Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 29
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 38.79MB
Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salatu salam ala Ashraf an MBA almost to be no food whatsoever Muhammad Ali he was get to sleep Allah home island WA and founder and founder
was even their own money out of me
moving right along
this fairly simple lesson that we had begun
using now the demonstrative pronouns how the Happy Valley can teleca Of course, they're starting us off easy with just how the an AVI using them to
as part of, I should say, as part of a compound subject. So before we were saying very, very simple things have that while doing this is a boy or this is a child. Now we're going to say things that are a little bit more complicated how that while I do this boy, this child, so on and so forth, we can say all sorts of different things about the subject. So let's get to it.
First up, going in order as it appears on my screen SR masala bonds. Could you please do number one, the instructions I should say sorry, forgive me. The instructions is to simply to read and to write.
How Hi there, and welcome to Holly duel. Whether Nikhil wanna do Muhammad Ali. This is Khalid son.
Yeah, this is Khalid son, and no.
I don't know. Good. This is good that you don't know. Because we're going to learn something here. Mashallah. Excellent. So, look, let's just isolate the first sentence. Hi, by the way I do. All you do. Let's work backwards.
is more for why? Why is Harley doing more for this is a nominal sentence. So it's, it's the hubbub. So that's why it's more important. And if we were to say, like, define the range of our milk to that, what's our subject in the sentence? What would it be?
either by itself, then what would as well and be part of the motor or product?
Or neither something else?
I mean, like when we said, Haha, wait, and then it was okay. But this is a definite article here.
So I get I guess HUDs invalid is the Muqtada. And then Khalid is
is the hubbub.
And so what does that tell us about the meaning of what's being said? Now, the move to that is our subject, right?
Simply what we're saying about the subject, if our subject is how the what to do this style, or this boy, what is our other thing? So this boy is Holland. But then, but then wouldn't?
What do you call Holland need to be Nokia?
How can call it be Nokia when it's a name? I know. But then usually the
isn't usually the subject is.
No, you're right. If it were if we were saying anything else about this boy, other than his name, it would be nothing at all. Let's say if we wanted to say that he's this, this boy is tall. If we said he had the hot wallet, we would say hi, well, I don't. Yes. Right.
Um, but here's, but here's an attorney. And that means it's definite. Yes, because we're not saying that we're saying something different.
So this boy is Khalid, and that boy is
very good. No, I'm very, very happy that we started with you, and that this happened because this is exactly the lesson of this part of the book. And it's a subtle one. It's a very subtle
We'll want to distinguish between what is exactly the difference between what we're saying here. And what we were saying. Last lesson, and working backwards clarified it for us because we realize that the hover is information about this level to that. Right? If we don't know where exactly the move to that ends and begins, then we're going to have a hard time understanding what the sentence is trying to tell us, once we realize that have the letter do is the entire subject. Now, what's left over is only information about the subject. And you saw that as soon as we identified what was the entire home today, and what was the entire Hello, the meaning became clear. is caught it right. The only
doubts that remain only dealt that remains exactly what you said, How come this is the harbor by itself and its Maori
insert is simply that it's just because it's a name. If we said, for example, how that when I do.
that would be Nikita. Yes. 100%.
And then if this was actually the son of holiday, then then well, it would be Nikita and then holiday would be material. Right? Correct. So if
we would say that however, this is more similar to instructions that we had done previously? That No, right?
Oh, no holiday?
Oh, so well, it wouldn't work in that case. Oh, I'm sorry. Yes, we could use Oh, that was just a Freudian slip. We could use but
but we wouldn't be able to use lol. Right? Because since it's mobile, it's the thing being possessed. So then we would say Haha, well, I do poorly, then. It's not Nikita, per se. No, it's not ephah. But it doesn't have it's my time because of the construction.
yes, exactly. But more important for that, like given more important than whether it's ready for next up is that this is no longer part of the hook to that. Right? What I do here is part of the hub video, right? Your habit is only the motor that
moving the weather due to the motor that has consequences for the meaning of the sentence. Now we're, what we're doing is we're simply making our subject a little bit more precise. Before, we were just saying habit and pointing. And assuming that the listener is going to understand what our subject is. Now, we're using our words to be a little bit more precise, having a way to do this boy, or this child. And then we're going to give information about that public information about that. Okay. So, I mean, also, it's a bit done, and like, you could just say, this is Khalid, But anyway.
But you know, if, for example, if, for example, there was
a boy and a girl, or a bunch of children around,
you know, multiple boys, and you were giving emphasis
on what to do call him, right? In this case, you know, these sorts of things become a little bit more important. You're right, your basic point is, right, but another
part of fluency part of fluency is developing ways to say the same thing. Right? So we've seen saying it one way with
the one word and the one as part of the Hubber now we've just shifted that word for the book to that.
try to things better No, no. Okay. Are you okay? Thank you. Yeah, it seems to be fine. No, hamdulillah
The only thing I had changed was one of the children mashallah they have made a drawing for me.
It was a late submission to our art competition. And, but they drew the mesh team, and they drew me in the mesh view and they wanted to give it to me, so they came to the shop fair and gave that to me, and I had placed it right on top of the internet.
I don't think paper can affect things. But maybe maybe it did. I don't know, that's the only thing I can think is different. I just took it off. So Allah knows best.
Not my area of expertise. Okay, so all of that to say that part of fluency is learning multiple ways to say the same thing. And it's I gave once an analogy to a brother in our community who drives trucks for a living, said, you know, somebody who just understands to put their foot on the gas and drive is different from somebody who takes the engine out, and takes it apart every single little piece and spreads it on the table, and knows how to put it back together again, right? When we're doing things like this, that are a little bit subtle, maybe seem a little bit redundant. They're actually part of kind of deconstructing the language, determining the scope of how flexible things
can be finding out multiple ways to say the same thing that don't have entirely different meanings, but have different shades of meaning, or different points of emphasis and things like this. This is part of fluency.
And so it's a worthwhile exercise. And I'm very glad that we went through this first exercise. So let's move on to number two rather awesome.
Had the Raju modality soon, were there any way that he can lead you more handy? Son? Very good. translate that for us.
This man is a teacher. And that man is a engineer. Are you good? That's correct. Excellent work.
I'm moving right along to the say a family. So I'm from the same family talk on number three, please.
Okay, Hazal, kita, Bucha. De Don, was Ali, currently taboo.
Demon. Are we good guys like that for us? This book is new. And that book is old. Fantastic. And now we're seeing the utility of this particular formula. Right? As we're saying, this book is new, that book is old, much more specific than just saying this is old, that is new, or vice versa. Now we're able to give a little bit more specific information. Brother. Sorry, I have a question. What would be different if we didn't want to say this book is new, but we wanted to say this is a new book.
You would say How about keytab? One God? Okay, so it would just be knocking on them. Exactly. That's, that's a really good point to shifting around. Like the Al Kitab. Between the Motorola and the Hubble gives different shades of meaning. So hardily keytab was the lead on this book is new, is different from saying how the keytab wounds add on. This is a new book. And in fact, they would both be different responses to different questions. Right. So that's a that's a very useful question. Good. Brother master number 40. Sure. His see yet totally alien. What? teleca Lee halogen. Very good. Except you have only one mistake in your in your reading. What work does Li
Li is possession? Yes, yes. Yes. It's not legally. Right. So
think, oh, maybe it is because it's Lee Lee and Sally in
listening to your wife is always
always rewardable in Assam and now it's doubly rewardable Because she's right. Yes, the ALI Yin li call it in. Right. Li is one of our horrible job. They're one of our prepositions that make something much more after it. And so this is yes. Li makes Ali from Ali Yun wish he would have been correct before it would be earlier but due to the lead of becomes lead early and we call it in and Could you translate that for us?
This car is Elise and that is highlighting for this car belongs to earlier that car belongs to Hello. Yes, fantastic.
Okay, moving right along to brother to me number five
the bamboo myth to Han Weatherly tell Babu. McLaughlin excellent translate for us.
This door is open
and that door is closed is locked.
Brotherman number six
Lemon Lemon have a hit
or saw two? Good? Yes.
Yeah, he only he only abassi a bad thing. Very good mashallah excellent work translate that for us
whose? Watch? Which whose watch is this? Yes. And if
that is a bus watch. Yes, literally, word for word translation. It's on buses. But yes, meaning 100% The same. And you did a good job of managing the question, because the question can sometimes change our order around of the of the syntax and kind of throw us for a curveball. The origin of the sentence is Havey, he said to Lehman, right? That's the actual origin. Question. Havey. He said, I too, that's the look that up. Lehmann is the cover. But in Arabic, as we said, before, that we haven't learned it like hard fast formally as a rule, but it is one in Arabic, you always advance to the front of the question, the part that you are questioning. Right? And so we're asking who's, and
so that's going to get bumped up here to the very front of the sentence, even if it's technically the hover of the sentence.
And would it also be correct to say, Have you saw to Leon Bhasin
as the response. Yeah. under percent. Yep. Yeah. Yeah, Burson is is kind of more slang. You know, I, I joke with many of your children that I teach in the Sunday school because age appropriate expectations, they usually don't answer incomplete sentences. Unless you really really, you know, forced them to. So this is maybe a response that we would get in a more informal setting, maybe from somebody who's younger. Clearly, I guess. We're among friends. Because it's not formal. It's assuming the pronoun is assuming what you've already been talking about.
Good. And that brings us back to the top. System massage. Can you please do numbers seven?
I haven't been to lit bobbidi. La. who are who are Lilly? Muda muda IVC. Is this the doctor's house? No, it's the
Good job. Number eight. Brother awesome.
Had the hint that Elijah to Igneel dini. Now, you did a great work. That was probably the most challenging one we had to read so far.
Lots of things going on here. Phonetically right. We have
we're running into a hot option see a son letter which is that right? And so he had to skip right from the key and how to heat into that data, which has a shed them but they didn't right. Same thing at the end of the Roger two. We have Livni we have 103 muscle here and had to go into another noun with an ally flam this time with a written letter. So a lot of tricky things going on. And he managed it. Mashallah. So translate that for us.
Does this bicycle belong to the more wide than the college apart? Yes.
Good. What's even what's the what's the function of oh, sorry, yes, there's this bicycle, belong to the son of them.
And now, we're going to be stalking, right?
We've learned before because when we're just doing okay, you have
to home that's very much a lot easy, simple. It's isolating concepts one at a time. But once we start stacking the things that we've learned on top of each other, look at all we have going on here. We have the feminine, right had the hidden the Roger two instead of the masculine. Right, we have a question. We have the possessive construction, and we have Joplin, Missouri, right with the lead. So we've got almost everything that we've learned up until this point, just
packed into this one example so it's a very rich example good work
back to the say it family number night
man ha man has a lot to do but
mashallah you could very well with that this is a deceptively simple one, and it didn't throw you for a curveball. You nailed it. So what does it mean?
Who is that?
He is a student from Iraq. Yes, exactly. 100% Very well done, right all these complicated questions, they reverted to the kind of more simple question which is one of simple identity Who is this boy? Man how that while I do who authority when he is a student, Nikita This is our simple sentence here. Who was the mop that up? Oh, Yvonne is the server or at least the first part of the fabric volleyball, middle Iraqi
from a dock which is what we would say in English. Literally value dock. So grammatically, all of this is the public.
has bomber tan because it is covered. And then mean Ellery? Rocky is preposition and
what comes after it in the genitive case? Don't one month ago. Good work. Number 10. Talking about
the little bay to Judy Don lair who are Kadeem on Jada.
So long some of us can relate to this. translate that for us
is this house name? No.
This is very old. Right? Now this is good. Listen to Brother machine translated translated it literally. This is where we come across an English we would say it right? It is very old but we don't have the word for it's in Arabic. So they use gua literally means he right. But in Arabic what it sounds like is it is very old who have a deep one did that. It is very old. Very good.
Okay, any questions up until this point?
Yes, it did. Then it Oh, no. Well, didn't it is hat. Okay, how is a adverb? We have not learned adverbs yet, or their grammar. However, just to give you a brief taste.
adverbs are always men, so they're always been sold, and they are always
tacked on at the end. So adverbs are a little easier than adverbs in English. To say adverbs in Arabic are a little bit easier than our than adverbs in English.
GID is a route that means other things, right? But this particular form of the word GID, then
the actual root is Jeem.
Dad, dad, which is also the same root as the deed which means new
bill Jed is the Messiah, just like this.
But when we make it monsoon, then it becomes the adverb. Did that which adverbs are the highly?
Isn't it talking about?
No, you're right. It is. So obviously the have is not an adverb is not a perfect translation. Just like is something the noun is not a perfect translation.
Arabic No thanks. Thank you for that because that is an ambiguity if I hadn't explained it, so just like ism, in Arabic is our noun and other things. Right? It's some includes more types of words than the category nouns in English. So have
literally means state.
includes both adverbs and other types of words such as this. They have the same grammatical ruling. But
good looking at Yes, this is being one is a noun,
specifically an adjective.
Or I should say it's an essence, because in English, we don't say that adjectives or nouns and Arabic adjectives are isms. Oh
Is there a feminine verb version of gender? No, no. And that's one of the defining features of have is that have is the same masculine or plural. So it's going to even if it were,
for example, Kadima to, let's say, we're talking about heavy heat and nephila to
right? We'll say window
have a hidden nerf either to call the Moto G, then this window is very old. Now, it would still be that
Okay, any one else? Any other questions before we keep rolling, we're doing really great.
I benefit a lot from this class with going back to the roots. Now I'm interested to go back to the roots. The root of gene data doubt, because it's not apparent to me right away what the connection is between Jin Woo Jin and Arabic means like, with force or with resolve, and gdb which means new. So I'll have to look that up. Up. We just have two more.
So we have complete with the SE as Brother Mohammed can you do number 11?
The Sierra to Manal. Yeah. Bernie.
What teleca mineral.
So we saw we saw so we Yes. That's very difficult. I don't think we've dealt with this word before Suisse straw means Switzerland.
Right, Suisse wrong.
So translate that for us.
This car is from Japan.
And that car is from Switzerland. also
heard of a Swiss car company? Maybe.
If it's like the watches, it must be good. Right.
Excellent work good.
also, and this had come up before last night less than one of you astutely noted that Elia ban he
does become a drawer with a casserole after men whereas words like Emery care or same Swiss raw don'ts because linguistically they are mean they are they are in the client of or whatever you want to call it, they don't change their endings.
Words like Swiss law and recap are very very foreign words in Arabic whereas Yeah, Ban does follow a phonetic precedent in that type of pattern. Yeah Then
are you less learn Cal ban all these sorts of things that is a familiar phonetic pattern to Arabic speakers and I'm guessing that's the reason why it's allowed to follow normal grammatical rules.
And number 12 Sister masala Could you please finish this exercise for us?
Hi, this her this 16 minute. Money Melania.
Money. What typical? Middle Africa to mean Minun
Sorry, sorry. Mineral mineral can?
I can tell?
Now, can you can you decipher what country that's supposed to be from the phonetics are no.
Albania is German. And this is an interesting thing about Germany in several different languages. It has different names. So Germans call it Deutsch non
English speakers call it Germany. And then other languages. I even I think Turkish as well calls it a menu. I'm not exactly sure where that comes from. But what about the last one? You should have spoken about a German connoisseurs knife and that would be
that again, we should have spoken about a German car and a Swiss knife and that would be I think more appropriate
jolly old England uncle turbo Oh
That's not very intuitive. But you know, place names and country names are some of the hardest things in a different language because sometimes they're very, very different. So a man yet is Germany and England tug of war incl Tarva. Because think about it, we, in Arabic, we do not have D, we don't have the good sound. And so the closest thing is a
calf, which is just a little bit different. It's a harder, it's a harder sound and get so income, etc. And so translate that, and there's no
Yeah. So I didn't catch what you said. I'm gonna stop the livestream because it seems to be making things worse tonight. So translate that for us if you could.
Um, this is a German, this is a knife from Germany. And that is
is it a spoon? Yes.
Okay, it's a spoon from but I thought the last time the word you used was something which others would say no. Just to feed.
Oh, are you okay?
Oh, yes. No. Well, even over there. I mean, the United Kingdom is different from England. Correct. I mean, the United Kingdom is Wales, England, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
However, so that is Lulu al Muttahida. For I'm sorry. And Monica. Alamo. Tehila. But England by itself as into federal law.
Good, though, I have to, I have to nitpick you on your translation. If you don't mind. You had said you had said this is a knife from Germany. And that's not sorry. Yes. This is I actually started saying this is a German knife. And then I wanted to get the from in. This is the knife.
isn't it only okay?
What in this only be indefinite by the construction?
Which English? That's how it works.
I'm sorry. Which Which word would be definite by the construction? Knife? License definite because it has an Alice lamb.
Okay, I guess I'm trying to I'm trying. I'm thinking in English.
And so I would say this is a German knife, which would still specify it because of the construction. Right? I see. So obviously, I'm making I'm making
the error of speaking in English. So this is the this is the knife from Germany. And that is the spoon from England. This is This is wonderful, because this is going to clarify Inshallah, the entire issue.
Recall, I don't remember if any of you recall me saying way back. If we had a Joomla Isthmian. Where would is all?
Where would the word is fall in a sentence. That's a Joomla Isthmian. There is no word for is in Arabic.
At least it's not used.
So if we have this sentence here, or any Joomla is Mia, where if we're translating when we put is
before? Yes, exactly right at this point where it crosses over from milk to that.
Which is very important. So locating the where our milk that it stops and our father begins is an extremely important exercise that can save us from all these things. And this is this is nitpicking a little bit. But but it's important to understand the differences and the exact meaning of what's going on here. Even when it you just translated a forest, you said this is a knife from Germany, that would literally be have the Sakeena twin, mean alemannia. Right? A knife being Nikita. And the problem is where are we putting the is?
We're not putting the is until after knife.
Right? If we're going to draw a line and the line is where we would put isn't.
Right. This knife is from Germany. Okay, sorry. I didn't know won't be sorry. I'll learn that I'm sure that other people were having the same sort of thing that you were having. And so this is actually really real.
The education like it has clarified for us exactly how these things translate to English. And it's not so straightforward all the time. So very good. Anybody have any questions about any of that before moving on to the next exercise?
You know, a couple new words here, Switzerland, Germany, England, knife I believe we had before. For your reference, if you're, if you're interested in the root word of spoon,
lie a CA means to like scrape.
Right? Even in Hadith, the prophet slice described lighter, as like, if you you can eat with a piece of bread or with your hands to kind of scrape the bottom of a vessel for what's left of the food.
So that's where Milaca comes, literally an instrument for scraping.
And we'll learn the morphological patterns that help us get there in the future. But I think that that's an interesting thing.
Oh, yeah, this was apparently simply got then actually challenging exercise, right? No, deceptively. So if we're getting into the very subtle differences between how slightly different but very, very similar sentences
can be translated or what they mean them. Yeah, it's a it's not as easy as first glance.
I'm so sorry. Can I just ask if I wanted to say this is all
German now knife, then I would say there would be no definite definite article here. And then I would say, just no men, right? So just the country?
Yes. So if you wanted to say this is a German night, you would say, you know that you're hoping that would only be half? Oh, yeah. And then I would say 16 1616. And then would this definite article be here?
And man, yeah.
There's two ways, right. So the first way we've learned then you can do and the second way we haven't learned yet. So the first way, and this is not exactly what you want to say, is how this can took me another many. This is a knife from German.
Specifically translate exactly as this as a German knife, we would have to use a form that we have not learned yet. But we would have to say
have a set Kena tune
knee with a shudder on the yet. We haven't learned that yet. So this is how you go from like mid calf, America to Emery key,
which is American.
The L at the beginning of Germany does not seems like it's not a definite departure for Greg. That's a very good point. Yes, I don't believe I don't believe that the LE flan there is is a is a definite article. But I could be mistaken. I'm not sure to be honest with you. Is it like Alia Barney, though Japan or a menu?
Then, then yeah, then? Yeah. I don't know.
I don't know. I can see it going either way.
If it's a simple transliteration,
then it would not be an indefinite article, because Turkish does not have the same definite article. And it has a Romanian as the same, the same word in Turkish.
So I would lean to what you said.
But if I were to put that word on a Arabic phonetic speech pattern, then I would say that it has too many letters.
And Alif Lam would have to be part of the thing I would then
I don't know.
You see that it's it's tricky territory when you start transliterating
from one language to another,
sometimes you get something in one language that resembles something else in another language. Right, so here we have L. I would suspect that the L here is part of the transliteration and not like, Alia ban, which is actually a definite article attached to your event.
But I'm not certain I'm not certain
Okay, well, those excellent questions. And I do appreciate all of your questions have taken us to the end of the class period. Does anybody have any other questions before we depart for the evening?
Oh, no, not, please don't we didn't have enough time to
get through the next exercise anyway.
It's, you know, 10 more questions. So no worries there. And it's a worthwhile question. Yeah, we haven't learned the form yet to have
the abstract. Yeah. Right. To make something
up IQ, like I say, right. Like our Old Vic, right.
CliffsNotes version, you basically add a year with a Shunda. To the end of most anything, right? So to say a German knife would be Sakeena to an L. Manny, you're right. I'll need you Emery key here, and so on and so forth.
So that's just a sneak peek. But we'll get there and Shama. Anyone else? Any other questions?
I'm gonna do that. May Allah bless you all, you are wonderful students. A joy to have, you're quick on the uptake.
And you ask great questions. And I like the the balance of staying on topic and getting productively
and beneficially tangential that we that we have in this class. It's a nice bounce.
Okay, if that's all for tonight that I will see you next time in sha Allah. I said I want equal rock