end, it becomes feminine, singular and form. However, it's referring to a nonhuman plural group.
We see it pop up in the answer as well.
What subjects pronoun what detached pronoun are we going to use to refer to this non human group are going to use here not home?
If they had been rejected, then we would have used home
but since it is a group of non human objects, we would say here
and if we're translating it into English, we're still going to say they write they belong to the
movie theater Shetty because like, almost like the CEO, right, Director a well that's better. The director of the company.
Everybody understand that concept? That's the main thing that we're trying to learn here.
nonhuman groups, feminine singular, non human groups, feminine singular. Were all over the place, demonstrative pronouns, adjectives, subject pronouns.
And this is a simple Lemo the rishi Kathie Lee, this is the LEA of possession. Just like this one, the men.
We explained what movie it is a Shetty cause a new word Corporation accompany.
And this is most often with awfully, which is why I said he
has a cursor at the end.
Any questions? Yes. If let's was a male and resale home, Rachel Sheree Kathy still is going to be or is just going to be Shreeka Yes, sciatica is independent as a very good question. So sciatica is like say this word sciatica is singular feminine by itself. That's like say out of two. Right?
Yes, so that's good. So then this is a singular and the plural would be Shetty cats.
Yes, that is independent. That's just the word by itself. But the hiya here is referring to who you are, which in its singular form is masculine. But since it's not a human being, once it becomes plural, we use feminine forms to refer to it. That's the only thing that's a little bit confusing about this is that
objects are nouns we can say. Some of them in a singular, some of them are masculine, and some of them are feminine. Right in the singular. But once they get into the plural, they're all feminine.
Thank you. Yes, no good question. Anyone else? Any questions? Can anybody think of a an example from the Quran in the in the very end of the Quran?
Talking about like, from alacer to the end to NS
examples of this sort of thing where we have a nonhuman group being referred to with a feminine pronoun of some type.
All right, you can keep thinking about well, I'm not going to spill the beans. We'll get back to it. Good. Next one we have a rather Mohammed mock test number three
on the Jumeau Jimmy Lawton, very good. Excellent work. translate that for us. This stars are beautiful. Yeah, exactly. Look at him. He got the easy one to say. It's kind of like beating them up over here and having a tough time got the easiest one. Now the stars are beautiful.
So new Doom is the plural of magic one.
And so it's a non human group. And so the appropriate adjective would be Jimmy and that twin which is a singular feminine form.
sister myself. Number four, please.
As he Aha, the two rules to
legend. Very good. translate that for us.
This lesson is easy. This lesson
or the these lessons aren't. Yeah, see, look, look, it's tricky because in English Yeah, you're gonna translate it and you think Havey this Oh, not here. How did he mean BS in English, but it's simply in the singular dominant form because doodles is a nonhuman group. Right. And that is
you'll notice via mobile hover, right? Et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.
Number five. Let's go back to the saved family. Dr. Cynthia number five.
Phil, Phil Hindle Loja to cathedra tone
what does that mean?
Hindi language is cathedra
de means Yeah.
cathedra depth or something? Just here means many. Right? So there are many or we can say literally, in Hindi, which is India. There are many languages.
Okay, that makes sense. Yeah. Yeah. Good. So if we're going to split it down here, we have
to see it's there. So yeah, feel Hindi. Lovato.
Lovato is the plural of Lova.
Right, which is singular feminine, no problem. But then this is plural.
It's plural, and it's not a human being.
And so if we want to use an adjective to describe it, we're going to have to use a singular feminine form that's just that one time ago to
at the era
so this is a singular feminine looking adjective next to a plural feminine now. Yes. And that doesn't violate any rules in Arabic grammar that agrees because this is not human.
Good. Oh, we got another hard one for Sister Syrah.
Good. Taboo. Good.
These two very good yeah.
You got it.
Here, feel much
mucked about to hear Phil Max Teva T. No, don't listen to those round wrong answers. I hear being whispered. So no, I'm just kidding. Because it's fee right fee as the preposition and so it has to be in Mecca. Tebah T. Good. Anal couteau Bucha D the two What do you think that means? Best guess.
What's good? Let's go one by one. What's what's good to
see it again. Oh, book. Sorry. Books very good. And so ain al Kutub will add the two would be then what are the new books? Exactly? And we use here to refer to them
because group of non human objects and so the answer would be they are aware on the table. Yeah, they're on the table or this could be in the desk even like having to do depending on the context. Excellent work. Good job. Okay, that's number one. Number seven.
didn't steal the deal cause or rule like Sue ratoon Good. What's this word right here.
I don't know the meaning of this. Broken that
is broken that something is broken. Very good. telecasts su RO is the plural of savvy or what sorry, it is. said it is a bad man. Yeah, so Sora is the plural of city.
Just like could have a total of keytab. So
these beds are broken.
Here we have a literal translation. tilaka literally means these right.
But since there's a group of non human objects, then we go to the next or atone
right singular feminine inform but plural nonhuman in meaning.
Good sister Masada and the rate
yeah banya to refer these are two
the Japanese watch
I think we learned that yet that we owe this order that would this be Rafi certain? Yes it would. Okay, I actually didn't see that. Um, I don't know he's supposed to
Rocky's is is inexpensive, like, cheap but not in the quality sense in the
in the sense of price.
Okay, so let's break this down. Let's go a little in depth. What type of sentence that we're dealing with here?
So Joomla is good. And the two parts of Jim That's me are what
other animal did that is? The Japanese watch and how that is? Pricing. Good.
The price point? Yeah.
Sure. Yeah, the
good. And so what are the songs like? What are the grammatical?
What's the grammatical case of the Hummer? And what's the sign?
So the both Metformin for
the sign is domna. Yep. Good. Is
I forget what definite is called.
Good. Definitely. It's called Mount Isa Manisa. Yes, yeah. The which one is mounted farther north, or the hub of the North, you know, is no, I'm sorry.
Is nothing fantastic, which is why it has to be as enemy. Recall guys from earlier in the class. If we're, if we're trying to find an equivalent meaning to the verb is
in Arabic, which doesn't exist really. It's where it switches and alumina is made from mowdy FETs and Akeeba. This 10 Wien here communicates is cheap.
is cheap. Alright, so the switch here this is mowdy. So because it has le fan, Elisa, the Japanese watch is cheap. Good.
Number nine back to the top of
the hill homebrew Lynn philosophy.
Good. Well said.
Okay, there they spot you it here because they didn't teach us this word. Yes. They don't feel that. Adhami here is a donkey.
Did they teach us that? Okay. Did they teach us the? No, they didn't give us the portal. Okay, so this is this is donkey and donkeys. Okay.
And the law, we I know that we learned a law that is a a farmer.
Right? It's actually a really nice thing. Because on the other hand, what me known like, the law is like someone who is successful and happy about their success. So you can he reaps the harvest. Yeah, yeah, you can almost imagine someone like the one like you do in the incidence of
the movie. One is the one who reaps the harvest of all the good he did. Allah. May Allah make us from the muffler. One
minute it was behind. Good. Okay, so give us a shot at translating this this thing, Doctor.
Now it's easy.
These donkeys belong to farmer. Very good belongs to the farmer. Excellent. And it's fairly straightforward. Let's see. Yes. The only thing here is heavy heat. That's the thing that they're trying to teach us here. Home or while it's plural. In meaning it's going to have a singular feminine demonstrative pronoun, because it is a non human group. Good and yes, I heard that whisper in the beginning Syrah you do have a hard one again, Michelle. It's political law. This is just a colorable law. Welcome back from vacation.
So stay tuned for Taskforce.
Tina. Good to Boo.
Boo Boo Boo Guna. Yeah. What to? Yes. Yeah, uh, how I took good care.
antastic and I'm gonna spot you this because this I think we learned when you were away couldn't is an exclusively feminine possessive pronoun you're talking about, you're all something but for a group of females Okay, so with that information at your disposal try to translate this question
you're where your books are you guys books? Yes yeah it's weird because yeah like your English and my English I think we would just say you guys's or whatever we wouldn't you know have we wouldn't the singers like you're all in the in the plural but in Arabic they do. So where are y'all books?
and they want you to pick up here
Yeah, we don't it's not apparent here but it pops up here. They want you to pick up the here. We say they are in the classroom. He offends elsley they really want you to just notice that they're using here to refer to plural group of nonhumans books
very good. similar sort of thing and number 11 Mohammed Tesam
the good to be what did it get? Good to boo
Very good. translate that for us
these books are mine. The hours no mine these books are mine. Yeah. And
these in those books are my sister's Very good. Very good. Very literally, those are my sister's books because this is a
this is a bulb off of off ebay but yeah 100% 100% So how the singular feminine
close by for a group of nonhumans with a and then Tilka singular feminine as well. But for a group far away that is that ICA Tilka
so he's distinguishing between very important thing to do for someone who has a lot of books to distinguish your books from somebody else's books.
Ah number 12 system was
Makati will mama. Ha the Makati Boo.
These are the mocked up is
what the stable I think I
It could be Yeah, it could be terrible. These are the these are the desks. Oh, sorry. Did I say polygons? I don't know what I said no. You said volleyball. Okay. Has he marketable volleyball? Yeah. Volleyball.
Double poly V. Yeah, this is my last video of the day. Right? Yeah. Okay. Okay, sorry about that. That's okay. All right. He can Kathy who
ought to be right. So McHattie will is the portal of maktab. I said barley. The answer's
no, no, it's okay. I was I was more concerned about the ending Holika than I was about the weather as thorough or singular. More important is that this is a have as a customer, because it's mentioned or genitive case because this is Mobile philosophy a possession. Good. So the thing they want you to see is that how the heat refers to a plural non human group, right? The
McCarthy is a Jimena Ismene.
So this is the book that I overhear just how the McHattie book Kalevi as they have a
good and Dr. Mohsen, bring us on with number 13.
He has a
shot Charlotte al Sharia. So the coup for Saudi Arusha, Dr. Shari aushadhi V. Yeah. Because the fee for
the coup Kabira tune. Fantastic. And you weren't here for learning phonetic. I don't think it's the plural of fun duck. Which means hotels. When duck one is a hotel, then add the upu is the plural. It's not Minnesota, which is why it only has one bum
hotels. So what do we have here? Could you translate of course on this road? There are big hotels or big or there are big hotels. Fantastic. Very good.
If you have a che and notice here they want you to just notice one little thing shut it
is masculine singular, because here this is masculine, singular, right? Not every, not every non human noun has to be with a singular feminine form. It's just when it's in the floor. Okay? So they have that here, but later in the sentence, so now this
is a group of non human nouns, and so it has can be rotten, instead of cubby rune, or instead of Kibera, and like if it were a group of people, it would be region alone. Cuba rune. Here, it's fun. The food can be rotten.
Good stuff. Anyone? Any questions?
Yeah, this word Chaga. Is it the same as Shinya? Or is that something else? Yeah, that's the same route. Shut off the same route but not the same.
No, no, it's not.
Oh, because there's an extra year, Shari?
Yes. Okay, but the route is still the same. I need to look up what is the route of shutter? Ah,
I don't know off the top of my head. I know that it I'm pretty sure the route has to do with study, like a pass.
But I'm sure there's an interesting thing. So you'll you guys will learn once we get in a little bit further if you take our
standard word here, father. Okay, there's more than one way to make a
is sometimes to make a doer. Right. So one of the ways is the easy way or they knows that
okay, but there's sometimes not all the time but sometimes you can make it with fairies
right and this happens with a lot of allows names. Rahim
right? Hobby if Arlene right we have we have a highly motivated that's one of the last names and then we have Arlene
they're both the doer.
Right. They're just different phonetic patterns. So Sherry Shetty
something like that is going on there. off the top my head I don't know, because I haven't been to look into it. But
that takes us to the end of class I will assign for homework.
Number one for you to write down in your notebooks because honestly, these types of
these types of reading comprehension questions aren't the most useful to do in class time. But if you were to take pen to paper and answer these questions from the above,
not really dialogue but from what we did today. It would benefit you a great deal. A no quitter will get either to write and then you have to try to respond and write that the answer in Arabic using the proper singular feminine forms when necessary. The men had ew it's
beautiful Kabira to write. So I would suggest that that be for homework, and then we're going to come to exercise two together. Next class inshallah Tada. Anyone have any questions before we depart.
I just didn't understand what we were looking for in this AMA, just looking for a non human group that is referred to with some type of
feminine singular form, whether it was a subject pronoun or whether it was a object pronoun or possessive pronoun.
Maybe that can be homework too.
So we'll come back together and shall Tada on Wednesday. I do not see
good, but I just don't have a question. Okay, the question is the whole the whole lesson here? We're dealing with non human groups of nouns, right? Who you would have. So inanimate nouns. So we should find in Usamah, an inanimate noun that is used with a singular
when we have non human nouns, a group of nonhuman nouns, they're referred to as singular feminine pronouns, whether it's a demonstrative pronoun heavy or Tibco, whether it is a subject pronoun here, whether it is a possessive pronoun,
or even an object pronoun hath. We're using singular feminine forms to refer to non human groups? Okay? Find an example from Jews, I'm,
for homework, have this sort of thing going on, whether it's here, whether it's heavy, whether it's Toka, whether it's in something that's not referring to a singular feminine object. Like, is like, Is it like the Caruso?
That would be an example.
Yes, those sorts of things.
Everybody tried to get, obviously Okay, yeah, there you go. You got
that, okay. Okay, Michelle, thank you, everybody for your work.