Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 34
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 40.93MB
allowed me to set up on an MBA woman, Celine, Davina Latina, Mohamed, Salah,
Allahu Allah and innovate and founder and partner.
Yellow but I mean,
everybody, welcome to beginning classical Arabic. And we are learning about adjectives. And we are almost finished the first part of this lesson. So Inshallah, we're going to finish up the
this first kind of introductory part of this lesson. And then the second part of this lesson, it kind of is trying to incorporate your newfound knowledge of adjectives into a kind of cumulative review of everything else you've already learned, right? So we noticed how before, you know, they're giving us very, very, fairly simple examples. They're controlling the variables in the sentences so that only one thing is really changing at a time.
Inshallah, today we'll get to some more applications of adjectives, if I'm also kind of in the field, along with a lot of other stuff. We'll see it with some Joomla up there, LEA will see it here and there and everywhere in Shama. But first, we have to complete this part of the lesson. So whereas the previous exercise had, it spotted us the most and the most So, and we had to pick a cipher that was suitable or appropriate to the most suit. Now they're going to give us the opposite, okay, they're going to give us the milk to that and they're going to give us the CIPA and they want us to choose a sensible mo su something that can be appropriately described
by the adjective that's listed and some of them are very determined and obvious such as number one, only really one right answer and then there's others that are more open ended such as number two
which you can have multiple possible answers. So let's get to it. Number one, if you could start us off sister masala.
very good and translate that for us while we're at it.
Arabic is an easy language. Mashallah, fantastic. I hope that everybody finds that there's some easily not that everything's going to be easy, but there's some degree of ease just like in Islam and Dino useless. In Islam, we find some degree of ease. But not everything is just completely without without effort. Good.
Let's have Brother Mohammed Thorndike. If you could do number two
and reginal. Kadeem Oh,
yeah, that can work.
We had an example previously.
actually interesting. You know, we have talked about expressions of age and things like that. But you know, the time being this works and body and sister Everyone could use the number three for us.
I know the grammar I'm just thinking of a vocabulary word for Ghanian a modern Amar is
very what would be the Arabic word? Hua Hua.
That one word here? A modern
looking for noun? Yeah.
can understand the grammar? A modern talybont? That doesn't make sense. A modern Calvin Linnaean
Oh, there was that one kid who rolled up his father's Mercedes Benz right that's that's a mo that's no problem that works. Among is the richest. Michelle, that works very good. The important thing is that we have a cool wouldn't have worked right? And didn't wouldn't have worked right. You were contemplating using the word for very right because our blank in the sentence is here.
And so it's going to require a noun specifically. And so any noun that we have whether it's a student, if you could have used what your husband said Raju don't Ghanaian we could have used that trader or businessmen tagged you in the money you and it could have been anything. So very good. I'm mon Foley
and as we pointed out time and time again the CIFA follows the male suit in the four things that it must follow in we have singular singular masculine masculine model for my for Nikita Matthew, which is the defining feature of the adjective number four moving along to the say it family whoever is with us today you can or for
sure, have more than one Max seven, Max, Max Sora.
I just want to make sure
Okay, sure. So
have a Dustin Yes, this is a broken desk. Next one Mexico and listen to how she made the CIPA correspond to the MO Su and the four things gender number Definity and grammatical case very good. And for the Muslim to be number five for us.
Sure thessalon balaban because Lenin, very good. And we all know what that means. Feisal is a lazy student
which is funny because actually taught, I tutored a boy named Feisal in English when I was abroad, and he was actually a lazy student. So this was right on the money phase. So alone all in one class. Yes, very good. Okay, that's fairly straightforward. I don't think we need to spend too much time on this particular exercise. And they didn't think so either. Because they only gave us five
examples. Moving on to the next part. Now they're going to these are some going to be some new words. But the important thing
is that this is a phonetic pattern. Okay.
If I may, I'm going to do two things here. I'm going to write the muscle or kind of the
and we're going to see the adjective. How it's taken from the quality Yes, go ahead. rather say so Castle, Castle, is laziness.
And cas9 is just a quick question. Okay.
Sid, so why why the previous one was Caslen instead of Catalan good that's exactly what I'm gonna try to explain Okay, sorry.
Okay. Is not lazy the adjective is laziness.
Is the quality in and of itself divorced of any sort of relation to any human being or thing that could be lazy. So Castle is laziness. The adjective derived from it is Caslen or Joe and similar thing here we have joueur is hunger right and sort of rice
Alevi Obama home mean jewelry jour is hunger. Right this sort of abstract state and Joanne Joanne is hungry
Oh, I push
hot soon is thirst
I Chan is thirsty.
are above the balloon is anger.
And a lot the band who is angry and so on and so forth. So we have we distinguish between
kind of the abstract state and the adjective. Now these all exist on the same phonetic pattern.
I've learned better than to talk and type at the same time let me take these offers
and No, no,
this is Oh.
So the important thing to
realize is that all of these exists on the same genetic pattern. And as our sister muscle rots notified us or brought to our attention last class, it resembles another form, which we haven't learned yet, which is the dual.
However, this is something that's completely distinct and separate is a form of the adjective Kassala, no joke, and so on and so forth.
And it would be interesting, I'd probably have to look in some books to figure out why this particular phonetic pattern exists.
My gut feeling is that the abstract state probably resembles another pattern. So it needed to be distinguished from it in some way. But that will take a little bit of research to figure out.
Good and so what we have here now we have
examples of these using these types of adjectives. So we have reached for the side, you could do number one.
Anna, Anna, Anna July No. Yes, Anna, Joe and, Joe, it seems like they're telling us here. And it's been honestly, a while since I've reviewed this particular form. It seems like they're telling us here that this form is not Medisoft they have not put a 10 ween on any of these Tesla and giovane Ultra, which seems to trigger my memory. I think these forms are in the norm in a soft, similar to feminine names. Right? Aisha to Khadija two. They did not take 10 weeks and I will confirm that for you. I'll go back and double check. But whereas with a normal adjective
and let's say you know, follow even
we would expect a 10 wean because it's Nucky wrong. It's the hub right? It seems that
adjectives on this particular phonetic pattern arm I'm not gonna softly do not accept 10 When so instead of Anna Joe known we have Anna Joe new
shake them up number two
and Joe was no
at the channel. Very good. Excellent.
And SR Asmat if you're there number three
Moodle ri su
bus by noon
Yoma Very good. Take a shot at translating that for us.
Lima in two
with the teacher Bama.
is a thirsty day for somebody
know it's angry. Angry day. Yeah. Why is the teacher angry today? As he's thirsty.
It was Ramadan. Right and he has it
right maybe? I'm good. So I don't know if we've learned Lima either yet, Lima. That is
why questions should pass.
I meant to someone can't answer them. Please pass the question and don't answer. I see. I understand. Oh.
You know, taking a shot at I don't care. Who requested this and take a crack at it.
No, no, no, no, I'm in before before you answer. Oh, okay. And le OMA l Yama means today, literally the day, okay, but l Yama the day in Arabic is our expression for today. allele
which is a little counterintuitive for English speakers, but it's useful. Okay. And you can tack that on to anything that we've already learned. Right.
Who feel mesh DD le Elma. He is in the mesh deed to de la Oma.
And it's fixed on the Fatah because it is a
it is a evolved as a man. It is a
preposition that talks about
gets positioned in a sentence anyway well that's not so important right what they're trying to do here is to get us to use these phonetic forms the masculine modality So what then early on why is the and you pronounced the very well running connecting the Lima and and modality so why is the teacher angry today? Something probably most of us in our educational history have asked our classmates and going on to what we have done but as he has already gone
Okay, so back to sister masala for number four.
Did you say a yoke is fixed on the like, Is it money? Or is it fixed location like where it is in the sentence? X LE OMA is fixed due to its location in the sentence and not due to its it as a word. Okay, general rule, the general rule or any Arabic sentence. If the whole sentence is going on over here, and you want to specify a time
that had happened, you're going to slap it on at the end. And that's going to be monsoon
the general rule
whether you use today or in the morning, or during Ramadan, or anything like that, the normal rule is that it's going to be tacked on at the end, and it's going to be mental. And we will get into why at a later lesson. We'll talk about kind of
impressions of time. And also
we talked about adverbs and something called Tamizh that are similarly kind of tacked on at the end of the sentence and they are meant to Good question though. But yes, Lel OMA can be in different grammatical cases depending on where it occurs in the sentence. So for example, that he can young will help right that it's it's more poor, because it is barely kellyo will help is part of
not serving the same function in the sentence. Similarly, but like what about like a young you know, the one this day I have completed your religion I can't remember the IR right now. Yeah. And Yama augmente la cadena. So isn't isn't that in the beginning of the sentence? I typically Yes, but just like we've had some things before where we've rearranged What's the order of the sentence in order to add emphasis
untangle that sentence, it's really in the back, but it's advanced into the front of the sentence for emphasis.
actual original sentence is committed to the convener Komiyama right. Leader for you your religion today, but because lies I just wanted to emphasize today to Le yoga admitted to the convener for
Vital Africa. Okay, so I'm Ali KUBU, Milan, Milan.
Good this whole desert Hamza, okay, men, watch for Okay, here's something that we have to understand a difference between the orthography of the Koran, and the orthography, of written Arabic in normal text. And what I mean by that is how it's written. So in the Koran, if we have any letter with a what this is a med symbol, right? This is the symbol of elongation in the Koran, whether there's a Hamza after it, or whether there's a letter with a circle, right, depending on the type of med. However, in normal Arabic literature, this is not the symbol of a med, because you're reading silently to yourself, right? Are you going to say metta?
No, you're not going to do that by yourself. This is actually
a symbol for something else. It is a symbol for grace This
is a symbol for what in the Koran is written as this a hands up followed by followed by an ally. So whereas a simple Hamza is only going to get one beat or one clap of duration. This pair here are this is how it's written the Koran like am annual, right is going to be
get two beats of duration.
Okay. So in written in Arabic literature, this is how it is written in the Koran if this word occurred, it would be men, and then I'm guessing it would be and they would put the hand
Hamza here, and then the ally there.
However, in normal Arabic literature, this thing stands for this Hamza. And
just like if we have, let me give you an example,
from another word,
which is, we haven't really learned verb conjugation yet. But if we have hada, which is a past tense verb, which means to take, okay? And then what if we conjugate it to the present tense first person singular, I take?
puts two of these together.
Okay, but we don't write it like that what we write is
Right. So there's a difference here in how we write Arabic in the Koran and how we write Arabic, outside of the Koran, because how we write Arabic in the Koran is
primarily informed by the text we'd rules. Right? And if we're going to think of that as a med, that's only applicable in touch we, so outside of the core and has a different meaning.
Very good. Okay. I'll call this is a word for cup. It's a loan word for cup.
Which is the mud signs gonna add it later, right? All right. In the Quran in the moose have the month signs got added later, right? Yes. Oh, yeah. It's not an original part of right. Oh, thank you for bringing that up. Yes. We're talking about the tradition of, of the of, what are we gonna say? I guess the main letters, the main letters without any Herat without any signs, those were original in the interest of man, that's what you meant, right? Yes, that's a important distinction. You're right. So even when it comes to the hubcaps, right, the small vows, and all of the signs that have anything to do with Ted's wheat, these are things that the scholars have added over time, in order
to make it impossible to pronounce the Koran incorrectly. Right? If you want to know how the court looked when it was first written down.
So for example,
there are no dots, there are no home.
But this is a for example, saying Bismillah because that's actually fairly easy to read. But if you want to say like what did CATSA look like or Kitab to I wrote
it looked like that.
And it was actually part of Arabic eloquence that you could be able to tell exactly what that meant, not necessarily from the word divorced of context, but know the context of the conversation, what it had to mean based off of context, later as the core and became something that was an I should say, the Muslim ummah became more diverse, and people who were not native Arabic speakers, scholars, and we're talking about early scholars within the first 100 or 150 years after the prophesy centum passed away added the system of dots to distinguish between tap and back
right and then later or around a similar time they added the diacritical marks
so that there would be no ambiguity at all.
So, yes, things like the min to sign and so on and so forth. Those are all things that were from the Etihad in the end the service
of the scholars in order to enable the accurate and precise reading of the current.
Now, ship era question
going back to that third sentence, yes.
So most of
NCFR Josephat is got by No Yes. Most suit is a mother ratio.
how would you the URL Yama
How did it Why is not a yummy? A young something like that other than Yama good? What is that? What part what is that? They will call
you Lea OMA here with a lot of zoom in.
Okay. We had said before that a lot of was
A type of preposition
right? If you're going to say the English category of prepositions, we could say an Arabic are divided into two vowels. And how,
right that rhymes I realized that it rhymes until now. Okay, so one of the features of how such as mean
Li, is that they are fixed, they're made of meat, okay, they don't ever change. Men is never going to be, you know, me know, it's never going to have a bummer. And if it has anything else, it's only for phonetics, like trying to avoid a two letters with sukoon next to each other. Right. Um, whereas a lot of such as we learned a man
right in front of.
these are all positional, they're not logged as a man, there are a lot of mechanics, they have to do with position in space. But there's also a lot there's a man which has to do position in time. And Yoma.
book QRA, and so on and so forth Saba Han Messiah and in the morning in the afternoon, these are not fixed. And so they can manifest a grammatical case on the end of them. TAFTA is another one, right? And tact as a good example, because we know we have that in the Koran several times, where we have tragedy mu tak T hell and how mean tak T hell and hell, right, because of the men, it then renders.
What's normally tak, tak, tak T.
Right. So the default, the default case of love is min Su, and then Khalifa Elliana, which is different from say, like the hover or the move to that or the ferret.
Right. And so they require
they require some other sort of thing in the sentence to move them from that default. Okay? Especially we find, if it takes place at the end of a sentence. This is a very common hangout spot for words that are going to give us information about the time at which something happened, or the way in which it happened. So adverbs also hanging out here. And the general rule is that anything that's hanging out kind of like that, that does that extra work of clarifying either what it is that we're talking about, or how it was done, or the time it was done.
Is meant so by default, if we move these words around and put them in other places in the sentence, they can take other grammatical positions.
What was the other example of y'all
slipping my mind? A Jana? Yes, I don't Okay, and is it hell that society nevermind
thinking the beginning of sort of the very arts, but it's slipping my mind at the moment anyway, you get the point. The point is that these by default, Armin so
and they can shift depending on where else they are in the sentence. However, the default is to put them at the end of the sentence.
And their default is meant so
We will say, Yeah, I would get today's Joomla.
Now, if today is Joomla, that's a little bit different, because that'd be
right. l yo, Mo
Okay, right. Or if we wanted to flip it, we can say, oh, no, let's let's leave it at that. Right. So that's a situation where we're taking a video and how it hooked it up. Right? Yeah. Here with this sentence, we already have a look for that, you know, how you know, and this is kind of additional information that's telling us or specifying for us something that was previously unspecified.
I think the IOU we're looking for I think it's Yamaha Marlin or you've done
I just had a question. If if a bond and all these words in these in this in these examples,
why don't they have the definite article
these do not accept the definite article, right this is because because
was of the Okay, sorry, I think I missed that. I apologize. I, I neglected to say it actually, when we were discussing that it is normal, that it does not accept Halloween and similarly, it does not accept a leaf now. Okay, which is why you see Elmo their resume of all Banu. We'll say, Wait a second, wait a second, you told me that it has to follow the monsoon in its definiteness. What's so different about this? It's this phonetic form. This phonetic form is distinct enough that it's
partially fixed, right? It's fixed in the sense that there's no any plan. It's fixed in the sense that there's never going to be a 10 week. Okay.
So we'll find we'll find and as we're sort of learning now that there's money, and there's no, right, there's things that are completely fixed. And there's things that are completely able to
demonstrate, grammatical case, whatever. So it may be. And then there are things that are kind of in the middle, or they're on the spectrum. There are some words that demonstrate most of the cases, but not all of them. And there's some of them that only demonstrate a particular case. There are some words that only exist in the past tense and don't exist in the present tense. There's some words that only exist as an imperative. But this is this is later, this is getting a little bit ahead of ourselves. But just to know, just to put it in your mind that this particular phonetic form is special. It doesn't resemble any of the other phonetic forms that we've had. Paul Whelan,
barleywine, et cetera, et cetera. And so it's has a little bit of an exception to it when it comes to its grammar. No, Ali flam. No 10 We similar to Khadija to
and so on and so forth.
Good questions you guys are making me want to crack open the books of grammar again and do some review myself because it's been a bit
Excellent. Okay. So what we have here we have new words, we have a little word bank here, logo tone, por el Lova. To if we're going to make a definite which is a language Shahe one, which is famous, well known, el Medina to is literally the city, a bar arrow, which is literally Gilbert. Le Yo mu Liu. Here, they're just listening as a noun, and not necessarily as what we were saying before is today, or literally the day Kassala new lazy, Joe I know hungry are out the shadow. Thirsty. Mel No. Fool, heard the Banu angry LRO school a nice India and Alia Alma. Look, they put it twice. So here they put it in the form of what we saw in the previous example. So this is as a bot here. Yes, here
is as just a plain old isn't the day.
Like when Allah says badly kellyo will help. That is the day. Allah is not saying today he's not specifying the day upon which what was previously mentioned is happening. He's talking about literally the day Lel math where the Fed time is today.
And it is about as a sort of preposition of time.
Any questions before we move on
to the second part of this lesson?
Okay, let's just do a little bit of reading. And we'll see how some of the things are going to combine with previous things that we've learned or wanting to just learn I think one or two new things in this part of the lesson, but they will be useful things in sha Allah as we see. Let's have sister Adam and Brother Mohammed todich tackle this first example here, alternating between the four lines
or you know mother resume
or fill firstly
the angel the researcher to who in the movie.
So the first thing we learned here is in the end, yes, I bought my can. Okay, it is one of those prepositions of place. Um, that is not fixed, but it's default. Is that a payment? What does that mean? It means around for
or by or with. Okay? What's the difference between the end and other prepositions of place as that end is not fixed, it's something that is moving. Right? So if I say or we said here who are feeling firstly, okay, the classroom doesn't move around
right? So we know that he is inside of the classroom that's a fixed position it's objective it's not relative to anything but then he says oh we're in the moody he's with the moody
or he's by the media now his position is relative okay then we'll do the media could be in the classroom he could be in his office he could be at home you know drinking tea, we don't know and so now we have a relative position and that's the primary usage that we use end up for
good sister masala rods but you just the entire second example here.
I not only will God do the hubba ill MK double Java
11 Mac 30. Good for us fire fire with Sure. Where's the new student?
He has gone to the library I think it is.
In this case is library. Very good. Okay, I'll have to scroll down to get to the other ones.
Let's have the sides go back and forth with the next four lines.
Men they're Likkle resolute, resolute, large a lot. The Villu the Velo bloody hydrogel l Anna mineral mother Reza to
muddy the rule you get the do
we're mineral woman one mineral one manual while I do well are those little lady hydrogel L and I mean I'll firstly
who have no have no the real the fantastic rush hour both of you that was easy. And so look at how they've grown I mean would you like to try to translate it
to everything actually that we've done up until this point and they put it all in one sentence
is this meant
that man is long
university or college hydrogel l n is an add
on we only had once before and it means now
and and leaving the school now. Very good. Mashallah. Yes. Difficult. Right? So, so men is a question word who? Right? So who? Who is that man?
Are we low Levy. And now our new word here and this is going to be the one of the main things that we learned in this next lesson, a levy. A levy is what we call a relative pronoun.
Okay, what does that mean? Like when we say who, but not in a questioning sense? Like he who? The one who, right. So who is that tall man who left just now from school or from the school or left the school just now we're going to use more idiomatic translation. Right? So you see how Elodie is a relative pronoun. We're not quite sure who it is. We're defining him with this word, according to an action that he's just completed. And so now we're into Arabic.
This is a entire Joomla to the fair Nia, which is just a phrase that's tacked on to explain the question of who is that Tolman? mandalika Raju Tovino, Ludy hydrogel Anna Minella madrasa team, who is that tall man who left the school just now? Mashallah. And then a very similar thing, one menu. Well, I do remember that min is fixed but because we have a sukoon here
And they sukoon there, they have to add the Castro to break it up. While many Louella do Saville, Larry horrible
and who is the small boy who left from left class just now. And you both handled that very, very well with your reading. And this is kind of, we're just over time now. So this is a good
intro to what comes next. We don't have enough time, I don't think to finish the reading exercise. But that's a taste of what's to come next fashion shot a lot to add relative pronouns, trying to talk about He who does that such a thing, or she who, and so on and so forth. And some more work with Google with the different prepositions of time and place, such as end, such as l n, such as La OMA, and so on and so forth. Excellent job. Anybody have any questions?
Are we trying to complete book one before Ramadan? Um, what to you is your understanding of book book one because
the one that ends at lesson 10. Like so. I mean, I have the other one, but I'm not using it right now. I'm using the one that ended lesson 10. I see. Because, I mean, how they divide up the books, I think there's some there's some difference there because for the way I had studied these books, was they each book was divided into about 30 lessons. So I don't have any this PDF that I have is 251 pages. We've completed 51 of them show that's about it, everybody, pat yourself on the back. That's quite an accomplishment.
So I don't have a particular goal for how far we're going to get before all my
work going to stop at a place that makes sense inshallah.
But yeah, I don't have any particular ambitions for I want to make it here there. I mean, we'll we'll be responsive. Okay.
Any other questions before we depart today?
Can we buy a hardcopy men? Okay, the last time I looked into the answer to this question was probably
five or six years ago. And there used to be a website for where they sold these books from Chennai, India.
I would have to look it up and I don't know if they're still in business. I don't know if
things have progressed. And now it's easier to buy these books. It used to be very hard to buy these books. They're free. Online. It's called good workbook. Good word. Okay. Yeah, we, but it's also available. Well, I'm not sure if it's available to order online.
I can I can try and find out. Well, all that's homework for everybody. Everybody tried to explore some
bookstores. Okay, Michelle. Well, that's good to know. Um, so yeah, good word. Good books. We have actually some some Korean some masala from good books. So or good word, whatever it is. Good word books. So okay, that's a good lead. And wherever else your typical Islamic bookstores, I imagined your you would probably carry it. I imagine Osama what's bookstore.com might carry it. So yes, it is. It's nice to have a hardcopy you don't have nonprofit bookstores in
sorry. So yeah, not have nonprofit bookstores where you live
in central New York. I don't I'm not aware of any. Okay. But a lot of those best, I'm new. I'm the new guy.
So we'll see what the options are. And we'll send out an email and shot a lot of detailing options that different people find and come up with. That's a very good question.
Okay, very good. Anything else?
All right, everybody. Have a wonderful day. And I look forward to our next session together. Ciao.