Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 11
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 42.68MB
This one our friend that are human hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salam ala Ashraful MBA almost serene, a Vienna with with Latina Mohammed Ali he thought of Salah was good to sleep Allahumma eliminated between Pharaoh and found that the Marlins and that was even the element. Yeah, don't believe me. Last class was a very, very important class.
I'll review it very quickly and show a lot and then we'll get to the exercises that we had. So previously, we had an introduction to the genitive case in grammar, also known as something being Meldrew.
Okay, what is the genitive case it is used to
measure slide here, okay.
It's often fits with inside a Joomla SME. Okay, so we were learning about Joomla ischemia, these sentences that begin with an essence.
Okay, and it's two main parts, which were moved to that and cover, right, loosely translated as subject and predicate. And we were starting to,
we had a couple examples of different types of milk today. Right, we had our very first type of milk to that was essentially shouto, which was a demonstrative pronoun have had the bait on how the army soon and we learned how the indelicate and so this was a very, very manageable and easy, like, intro into the sentence structure because we didn't have to worry about whether the first word the move to the had vonleh or, or what other, what else, what other thing might be going on. But as we advanced, we learned that there are different types of words that we can use from up to that, we can use a common noun, if it is a definite common noun, meaning those students the house,
right, and then correspondingly, we had to learn okay, how do we end this word to reflect this grammar? Okay, it needs a llama. All right. And how do we pronounce this word since it has to have a leaf lamb. And sometimes the lamb is assimilated if the letter coming after it is a some letter, and it's not assimilated into the following letter if there's a moon letter, and so on, and so forth, okay. But we really only dealt with one or maybe one and a half types of covered predicate. At first, our predicates were very, very, very simple. Just one word that were usually something like Maffetone. Open an adjective, right? So the lb to Neff to one, the house is open. Right? Unless you
do better or you don't, the Masjid is far away. Right. And so this was the first type of hover. And we only sort of had a little bit of wrinkle in that when we had a different
type of word, which was an SM phi l modality. So whilst the phone the teacher is standing, right, or jelly son sitting, right, which was only slightly different, but not really, even though it was different in translation, it was in Arabic, essentially the same thing. So what we're getting into now is a different type of predicate a different type of cover, from what you're used to, we're no longer going to content ourselves with a Hummer that has only one word, an adjective in it. Now we're going to start using prepositional phrases as the hub. Okay? So if you're going to say a body boo, is your moped so that now we're going to say, where is he? He is in here? Or he or, or where is
the pen, the pen is on top of the table. Right? So that's what we're doing. We're making our hardware just a little bit more complicated. And this complication has an impact or it affects what's going on with the words and the grammar that they manifest. We said here over in Joomla is meow, we're still in Joomla is meow. But our early simple examples of a move to that and a hover. They both are in the nominative case metaphor. And they both manifest that they show that by having Obama on the end, okay, now with this type of hubbub, a prepositional phrase, it's going to change that for the public. And we'll talk about a neat thing that one of those
Students brought up at the end of class that kind of will satisfy your
curiosity for those of you who are really interested in the grammatical aspect of it. Okay, so the nominative case we said was about making declarations basically is an are statements.
Now with the genitive case what we're dealing with, we're talking about possession. Not yet. It'll be next lesson, we're talking about time and place. Okay.
So, if something is in the genitive case, in Arabic, we call this mehg rule.
And the sign of that being MedDRA is having a casserole on the end.
Okay, so what's the formula?
It's going to be after our move to debt we're going to have
the hover isn't going to just be one word, we're going to have two words a prepositional phrase, made up of a preposition and a noun that's in the genitive case. With a castle on the end, we learned two prepositions, Allah which means on top of or on, and fee, which means in or inside.
And so our examples, balibo Phil Beatty. Notice how a balibo is the opposite of that, Phil Beatty is the cover.
And the fact that this fee is here is going to change the ending of the noun that comes after it. It's not a way to it has to be LBT because of the fee Arabic grammar is kind of like dominoes. If you set up certain words, they tip over and effect the words that come after them. So prepositions are like these dominoes. They are going to affect the nouns that come immediately after them. See here the preposition elbaite is the noun. The Genitive Case is here and Beatty and our example with Allah. Al Kitab. Oh, Allah sorry, the book is on the bed. Same thing preposition, Allah s sorry,
And that is essentially Yes. So we talked about these different kinds of
different ways of constructing a nominal sentence that is me. So with that being said, let's get to the book.
So what we had here was a fairly complex exercise, we'll go down and everyone will have a chance, what you're going to have to do is you're going to have to read the question, that's going to necessitate you pronouncing it correctly, both the vocab word and the grammar what's the ground was supposed to be on the end of it, and then answering it in a sensical way. And then for good measure, I'm going to have you translate it into English as well. And if you've been busy, and you haven't gotten around to the vocab, no worries, as usual, we will all work together.
So without further ado, number one, I believe that is
Mohammed, the father of Ibrahim Galaxy Note 10 You're, you're appearing on my screen as Galaxy Note 10.
I look at
Oh, yes, that's, you know, keep taboo, very good.
And what would be a suitable answer?
Let's do it together. So the easy thing with this is that they're giving you already the move to the if the if the if a question is a non key taboo, whereas the book, then you automatically know that up to that is going to be Alki taboo.
Yes, now we're going to look for a prepositional phrase where we're going to we only know to so far, we only know fee and Allah. You can pick whichever one you want. And pick another vocab word where you can say it's in this or it's on that
Hello, sorry, excellent, Masha. Allah. Perfect. So can you translate that for us?
The book is on the bed. Fantastic. Excellent job. So listen, I said ain L key taboo, if we're going to be very, very particular. Because keep taboo is still in its metaphor. And then
In The Answer elke taboo, Allah sorry, Allah sorry, with the castle on the end because it comes after Allah, which is a preposition. Excellent work right down the list brother to mean can you do number two?
Sure. So a Nemo Hamedan
Mohammed Phil of Orpha Ophelia Cordova T. Thank you very much. Yes. And an out of would never say the word fatigue. But we're learning and so we're making sure we're pronouncing everything correctly. And so thank you for adding that. Mohamed Mohamed don't feel more fatigued. And so what does that mean? does translate for us?
Where is Muhammad? And Muhammad is in the room. Excellent work. Very good. So we heard how more hadn't done, which is more for because it's the most at it. Feel. The 80 is in the house? Or I'm sorry, I feel the water 30 in the room.
Excellent. Let me move down here and I'll set this up and I will write in people's answers now that I don't have to scroll anymore for a bit. Next up is salary. Is that how you pronounce that?
Yes, yes. That is correct.
Ans ans i do excellent work. Yes.
As I do Phil Beatty.
Good job translate that for us.
I don't know what was what samurai two means. I kind of missed couple of classes. So
two means the watch. Okay, so the watch is
in the house. Excellent job, Masha. Allah, thank you very much for that. PSA can mean hour it can mean clock. And it can mean watch, but it's most commonly used for watch.
So listen to how he did an excellent job assimilating the lemons to the sunlight or seen us to put the correct ending on the move to that us to feel he ran it right into the lamb. And it's pronounced because that is a moon letter, not a son. But Phil Beatty?
Are they coming here?
Too shy to participate? That's not a good enough excuse. No, if you really don't want to participate, I'm not going to force you. But shyness.
I would encourage you to participate because you're only going to learn by making mistakes. That's the only way.
In Medina, we saw time and time again. The students who participated less who
were going to withhold their participation until they thought they were good enough until they thought they were ready. They learned the slowest, and they grew the slowest. And if you would indulge me in a very, very short story.
No problem. A very, very short story. So me and I had a friend when we were still in the Arabic program. He was from Newcastle, UK. And we basically won that we were some of the weaker students in the class at that point. We understood, but we were very bad at speaking. And so we made a pact we said, Okay, listen, every single question that the teacher asks from now on, we are going to raise our hands and we're going to call and we're going to answer right or wrong. We're just going to crash and burn. And so we decided this and we're all excited. And we're sitting front row like good, good Western students who are front, front and center.
So who should who should come to class that day, except one of the upper administrators that was supposed to evaluate the teacher that day.
basically, what the teacher wanted to do is he wanted to call on the best students to make himself look good.
So every single question he would ask me and my friend, our hands would shoot up, we're sitting right in front of him waving our hands. And he's looking around nervously trying to find a student who's,
who's better than us to answer the question, so that he can look
myself up anyway. So never be afraid to make mistakes. Number four, we're down to someone from the shahada family.
Yes, it is.
I see as Betty
Where is yes him? Yes it is in the house
someone else from Russia had a family do the next one number five.
and feel madressa
Very good. See I think
because it ends with a terminal. Good. So it's feminine. We'll get into that very soon.
Good. So Amina
aina. Yes. Where's Yes. And where's
Amina? Phil madrasa at in the school. Yes, Phil Beatty is in the house. Very good. Now check this out. We're going to have a little bit of a different type of question here. So we've been using this question where where, Where? Where? Oh, now we're going to start mixing types of question words. So SR Masada Ross, could you please do the following one number six
this You mean number seven? This one right here? This is number six.
Okay. Um, I mean to feel Wolfer?
I should just say yes or no right?
No, Amina feel good.
Okay, and translate that for us. Is Amina in the room? Yes. Amina is in the room. Excellent job. So see what she did there. Pay attention carefully. Oh, we have a different way to ask a question. The first way that we learned to ask questions was simply by adding a Hamza before the noun, which was asking a yes or no question.
I had beaten. Is this a house we said, if you're going to, you know, know this way of asking questions, I can drop you off in any
Arabic speaking country. And you can just be you can annoy people and learn vocabulary that way it will work. And I say I have the T tablin, Madhava. And so on and so forth. Alright, so we have a, what's called how discipline is different is a
Hamza that makes a question before Amina, so we're asking a yes or no question. I mean, to fill Order for tea is evident in the room? Not? I mean, it's all filled with Fitzy. Yes, and you spit it right back out in the room. Good job with that. Next up is system.
Number seven, all right.
Do your best.
i Yes. I just cannot read it without the marks. Okay. Reasons why those reasons is actually really useful. So one of the things that might be going on here with this one is that this might be an unfamiliar word to you. So for example, this particular word is yes. Yes.
Once you know that, yes, there is a male's name, then now you know how to pronounce it.
Whereas before you did?
Beats for example, you already knew how to pronounce.
But I kind of gave you a difficult one. And I'm sorry for that. So could you can you let's let's try it. Let's keep going. Oh, yes.
Yes. Your feet. Lum.
I don't know. My
I don't know I can't do that.
No, no, I don't know. Yeah. Yeah. See it on the mathematic?
where's that we learned so definitely easy to have escapes people Modbus is the kitchen. Literally the place of cooking? Baba Ha is to cook multipath we're going to learn about that later. How to do that fancy trick means the kitchen.
Yes, you don't feel lucky.
And then so the answer now that you know those words mean? Now I'm going to ask you for the response. The question is a yes or no question. So what's your answer?
It's gonna be that word. You will be
For either now
let's go with
I don't know. I don't know. Sorry.
Repeat after me. So we said
Buffy, so now we're going to
Bill what Buffy?
feel I couldn't hear you. It's cutting off. That's my feel not bossy. feel much better.
Okay, okay. Good. So that means is Yes, sir in the kitchen? And you said, yes. Yes, it is in the kitchen. Excellent work. We're doing pretty good with the tech. You know, it's not easy to learn on Zoom, especially things that are requiring, you know, listening close listening to pronunciation and things like that. But we're doing pretty good humbly. Okay. Someone from the say your family. Could you please do number eight?
Now, mon, fill
Nice work. And what's the answer?
Let's translate the question. What's the question asking?
Who is in the room? Room? Yes. Very good.
yes, yeah, yes. You
say run? Yes. Yes.
feel we're 40
and translate that for us? Yeah, sir. Is in the room. Fantastic. That's exactly what we're going
on you yet again. So
Aina aina. Whereas whereas, whereas then they threw in the Hamza asking is Amina in the room? Is? Yes, sir, in the kitchen. Now they switched it up on you yet again. Because they want you to remember everything that we've learned so far. And they're using a different question. We're men who men feel a lot of pity. So now we're learning all the different types of questions that we can ask with these prepositional phrases, we can ask where something is, we can ask yes or no questions about what is in or on something. And we can ask who is in or on something or what is in or on something? So that's exactly what this exercise is designed to kind of get you thinking along those
lines. men feel about a party who is in the room? And as you said, Yes, you don't feel Waterfoot to you answer with Yeah, so in the room. We have a question that chat. Last week, we learned that the hover has to be natural. Oh, that's going to be a nice juicy tangent, I can go off on at the end of class. We'll get through at least this exercise inshallah. And then I will address that in sha Allah. So
will brother mush and can you please do number nine? Sure. Woman fill her Miami.
Mohammed, Mohammed, don't fill her Miami. Excellent work. Now. Can you translate translate that for us? And who is in the bathroom?
Mohammed is in Baton
in the bathroom.
Excellent work. So listen to how to use men. And that's a great question from Tammy. We're going to
that one is
we can answer in just a second show a woman Philharmonie and who is in the bathroom. So on so is in the bathroom. He recognized that men is asking us for who? Now we have a question. That's not how do you differentiate between men and men? How do you know? It's not Yes, sure. If you if anybody would like to try to answer it, take a shot
either in the chat or via microphone.
If the noun is a person, because
Because of the fee, yes.
Because of the word see Roman see? Yeah. So he has this customer in it. That's why Okay. Very good. So, what we have here is, Min is a question word meaning who? All right.
is another preposition. Which means
Now, is it possible that two prepositions could follow each other
from in the room?
It's not possible.
So, because we have be here, we know by default that it has to be something else.
It has to be
No, that was a good that was a good try. That was a good try Masha Allah. But the real reason is that we don't use multiple prepositions in a chain, to ask or to make any, any statements.
Right. So because of the context, because we have been Hanami. It's only possible that it's some it's a different type of question where that's asking who men feel Hunnam as opposed to men. But this is exactly thank you for the questions. I mean, because this is exactly the type of question that shows us how we will start to read without having the customer the fats, how the BOMA if you understand the sentence structure, you understand something of the grammar, you realize it can only be men. It's not possible for it to be because a preposition has to be followed by a noun it can't be followed by another preposition. So because of that, we know fee is here and so it has to be men.
Excellent. We're down to the sheikh finally someone from the sheikh family can you do number 10
Mazda Ullal mattevi
What is on the table? The book is on the table. Excellent job. Very good. So now we shifted gears again instead of asking who were asking what and listen to how she added the customer at the end of
the noun following the preposition I'll add an activity because it is measurable. It is measurable very good someone else from the shape family do you number 11 for us
Marga unless really
Yes sir. To la serie fantastic, continue translate.
What is on the bed? The word is on the bed. Fantastic, Mashallah. Great job. Let's keep rolling. Okay, so we have
up to now love the Alaskan attorney Matt, read and write with the correct ending. Anytime it says to write that should be if you're have time during the week, something that you can try to do for homework. Right. Now let's run through these reading to try to get used to how the endings change.
So going back to the
top of the list of Abraham.
Excellent. So listen, he said el madrasa too. He knows that it's by itself and so it has to have been that it has to be more for Sister Mossad rods. Can you do the next one?
Phil monstrosity? Yes. Excellent. comes after a preposition. Has to the customer. System. Yeah. Can you do the next one?
Yes, it's filled by P. Excellent.
comes after a preposition. It's going to have a castle at the end. Someone from the same family.
On day two, yes. Fantastic. No preposition, comma at the end. It's very simple. Someone else from the same family
a lot of fun to Yes. Excellent. Shake family your turn
on her mammy and her mammal culture.
Yeah, very good. I have no but that's good because actually I'm really really glad that that was
sent us a slip of the tongue. Because we realize now that it can't be 100 me, unless there's something to make it
with a customer at the end, right? So now we see that these things, they're caused by things, write in the sentence. And so we know that it can't be that unless there's some sort of thing that would cause that to happen. Okay, very good. So someone else would just make fun
boo, mucky Yes. Very good. In the kitchen. Excellent. Moving down. We have brother side.
This one right here
if he's with us
I'll make terrible Yes. Fantastic. I'll make fun of me and the next one.
I make Toby fantastic. Moving right along shahadah family
I could see you.
I'll see. Oh, let's do that. Let's look at that for a second.
See, with a shed and normally it without Allah it would be a cold see you
because of Allah.
The letter has to now have a NASA underneath it. I'll call see.
What's the icon see? Because it's more important.
Of course, okay.
Good. Study you. And then
could you do the next one? Is I don't know if you're able to participate?
Yes, I'm here.
Sorry, as long as a little Kitabi fantastic. Kitabi and you're at the end of my list. So can you do the last one to please? Oh, okay. Phil Masjid will fill Majidi? Yes. Excellent. Phil must be excellent. And listen to how she put that customer on the end of here on the end of there, because they are followed by prepositions. Excellent work, everybody, we are getting the hang of it.
Okay, we have a next exercise and only five minutes. So what I'm going to do is I think I'm going to explain
some of the questions that were asked before that actually dovetails into what I had wanted to clarify earlier. Anyway. And then I will ask you all to do this as a homework exercise. To practice both reading and writing. You're going to be focusing on the correct endings up balibo Feel me it and some of the words will be unfamiliar to you perhaps like a jam yet means university, but we'll go over them.
Next class inshallah. Yes, we'll go over that next class.
So, one of the questions that we had was, we learned before that the hubbub the predicate is Nikita is indefinite. And so if we look at the construction of many of the sentences, we have, see if I get to a positive example here
all of them have at least LAMINAM
here still not puppy l not Buffy.
Hmm. Who is next to me? Oh, no, we have elephant.
So what is the issue here?
there were several things where I said in the beginning there are some half truths
that I will give to you
as training wheels in the beginning, because to
enter into some of the finer points or
more advanced examples would be too much information too soon. So for example, and I'm not trying to scare you all it's actually not that difficult. But right now you guys are all like motor for Mama. Mama means more for them or for them than my foot. That's not
always true. There's different types of words that manifests the nominative case metaphor with different ways. Not with a casserole not with you know, it's not going to be crazy. But there's going to be other ways to do it. So in the beginning to make it easy and understandable and to give you the predominance case, the usual case, usually the most the always the motor is metaphor, and usually
it's cases represented by a ball. Okay. So when I said that the hover the when I said that the move to that as Maratha is definite, and the hover is neck era.
That is not always true.
Neither of those statements are always true. There are times they're not very common, but it's possible that the move to that can be Nikhil,
we will get into those examples later in sha Allah.
And there are times and this is slightly more common, where the hubbub is actually mounting.
Right? If you are asking, if you look at the meaning behind all of these words, whole island activity, if modified means definite known, and nekkid means indefinite, unknown, then of course, the Moke to that here is known.
And even here, the hover the predicate, the predicate is also known. We know what room we're talking about. So this is an example where, in fact, the cover is not Nikita. But but but but the reason why it's useful to teach the hover as makira is when we're dealing with those early examples that are made up of two words, right? of all, evil.
What do we want to say? Called evil, wealthy one.
Okay, first of all, to get you to realize that whether it's neck Utah, or Mountie foot does have an effect on the ending of the word, the sign of the neck, Anna has a 10 win, whereas this doesn't have a 10 week. Okay?
And also to realize where the meaning crosses over with this type of cover. How we communicate the concept of is how do we know we're making a declarative statement? I'll show you something a little bit. Maybe that illustrates that if What if we were to put an ally phlegm on this cover? Okay, directly without a preposition. It would be
if I could write correctly, Foley BU,
l y r t foo.
Instead of a volleyball well before
is a subject and an adjective, it is not a complete sentence. This literally means the standing students
dot.it needs something else to complete it as a as a thought and as a sentence.
Okay, whereas if it does not have any phlegm, if it is Nikita, now we're making a declarative statement of volleyball. Where are the fun?
I think we learned the word was tired, hard working.
So all I have to do is add any neck era. Now in here as an additive, and now I've completed the sentence. Oh, volleyball. Well, people watch the heat on the student, that literally the standing students, we would say in English, the student who is standing,
which technique is hardworking. Okay, so knowing the difference between Nikita and manufa. And associating the Hummer with Mechina is essential for this type of cover. And this type of construction of the Joomla is it's not essential. In fact, it's not even useful at all really, in this type of construction where we're using a prepositional phrase, because a prepositional phrase implies that you know what you're talking about.
I mean, you could say it's on a table somewhere, but you're usually normal usage. You're going to say it's on the table. That one there. Okay, is that much clearer?
This gets us into a another issue, which nobody has called me Oh no. One of the students
did call me out on it?
I said in the in the slides that
the nominative case
morphed into being Matt ephah is a preponderance
and not a rule. It's a default move to that being mouse. Hover being Nikita is not a rule.
But it is a rule if our hover is
just without any prepositional phrase attached or anything like that, that helps us distinguish between an adjective phrase
versus a complete sentence.
The second thing
let me know if that's not clear. The second thing is that okay, you told us that move to the Mountie us up the Motorola is metaphor and the Hummer is awesome.
we have a Taalib.
A Foley boo.
Or feel bathe whatever you want.
And you said that the genitive case was talking about the relationships between nouns space, time and possession. It's true that this is
a prepositional phrase. And so we see LBT. But isn't it still the hub?
Aren't we still saying the student is big is we're still making a declarative statement.
So where does the metaphor go? Where does the nominative Mont nominative case go? Oh, this is a very good question.
If we treat these words, the each individual word by itself, then this is in the genitive case as we can tell by the customer. Okay. But if we treat the entire prepositional phrase as one unit, then the entire prepositional phrase is considered a metaphor.
It isn't a nominative case. But it doesn't show it.
It doesn't show it because it's affected by the preposition. So for all my fellow grammar nerds.
If this doesn't make any sense to you do not worry about it. But for anybody who was bothered by this,
and I'm glad if you weren't bothered by it, say wait a second, this is still moved to the hub. And the hover is meant for yes, the hover is not poor. But we have something affecting the normal order of business. The preposition makes the following noun into the genitive case mudroom. And we just say that the entire units of the prep of the prepositional phrase is more for even though we can't see any sign of it being so
does that make sense? And does anybody have any questions before we dismiss?
By the way, for the shadow found me I looked up to like for the hustle. I couldn't find anything on it except other than obviously the fruit.
So for example, and what Jim
McCall is a lover,
where he usually has quite a discussion about the different route permutations and combinations. All He literally says is, yeah, this is one root, it's for Apple. That's it. So I couldn't find any other sort of words that were
built off of it or from which it was derived or anything like that.
Anyone, any questions, anything not clear?
Everybody's doing a great job. It's not essential that you understand all the ins and outs of the grammar in order to follow along, memorize the vocab and keep on doing the good job that everybody's doing. Right. As long as you're able to understand half of
the or less a quarter of the exercises that we're doing. Especially if you're not understanding is merely just not knowing the vocab word. That's easy. That's an easy fix. Right? And so don't get discouraged. Everybody is doing fantastic. Arabic is a deep rich language. And so for those who are curious and want to know more, there is much more to be said about
These simple constructions that we're making, but it's not necessary to know all of those things in order to have a functional understanding of of Arabic. So thank you everybody very much for your time and your participation. And inshallah I will see you next time
Is it okay?
I'm sorry, I'm having
the next step.
Next class is Saturday. So every week twice a week, Saturday 11am. Eastern Time. Wednesday 7pm Eastern Time, twice a week.
Thank you. Yes, thank you.
I mean, why? Why ecommerce sit out.