Tom Facchine – Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 28

Tom Facchine
AI: Summary © The speakers discuss the use of "has" in English to describe different topics, including identity and objects. They also discuss the use of "has" in various language and how it can be used to make statements about a person or something. The speakers provide examples and clarify their meaning, and discuss the use of "has" in different sentences and phrases, including "has a car" and "has a car at the minute." They also mention the use of "med school" and "med school" in certain language, with the speakers providing examples and clarifying their meaning. The conversation ends with a discussion of a shake family and a future meeting.
AI: Transcript ©
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Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala Mbogo, mousseline that was in a Muhammad Ali. Salah was listening Allahu Allah, Linda be Malian Paradise Island. Was it an arraignment? Out on the line? I mean, so normally everybody, welcome Saturday morning to beginning classical Arabic. Today inshallah is going to be a fairly easy lesson. But it's something new. So that's exciting. Real quick following up with something that we had talked about last time, we talked about the route, then.

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And there's a whole lot that Evan Faddis writes about,

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about this route, Hamza, that at noon, we have kind of realized that it's both the root of Buddhism, which is here. And then isn't, which is permission. And then then, right? Or then which is the call to prayer? Well as the the one who makes the call to prayer. And so even fantasy says that Allah Hamza, what then what noon, Auslan was a party event in madness, it says that, this route, this three letter route, Hamza, that noon, is actually two routes in one, each of them has a very, very similar meaning.

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I had, although clearly the other, the first has to do with ears and hearing. Okay, well, after a while, and the second one has to do with knowledge. Right? Which makes sense because in the Hadith conceit of the Wali, right, a lost power to Allah, He says, then to be heard, right, whoever

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has shows enmity, enmity towards a colleague of mine, a close pious servant of Mine, who I'm close to then announced to him, then two, I have announced to him that, basically, we're at war. So then to basically I have informed him, right, so it has to do with knowledge. Well, I'm the one who really thought about Alibaba. So it says, and from there come all the Devere derivations of this word, from permission to the call to prayer, all kinds of derived from

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exactly, yes, proclaim very good, very good, that's a very nice word to translate. All kinds of are derived from these two.

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These two main routes, and there's a lot actually, you know, in this particular book, you may be a paragraph for most entries, this, this particular entry, he has over two pages written about it. So you can tell that there's a lot going on there. But just a snippet, these sorts of introductions are useful for how you're thinking about Arabic. And so even if they're a little bit,

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quote, unquote, above your level, you're not ready to look through a dictionary and brutes like even badasses. But but it's turning you on to kind of imagining how to interact with Arabic, how to study Arabic, and how future studies of Arabic will go inshallah Tada.

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So we have reached the eighth lesson.

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And the idea behind this lesson, I'll tell it to you now upfront, is that we're just simply going to be using our demonstrative pronouns in a slightly different way. Okay. Previous to this, we had used our demonstrative pronouns have that Lika Havey, Tilka. For purely is statements, right in English and English grammar. We have verbs that are two categories, right, the verb to be, which talks about identity and then pretty much everything else. So we have been using the motion to pronouns have the having he that he could felucca to make, to be statements to make statements about identity only, okay. And we're still going to be making statements about identity, but we're going to make things a

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little bit more specific. Before we were identifying objects and peak people who is this men have had other Bobby bone that this is a doctor, right? My Heather, what is this had Akita Okay, so it presumed or assumed an ignorance or a lack of knowledge about what the thing was, and the answer

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Sir was giving us information about what that thing was. Okay? Now it's going to be a little bit different. We're going to add a word, we're still going to use have that as our milk today.

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But we're going to add a word into the milk to that a noun, a definite noun.

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And it's going to change what we're saying. So let's look at this. The first line here, before we get into the conversation has that Raju tag.

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So if we write this down as a sentence, this isn't a sentence. Our move to that is half the battle module.

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Now we have a compound move to that we have two words in the book today.

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And this is the cover here tattoo, it's still a statement of identity. But we're no longer merely asking us to what a thing is, in the most simple sense. Now we're saying For example, this man

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is a business person or a trader or something like that, right? So that's the only thing new going on in this lesson other than a couple new vocab words, is that we're adding a definite now

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after our demonstrative pronoun, to be able to say things like, this, man, this boy, that's car, this and so on and so forth.

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Okay, so it's a fairly simple concept. The only thing you have to look out for is running together. Like here we have a hardship C, right? So we have to be careful how to pronounce whether we're pronouncing the lamb or not. And then we just have to make sure that this has one banana and not to, to distinguish the fact that it is the subject and the predicate. So without further ado, let's just get into it.

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We'll go line by line. So first, Mohamed was asking can you read the first line for us?

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Other resolu

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that you don't

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but then Rika Raju that'd be very good.

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Is this man

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dodger? shopkeeper?

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This man is shopkeeper. And that man is a doctor. Fantastic.

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Faculty right? Brother awesome. Next slide

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it's smooth edge Ed. Malden what's more Bobby We sorry you don't excellent pronunciation listen to how he knew how to put the cast right and so

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is God Oh, sorry. You translate that the name of the merchant is Mahmoud. And the name of the doctor is saved. Yes, very good. So notice how we have here's our on a draw line for the sentences because we have two sentences

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This is our move to that that's our subject it's a compound look to that it's move off with off me late is God

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what are we saying about is whatever God it is move.

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Very good. Next brother side next slide

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have had happen way too late. Really? Weather legal way too late. Bobby, can you translate that for us?

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This is the house of the Martians

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the leaker

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and that is the house of

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little baby. Very good. The doctor back to no infection. We call it believing. Bobby. Good. So again, notice how mashallah we've accumulated many different types of things to say. Here, up here we were just saying what it is. Hi though Raju taggi. Rune.

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Now down here we're saying how the bay to lead tragedy. We're talking about possession. We have a compound today with a demonstrative pronoun. We're going to show which one we're talking about. To avoid any ambiguity. Let's say we're standing on the street and there's many houses in front of us. You can't send

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Please say lb two liturgy. Which house? There's all these houses here. What are you talking about? How are they you can point in and say I have been to liturgy, this house is the merchants, well, then he can be to live Tabi. And that house is the doctors.

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Could we have also used a possessive construction? Yes, of course, anytime when you use Li,

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you could have used

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a possessive construction. Instead of I mean, technically lead is a possessive construction, but I know what you mean. So, so very good, very good.

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In language,

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you develop multiple ways to say the same thing.

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Right? This is part of fluency. If you only have one way to say something, you're not very fluent, right? Everything you have to say, you sound like one of those robots, everything is kind of, okay, I've got my

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movie there. And that's good. That's where you start. But the goal is to develop multiple ways to say the same thing. And that's when you're starting to get into a higher level of fluency. So our sister masala pointed out very astutely that we could use a different possessive construction to say something, if not exactly the same thing, then very similar, what if we had said

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for example, and this is what we had done before, have

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they to touch it?

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Sound away.

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This is what the formula that we had kind of been moving in before.

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In this sentence, our move to that is simple. Only have

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and our cover

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is now compound with a possessive construction may taggi. This is the traders house with a merchant's house. Over here we've done something a little bit different.

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Haven't be too late taggi. Now we've shifted baits

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away from

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the possessive construction that is tied to the merchant. And we've put it closer to the demonstrative pronoun handle bait to

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lit as we put it in the subject. And we've simplified our club. So in which instance would we choose? One or the other?

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Have a baby to the tragedy seems to me as being more responding to a sort of question if we're already talking about the house.

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Right, let's imagine again, we're on the street.

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You point to the to this house, you'd like it. It's nice. It's got an arbor with some trees and vines. Mashallah. Nice, big bay window, you say Whose house is this?

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The more appropriate response will be had on me to liturgy because you're already talking about the house.

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Now, let's say that you were walking on a brisk fall day through a neighborhood and you were talking about your friend, the merchant.

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And you were just talking about how Yes, he lives in this neighborhood somewhere around here and then you turn the corner you come across his house, you say hi, the baits with Teddy.

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This is the traders house, the merchants house because you were already talking about the merchant. Right. Now, neither of these is mutually exclusive. In either situation, it's correct to use either construction. However, this construction here draws more attention to you pointing at the house as if there was a previous conversation about the house because it has separated the house from the possessive construction and attached it to the demonstrative pronoun this this.

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Whereas over here, it would be more suitable to if you had been talking about the merchant. He's your friend.

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And you happen to stumble across his house because this here is now attaching the house to the merchant and not to your demonstrative pronoun.

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And Allah knows best

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I have a quick question.

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Can you just quickly explain why it is? Lip Tajiri? Why they leave their? Before Tajae?

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We had talked about and maybe I think might have been asking.

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Yes. Our second device to make possession. Okay, our first device to make a possessive construction was this right here. Two words. Both of them is since they took tragedy, the first one has no le plan has no 10, when the second one has to be legible, that was our first way to say possession house of the merchant.

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Our second way,

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our second way was to put a lamp with a camera in front of it. This lamb is called Lamb and mukhiya.

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The Lamb of possession. And it is something that approximates the apostrophe, right? It tells you that the merchants, the tagit is house. And the work that it does on the word is that it makes it and I draw the word the noun that it is attached to, has to be natural.

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System sound like you had another question?

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Yeah, actually, the question came up, because when you were explaining the difference between the two ways of showing the possession, I hadn't realized actually that the one in the textbook

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that the whole, like the harder hadn't beat is the is the book that I didn't realize that because all the time in the previous lessons, the harder had been the move that up so I didn't catch on. So I actually thought that, you know, that had hardened bait is one sentence. And then

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like, this is an addition to it. But that's not the case. Right? All right. Good. Very good observation. And that's the that's a very useful way to look at it. Yes. How they'll be two

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is not considered a complete sentence. And

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for reasons that would take a little bit longer to explain, but

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is it is it because it's definitely

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because it's

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what's the word?

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Because both of them are Maori. And it's simple, right? Like one to one. If you have, if you have milk to the cover, Marisa Nikita is the formula. If your hover is simple, if we have had a way to it's like this house.

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Right? And English, like there's nothing, there's no information

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that you're saying, even if we wanted to say now one could say if they could look at this with English eyes, and say, Well, why wouldn't it mean this is the house?

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Right? Why wouldn't it mean that it is only implied when it's the hover? Yes, exactly. And in Arabic, if we wanted to say this is the house, we would say how the HU l baits we would add a pronoun in there. This is the house. Right?

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But that's a little bit complicated. And we'll go into that more later. The rules for when hover can be married, or when it can't, and so on and so forth. But yes, the main takeaway is that now your entire move to that has two words to it. However, and LB two, these two words make up the subject. And the hub of the information you're sharing about that subject is that it belongs to the title. Okay, and I have one more question, which is, in the first example, if I wanted to say, so what I'm saying here is, that is sorry, that man is a doctor.

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Okay, but let's, let's say let's say that was a student because

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let's, let's say I was saying that man is a student, and then I wanted to say, that student is a good oh, I wouldn't need to say that because then they would be atomic but at the end, sorry. Okay, forget that question. Good. Excellent job. These are very, very good health questions and they help us tease out the differences between these sorts of expressions and phrases. So thank you everyone for the questions. Okay, so we had done by the mechanical testing we did with our awesome

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system start off with exactly

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sorry, I'm so

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vain beta Tajiri. A mammal, Miss GV. worby to Bobby

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helful madrasa at

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the the shop that the businessmans, home is in front of the masjid. And the doctors home is behind the

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school schools.

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So these are our two most important new vocabulary words for this lesson, man and called a man and a man is a preposition of place. Which means in front of

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in front. And hull

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is a preposition of place, which means behind, we're talking about relative location.

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Because we're talking about relative location, and we had said before that languages, use the genitive case to talk about

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relationships of location, then this is going to be the relationship between this preposition and the word that comes after it is going to be lawful lawfully. It's going to be just like our possessive construction. Notice how a man made a mesh the mesh rule with a customer, mammal mesh, speedy

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hull Bell med Rossetti.

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Right? So that was why I go into the language theory is that hopefully it helps you kind of organize things in your head, Genitive Case talks about relationships of time, and place and possession.

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The genitive case in Arabic is Metro, we're talking about one of those relationships location. And so the next word after it is going to be measurable with a customer

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Okay, we're on to the shake badly. Next slide.

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Lehman ha has done say has a car to only mark Tilka

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Whose car is that? And Whose car is this? And Whose car is that? Very good. And I know you meant to say how he you just

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named his car. Very good. Excellent job. They mentality say I'd like to one Amen. Very good.

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Sister ESMA. If you're there can you do the next one?

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Has his sejahtera to let the BB what? Tilka. The Tajiri

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this car is the doctors and that car is the merchants. Great work. Okay.

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I'm going to erase all of this if that's okay, we're gonna scroll down

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just one more that we'll go to.

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Do we have left? Okay, Brother Mohammed thought it. Could you do the next one?

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Hi, this has ECI to read the BB but we'll call it D. No. The next one. Sorry. Has a car a car that has a car at the minute. Yeah, Barney. What will come in Emery Kia

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Rika. Yep. Car to write the car to

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this era to

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Seneca mean America. What does that mean? translate that for us?

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How's he say to mean?

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This car is

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from Japan. Yes. Very good. That is from America. Yes.

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Okay. Okay. Anybody have any questions at all about this previous exercise before we move on?

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Sorry, second, lesson two and six had his car or two, or has this era T. His car to this is that this is your subject. Right? Yeah. The ruling of the subject is that it's more for everything's going to have a Bama.

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Let's there's something right, which is about, you know, recognizing what SR must off was telling us is that the whole The big lesson of this is we're basically adding a word to the move to that, or we're adding a word to the subject. Whereas before our examples, were simply used demonstrative pronouns, heavy B. Now we're saying have the he'll be two, or excuse me, hallelujah.

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doesn't make any sense because Bates has masculine, high there will be two, and so on and so forth.

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Excellent work. Okay.

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Let's keep going. Now this is going to require a little bit of reading comprehension are going to ask you questions about what you just read. And we can scroll up and look at the answers no problem. The first question is, and we'll start with SR I rooms. It's our thought it was the last to go. Men, the Raju woman that he killed a module

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that goes back to way back to the first line.

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How's it originally? Tajuddin was olika. Raju to be born. Yes. All right, good.

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Notice again how this is the main point of this lesson of Raju is part of them up to the heart of the subject. Though Raju, imagine you pointing to a specific person have a logical you haven't said anything about him yet. So the sentence is not complete. You merely pointed him out. Have a Raju? What

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do you want? That's the hub. Whether any kind of Roger Lu Bobby one.

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Very good. Number two. Let's have brother mussen. Go ahead. Read the question too.

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Much, Dad you do?

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It Smith dad moved on. Okay, very good. You're correct that his name is machmood. Now I want to grill you about a minor point. Because here you said muscle tag you drew

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up here you said it's mortality. So I would have to ask which is, and you're right. This is a possessive construction. The name of the merchant and so the second half has to always be Madrona. Excellent. SR Syra. A few there number three

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must be B. Yes.

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US motor B bee bee say done. Excellent work. Yes. We sorry, don't.

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Number four brother Tommy.

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Mean * mean? Aner sejati sejarah to Bobby. Good.

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Aina to

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web Where is the doctor of car from? Excellent. Okay. So what's the answer?

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Okay, had the say yaki mean idea ban. Mean idea ban. Very good. So you you We don't have an explicit answer here. Its influence has had his say on a tunic Bobby. And then the next one is having he say auto to mean Alia banning. Right. So it's it doesn't tell us explicitly that that's the doctor's car. But we have to infer that it's the doctor's car because they just told us that that.

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sorry, sorry. I'm sorry. I'm sorry. I interrupted you. I just wanted to ask whether it's any one question first. Because I believe,

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say on 201. Have you slept? Oh, yes. And the answer you said how did he say all? T? Is it? How did he say it or how he sailed on to and why?

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I think it's had his say year or two? Good. That's correct. But why? Because because it's

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in the question. It was part of the possessive

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in the car to

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Bobby Yeah, it's part of the possessive kind of phrase there. But when you're answering the question, it's been standing alone. That's the

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move to that. Yes. Up here. In the statement Havey he set out to it's part of the mock to that. One thing that we know about them up to that is that it is more for the mock to that is more for and the hover is more for all those things that we learned before you see how they always keep coming up every single class. So what type of sentences This is a Joomla is mean, what are the two types of the two parts excuse me of Joomla as we move to that and hover? What's the default grammatical case of both them up to that

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The heart is more broad, it has to be more fluid until, until something comes into the sentence that's going to change that ruling, to move it from metaphor to something else like med school or Mutsu, or something else. Right? So your default thing, if you're doing that, as we, you know, it has to be metaphor. Here, it's obvious, have the say out on tour. It's right off of how the heat so it's part of the move to that it can't be anything else except for my foot, it's a little bit trickier in the question, because sometimes in questions, we rearrange the order of the words in a sentence, we say, mean Anaa say, oh, Bobby, we could get confused and see that men and think well,

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wait a second. Why isn't Siata with a customer?

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And all we have to do really is untangle the sentence, the

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full sentence or question, when we say oh to Bobby, mean aina. Right. The doctors car is from where, however, it's more eloquent and more correct in Arabic to move up the specific part that you're actually inquiring about, which in this case, is the hub of mean Aina Sayana to Tavi.

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C'est la vie, we mean, blank. That's our our sentence.

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So this is the Malta debt. And this is the hub. What's the question? Want to know? The question wants to know, the HVAC.

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And so we put that first in the sentence. But it doesn't take away from the fact that say auto to Bobby is actually still the move to them. And therefore not a good system is not even a question.

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Yeah, actually, I wanted to ask you based on everything we've studied so far,

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I could think of three ways to answer this question. But I just wondered if they were right, and whether we knew more. So one, one way to answer it would be to say sayonara to Tajiri.

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minute, I mean Amreeka.

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The second way would be to say, say

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a car or to lift G

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mean Amreeka?

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And the third way would be to say, Tim come in Amreeka.

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Are these all correct? The first and the third is certainly correct. Okay, so let me figure out what was wrong with the second one. I said, a CRO to liturgy. So okay, the reason that's wrong is because I

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actually don't know. Yes, no, no, it's good. It is, what your example did, and this is very useful, is that it tests the flexibility of these different forms. Okay. So is there any difference between using li versus using with off mobile Wi Fi like,

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right? We just kind of found one, because of your example.

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We use me for more simple statements about who something belongs to.

00:33:39 --> 00:33:47

Which is not the main points of the statement, you were just saying in your example. The main point was where it was from, not whose it was.

00:33:49 --> 00:34:06

So it sounds off to my ear to say, Sal to detach it in a meeting. It might be correct, I would have to look into it. But it sounds clumsy. To my ear, because usually when we use Li, we're just talking about who's

00:34:08 --> 00:34:12

right. Liturgy, period. It's the it's the merchant's.

00:34:14 --> 00:34:41

So it might be possible to use it but it occurs to me my ear that it would be more correct to use with off with off the lake. If we're talking about something else. Right. The main point of the sentence isn't whose it is. It's where it's from. I don't want those best. That's good. Okay, exactly. No, I love people. Okay, and our final brother awesome. Did you do them or five?

00:34:46 --> 00:34:49

Min hnsa. Yeah, that's a tragedy.

00:34:51 --> 00:34:53

Where's the Martians car from?

00:34:55 --> 00:34:57

Seattle to Thursday.

00:34:59 --> 00:34:59

Is it

00:35:02 --> 00:35:11

So yeah, that's potentially mean Amreeka. That's right. Yeah. That's what's implied from the conversation. The merchants car is from America.

00:35:12 --> 00:35:13

Oh, my goodness, we have two more.

00:35:15 --> 00:35:22

So let's go back to the top and one question on. So when we say it's

00:35:26 --> 00:35:27

you muted yourself.

00:35:28 --> 00:35:32

Sorry, I said, if we go up to like, say it's a mini abahani

00:35:33 --> 00:35:35

Minelli, abahani.

00:35:36 --> 00:35:41

But we say for when we say mineral I'm Reiki

00:35:44 --> 00:35:47

because I'm Rica is MeV. Knee.

00:35:49 --> 00:35:49


00:35:50 --> 00:36:11

Knee meaning it's fixed effects. It's always going to be MV cat. It's never going to be any different just like n words that have end in a final le for often this way. Whether that Elif is meant to do it or not. So for example, let's take the word the name,

00:36:12 --> 00:36:13


00:36:15 --> 00:36:24

Can you say mean more say, No, you can't. It's always Musa. Whether it's subject object, preposition, anything it's Musa.

00:36:25 --> 00:36:27

Same thing with Isa,

00:36:28 --> 00:36:35

always going to be the same. Words that ended Elif are always going to be like that. They're never going to change.

00:36:36 --> 00:36:40

However, yeah, Ben, just by nature

00:36:41 --> 00:37:00

of it falling on an Arabic phonological pattern. So we have to see like, Yeah, Ben, is totally a normal. Arabic. Like word. There's a lot of words that fall on this phonetic pattern. Boone Yan, Wen Yan, Oman Susan swords a soft.

00:37:01 --> 00:37:18

And many, many other words that follow this sort of pattern because it follows Arabic phonetic patterns. It's treated like an Arabic word. And so there's going to be a Lea ban. Do you have any Evanna? Yes.

00:37:24 --> 00:37:59

Thank you. Yes, of course. Okay, question 70. Only in Hanukkah, right? Why does Japan have a definite article? And America does not? That comes back to something we said about the names of countries even in English. Right? What do we say? Are the Are there any countries where we say the Netherlands? Right? The Netherlands? Right? We would never say Netherlands, it wouldn't be correct. Or, I mean, you guys probably know better examples than I do. But the same thing exists in Arabic. So in different languages.

00:38:00 --> 00:38:02

We use the

00:38:03 --> 00:38:10

before place names, depending on various factors what that word originally means. or

00:38:12 --> 00:38:23

other reasons that I, I'm not even aware of. Right? A Sudan, in America in English, we say to them, an Arabic it's the Sudan, Sudan.

00:38:28 --> 00:38:32

China, right, in Arabic is a scene.

00:38:34 --> 00:38:34


00:38:35 --> 00:38:38

And there's many others are bad.

00:38:40 --> 00:38:55

But others are not. And as to exactly why I don't have a quick answer for that. But there's definitely this phenomenon in multiple languages where some place names some country names are have a definite article before and some don't.

00:38:56 --> 00:38:58

Which is very, very interesting to think about.

00:39:01 --> 00:39:02

Good question.

00:39:04 --> 00:39:05

Anyone else? Any questions?

00:39:09 --> 00:39:10

All countries masculine.

00:39:11 --> 00:39:35

Or all countries Master? No, not necessarily. Like for example, the official name for America. America is like the slang name right? Like America. It's not the United States of America. If you were to write out in Arabic, Allah we lay out and attacking and Nicaea right, the United States of America that's feminine. Because state is feminine.

00:39:36 --> 00:39:41

And so everything follows that if you want to say Great Britain or the United Kingdom rather she

00:39:43 --> 00:39:48

and the men Malacca. Melaka Kingdom is feminine. And so America

00:39:49 --> 00:39:59

and look at them, the United thing, right? Even Saudi Arabia is technically an Arabic, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and mem Naka and I

00:40:00 --> 00:40:05

A B, C, D right so everything is feminine so it doesn't

00:40:06 --> 00:40:10

and the word United that it has the same root as though he

00:40:11 --> 00:40:14

had yet wahala one

00:40:15 --> 00:40:19

it's the I think the fifth vital sign

00:40:25 --> 00:40:26

so is there

00:40:28 --> 00:40:30

a meta key in Arabic?

00:40:32 --> 00:40:35

Explain your question. Say probably I don't understand the question.

00:40:38 --> 00:41:03

Oh, Emery You mean like Yeah. Is there anything like Emery Emery key in Arabic there is Emery key is someone so this moves from the nation to the national right. The person who is from America is Emery key. Right or if it's a female every key Yeah. Right. Just like there's Cerro de su the knee to the year is that what you're talking about?

00:41:05 --> 00:41:09

Yes, yes. Yeah, so we'll get into that how to add the year

00:41:10 --> 00:41:14

in order to do something kind of longing for that thing.

00:41:19 --> 00:41:19

Very good.

00:41:22 --> 00:41:31

We have two questions remaining. So the shake family popped at the top of the list now so say family finish it up for us brothers the sister so that you can do the last two

00:41:37 --> 00:41:39

I mean by tagine

00:41:41 --> 00:41:43

merchants house yes

00:41:48 --> 00:41:52

right to die DY DT among must GV

00:41:53 --> 00:41:57

fantastic. Enter beta, the BV

00:41:58 --> 00:42:05

pay to buy to the BB colorful colorful mus mud rasathi

00:42:06 --> 00:42:14

doctors, doctors houses behind the school fantastic question. Yeah, those are the two most important words of the lesson man and

00:42:15 --> 00:42:16


00:42:17 --> 00:42:18

and we'll get into

00:42:19 --> 00:42:27

the rest of the exercise inshallah we'll try to finish the lesson next meeting inshallah anybody have any other outstanding questions?

00:42:38 --> 00:42:45

Okay, fantastic work, everybody. I love the effort. I love the interaction, and inshallah we'll see you next time. Assalamu alaikum

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