Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 12
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 35.68MB
Just remember him.
He was Salatu was Salam ala Ashraful MBI, even more serene. Avena Rockwood was in Muhammad Allah He upon Salah was the Tasneem. Allah home Ireland and be money, I'd found out what fat and I'd be mad mtna was in an arraignment? Yeah.
we are making excellent progress.
We had some homework I believe.
We began by
talking about the genitive case, basically using prepositions. Okay, we way back in the beginning, we were learning how to make basic sentences that communicated ideas of identity, this is a desk,
the student is hard working tall, these sorts of things, then we shifted over, now we're talking about something a little bit more complicated, we're talking about
relationships between things.
Okay, those relationships could be because of their relative location, something is on top of something else. Something is underneath something else, and so on and so forth. They could be because of time, we haven't gotten there yet. But we'll get there. Something happens after something else. Or before
that and eventually, I think actually, the very next lesson after this one will, we're going to talk about possession. Right? Not just talking about a noun, this thing is this. Now we're going to talk about okay, this thing belongs to such and such a person. It's the student's pen, or it's the, the mesh sheets,
pen, or book, or whatever have you. So to do all of that work to talk about these relationships, whether it's possession, whether it's location, whether it's time, we have to get into the genitive case, we have to get into the men's room.
How we do it, we use prepositions, prepositions, like fee, like Allah, which we learned.
So we're taking vocab that we learned before elbaite
and now we're expressing an idea that's just a little bit more complicated. That has to do with that now that we learned elevate feel Beatty
in the house. And that expands what we're able to to talk about. We learned MSG do.
And with that we could say this is MSG and that's MSG and the message is far the message is near and msg do body worn and msg do bury don't. Unless you do Now the phone is clean. Unless you tell us your phone is dirty.
And now we can say fill in SGD
in the messy
so and so is in the messy this is happening in the messy right. So we're expanding what we can say by being able to use these prepositional phrases at a macro level. The desk on Elmax me on the desk. Now we can not just say that is a desk
or the desk is nice the desk is bigger than the desk. Next I will carry it on.
Now we can say what's on top of the desk. I'll get to
I'll make to be the cat is on top of the desk. I will keep taboo I'll make to be the book is on top of the desk. I will call that move I like to be the pen is on top of the desk. And so now we're able to say a lot more a study it'll the same thing. A study in the bed. We were at first just able to say how they're studied on this is a bed or a study row now lifan The bed is clean the bed is that the bed is this. Now we can say iOS city, on top of the bed.
Hold on a city he is on top of the bed.
I'll get to our city at the cat is on top of the bed and so on and so forth. So that was the whole idea. Let's start talking about
the relationship between objects the relationship between nouns people, places and things.
Once we learned that concept, we talked about how to ask a question about it just like we did before.
Before, we were able to say, had a key taboo. This is a book. And we could ask a yes or no question about it had that key taboo? Is this a book?
Or an open ended question? Madhava. What is this?
So now if we're talking about location, the relationship of things, or the relationship between things by location, we need a corresponding question where to ask that, to ask that to inquire about what is the relationship spatially? What is going on between the location what is the relationship of these things in space? And the word for that is aina. Where am I How am I doing?
Where is Mohammed? Hola, Phil Ward Fateh. We learned the subject pronouns, who, and here, there's only two when it comes to there's no third gender, or it's in Arabic. Hola, I feel a lot of fatigue, he is in the room. And I asked you to pull off Phil Hammami. He is in the bathroom,
and so on, and so forth.
So I believe where we left off.
If I recall,
now we finished all this didn't
we were here a volleyball for the geomancy, I believe.
Okay, so we'll go down our list of classmates. Oh, very good. Why was admin written differently than we'll have any acid? We're going to answer that question today in sha Allah, it is literally on the next page.
Excellent. I'm glad you're thinking along those lines. So someone from the shahada family? Could you read number one for us with correct
And nibble fee and jam make it. Okay, that things are all correct. Now, what I want you to do, yes, Al jamea is a university. I'll annotate with the vocab. But what I want you to do I want you to, to read that again. And to run together, the places that needs to be run together. Okay, so I can say, l poly Buka. We know it's our body.
And then if I'm going to say these two words separately, it is fi
l jamea. T.
Okay, but if I run them together, it has to be what Phil Jeremy it. Okay. So, say that again and try to run everything together.
A bondable fee and jab, jab, jab.
Right with just with one. Good.
So l jamea. Means
And because we have le flam, it means the university so if you could translate that for us, what does that mean in English?
The student is in university. Very good. The student is in the university.
Excellent. And notice how we said it has to be jammy i t instead of jammy I 10 Because of the cauliflower. Alley flam is like a it's like a seesaw with a 10 ween at the end. Either you have Ali flam, or you have 10 We we have Ali flam right here. So there was no there was no 10 We
Excellent. Number two someone else from the shoutout.
And Roger will a larger lieu fee and Majid doing a measure the measure the effect?
Okay, translate that for us. Roger, so Roger, the man is in the masjid. Very good. Okay. Oh, Raju Lu. Right.
Mess G Very good.
Yes, and 100% Correct. Okay, do you mind me asking a question quickly.
Last quite last class you had mentioned that you would never say this in regular speak to someone. You say we're doing this to learn. So the, the Ooh, the extras. So that's to teach us the concepts of the letters and
not to memorize this word could never be another way we're learning the roots. So we've learned the language without memorizing just the word because you would speak it obviously for the first 10 years of your life and you would know it. So the E the oo like the other day I mentioned to my mother, she looked at me like I was crazy. So I was like, so that's just something for learning purposes, but we've never actually speak to someone by adding those is that correct? Correct. The way that that we should say that the Arabic language is spoken. Okay. It was spoken, it is spoken without the ending marks. You would say our Rajan for domestic.
Domestic. Okay. But if you were to ask 99% of items,
what should and move to the Western cover? We're allowed to have really mad. Right? Right. If you're trying to ask them okay, what's the subject of the sentence? How do you know what's the subject of the sentence? All of these things? They have no idea right? They don't even know many of them unless they had mashallah good education. They don't know that there's a there's a llama at the end of that Roger Lu. And it has to be because it's the move to that and then move to that is my fault. And they don't know that Phil msdt Gerawan mentioned and unable to Jeremy he I think Castro Valhalla. I forget he write all of these things, because likely they never studied it. Why does it become
important for our purposes? Okay, it becomes important for our purposes, because we know that we recite the Quran differently than we speak Arabic. Right? And so, if we recite the Quran, you absolutely have to say these things unless, unless it happens to be at the very last word that you're reciting. Right?
Cool who Allahu Ahad,
you say with concolor, you don't say I had done even though that's what's written there, I don't, but if you connect it, call Hua Allahu Ahad oni, lehle Sarmad. Right.
It all has to be there. And the fact that it's there actually carries the meaning.
The fact that Allah is a had done
that carries meaning. This is the hub, the cover is more for. And we know that because it has a bummer, this word is Nikita,
and so on and so forth. If we make mistakes, with the grammar, and with the small things in the Koran, it could change the meaning entirely. Right? So for example,
Hadith Allahu Smls. T, well, Allah, if somebody says, hola, hola, hola. sml, were to wile out? Or do you just said that the heavens in the earth created a lot.
Right? The difference between that time and Obama and a customer.
And so as people who are learning classical Arabic, we're learning all of these things. And we're practicing them, we're going to say all of them as we go. Because for the purposes of the Koran, and the purposes of the Hadith, the meaning is in the grammar.
Okay, when you're speaking on the street, you're speaking to your relatives, stuff like that, you understand the meaning through other ways. Right? Way back first, second lesson, we talked about synthetic languages and analytical languages about how synthetical languages they communicate meaning more from these kinds of markers that are on the work? Well, almost every Arabic dialect
has shifted towards
the analytic, they have different things in them, that makes it possible to communicate the meaning just by the order of the words. So it makes it unnecessary to even say or use all of these signs.
Right? This happens a lot.
So when it comes to speech, that's one thing speaking with native Arabic speakers. But when we're going to the Koran, and we're going to the Hadith, that's a different thing. If we want to understand clearly,
what is intended, we want to be able to make tafseer the quartet or understand what exactly I was trying to say to us, the meaning is going to be held in the signs. And so that's why that's why we practice them. Does that um, does that answer the question? It does. And it actually brings up another point that I didn't understand till maybe just now, why sometimes the transliteration and the explanations in English are so different. Because if somebody interprets the Arabic wrong, the meaning, that's why depending on what country they're from, and how their Arabic dialect is, maybe that's why five of my codons all had the same kind of translation, but not the exact Yeah, no 100%
And there are certain things that have multiple interpretations. And in the process of trial
translating them, the translator only selects one of them right that happens all the time. So, this is the whole one of the whole purposes of us taking this course is to cut out that middleman is to cut out that barrier. If you understand the grammar, you understand okay, cool. Okay is command, who is the move to that? Allah who is the is also the look to that by extension I had known as the hover and this is one four and it has to be my four and that's mount ephah. And this is next to it has to be, you understand the meaning and nobody can contradict you. Because the meaning is in the ground. Right.
So we've reached number three, someone from the shake family, if you did on the three
ain't it that you love Phil Dukane. Excellent work. I'm gonna translate that for us while you're at it.
Where is the merchant? He is in the store? Excellent. Just where he belongs. All right. shumsa. Yes.
Both the top and the Dan are some letters. So it's both a in a tad U, which I believe was set and who feed Dukane which is why it has that nice little shutter there. So I missed it. Whether you said it as some letter or not. But just for clarification for everybody else who do can. Excellent.
Anybody else from the shake family? This president would like to do them for
that'd be excellent work translate that for us.
The pain is on the table. Mashallah. Excellent.
And number five, massage, can you please do number five?
I mean, as you know, Xena boo. Here, Phil. Here, Phil Hall Fatih. Very good at translate that for us.
Um, where's Dana? She's in the room. Fantastic. And just as our brother has notified us earlier, notice that Xena has simply one bumper, and not 10 wheat on the end of it not too long. We'll talk about that on the next page of the book. And number six? I guess I'll do because we've run through all of our participants ain't the one
who I'll make Toby. Where is the paper? It is on the desk.
Very good. So you guys are doing a good job keeping track of everything. The first thing that keep track of is okay, if we have any phlegm? Am I pronouncing the lamb or not? Is it getting assimilated with the letter that comes after or not? And that's a function of whether it's a sound letter or a moon letter, as we said, Is it close to the lamb and pronunciation or no? Then the next thing you have to keep track of is Okay, how's that word going to end? In all these examples the move to that? It's a simple move to that it's going to end with a Bama a single domino because there's a flap. And then the harbor is now instead of just a single word. It is a prepositional phrase. And so we know
that it's going to have to end with a customer as a Janome it feels much didI did do Kenny Island makes me feel a waterfall at all element.
And that is what we're going for. Very good.
Oh, look, we've got more.
Okay, so we've got four more exercises and then we'll address the question of Xena and Amina and why are they so different? So back to the shahada family? Could you please do number seven?
In Moodle Rosu.
here's the answer to your question. Is it Modares or Modares?
With their race and what
I'm sorry, the difference between Modares and with Aris muda to the student and the teacher.
right so you see just a little bit of a different Hanukkah and the meaning changes entirely. Excellent.
So okay, Sorry, I interrupted you.
Were 30 in
fossil is awesome classroom
Fossil is a classroom. Why? What is the facade? I mean, the root word fossil that means to separate, right there like Al more than fossil. Like Allah says in the Quran. That's the thing of distinction of separating the different groups into where they're going to belong. How or, or heaven. Yes, we say Milan, bossy, something that is separated, whether in touch we or in pronouns in language. And so al fossil is also in classical Arabic used as a unit of like, a like a unit, like a separate classroom. Good. So translate that for us.
The teacher is in the classroom. Excellent work. So where's the teacher? The teacher is in the classroom. Excellent. Okay. Someone from Okay. Somebody else from the shadow family? You go ahead and do number 818. Yes.
Who are fi and moto?
Moto? Maha? Yes. Very good. I love how is the
Okay, so there's a difference between men and in the house? So her mom, it could be a Turkish bath. Right? It could be like, That's the spa thing, depending on what part of the Arab world you're from. If you're in Shem, and her mom is not a bathroom, like we have. It's a it's a Turkish bath. Right? Whereas the actual word for the toilet itself is a file. I don't know how.
So translate that for us.
Where's the asset? He's in the toilet. All right, good. That's a literal translation. We probably wouldn't say in English that he's in the toilet, because that brings up some funny imagery. But yes, he's gone to the toilet. He's gone to use the bathroom. Very good.
Shape family number nine.
Shom zoo welcome Rufus semi. Very good. Shamsul Chiemsee. While I'm at all my letter is semi, we have a palindrome letter.
Very good. So what is the sun and the moon are in the sky? Excellent. So that's a new word for us who haven't learned that before a summit is the sky
which should be familiar to anybody who has done a bit of foreign
very good ash. So welcome to the CMA. Notice how we've done something to them up to that here. We've gone from just having a move to that that is one word, to having two
things in them up to that. And we've connected them by the conjunction wet, which means so now we have SM su well Amaru faced some A, the sun and the moon are in the sky. And that should be a very, very easy, straightforward point.
But it's an option. So now you're seeing how you're able to make more and more complicated sentences. And finally, number 10 Mossad rot if you will.
Most men fail faster than men think. Firstly, excellent work. How did you know? Mossad How did you know that it was men and not mean?
I don't know. That's okay. Honesty is the best policy. I don't know is this is half of all knowledge.
This was one of the brothers had this question on Wednesday. It's a fantastic question. How we can tell it's not men in simply because to prepositions and not exist side by side. It wouldn't make sense. Meaningful fossil we're going to learn in just a few minutes what mean means It means from so from in the class.
No, that doesn't make any sense. These two prepositions don't come next to each other. Since it can't be another preposition. It has to be a question word meant to fossil who is in the classroom?
Very good. Any questions about that before we go to
something a little bit different?
I just want to confirm for number eight. Would we have said Aina Yasu. Like just Illuminati the Illuminati know Yes, Iran has.
I believe Yes, even I myself had to double check with it. But I
I'm probably 90% sure that is yes, evil. In fact, I was looking up here. And they have, where was it?
They had an example, in the beginning of the lesson. Yes, right here. Yes, you don't. Right.
And that is actually a perfect segue into what we're going to talk about, which is
we've noticed now that there's a difference between the way that we say
masculine, proper names Mohammedan.
And the way that we say, feminine, proper names, Amina two.
Okay, so I'm going to give you the very simple rule right now. And then I'm going to explain a little bit more of the finer details for those who are interested. And then we're going to learn in Shallotte two new prepositions. So the simple rule to take with you is that masculine names
the default of a common noun in that they get time. They can have fun will have my dude call me to harm me too. Yes, you know, I'm not on salary you don't Lee Young person.
Whereas feminine proper net names, I mean, to say enable Fatima to Natalie Mo. Aisha to do not accept 10 We,
they do not accept 10 We
just why they're only written with one Lama and not with two and the bridge is over masculine and feminine.
That's the simple rule. That's what you are responsible to know. So for you to reply to, and that's the end of the examples.
Okay. Does everybody understand that?
Why does some woman with her to the name turns to tap?
You're asking about this letter.
This letter is a time on Bucha. What is the time on Bucha?
this is one of the chapters and even on designees, photomontage, we
will have a technique that lets you see much.
So if you have tabs up here,
and you've had down here,
the last time I'll go to is literally half this and half that.
Okay. And they did that for a reason. It gave you the dots from the smiley face, it goes from a smiley face to a surprise face.
Right? It has the two dots for tat, but it has the circle of a
that is to tell you that if you're reciting it in the forehead, and also if you're doing it in common street talk,
that if you stop on it, you don't pronounce it or I should say you pronounce it as I have.
Whereas if you continue you pronounce it as attack.
So nobody on the streets in an hour speaking places going to say Avianna to
they're always going to say Amina
Fatima. Ah, Aisha Khadija, right? However, what's the actual written ending of these words as of tomorrow Bucha with Obama on top of it.
And so if you were for example, these names if they were to happen in the Koran or if they happened in the Hadith and you're reading them
then you know that actually if you're continuing on
we have for example, I mean, I came I mean to Jah
I mean to Jha
we would pronounce it if there are if there is something else to say after. Okay, so it's similar but the opposite to the hums with the loss of hundreds of muscle We only say it in the beginning. We don't say it if it's connected. Here with time on Huzzah.
If we're connecting to something else, we pronounce it as a tap. If we're stopping on it, we pronounce it as a hat. But for our purposes here learning the grammar we're going to pronounce it with Islam anyway because that's where the grammar markers the BOMA kessa are always going to
or I should say the llama and the Fatah are always going to be
okay. That's the basic rule
If you in this example, I'm in a Tujuh
Yes, people would on
understand from the context they would I mean the job
definitely. But if you said something more complicated then it might cause ambiguity. Right? Okay if we really want to go into it I could say for exam for example
running out of space. Okay. Now if I say I mean a little bit about what comes to your mind initially is that I'm gonna hit spouting.
But in Arabic, it is permissible. If I had said me that's a lot about Fatima to
know, it was me know that Fatima hits.
Yeah, you can do that 100%. And so if I leave it on pronounced, it creates ambiguity.
There might be something that is understood, because it's the usual way of saying it. But you could flip it around. This is a completely correct 100% Arabic sentence.
And in fact, in certain circumstances, it's actually what you have to do. If there's some if someone's asking a question, who did? Or hell am in utter boredom, it's valuable to know I mean, it's a bottom it's valid.
So that's the basic easy rule, the easy way to explain it is that masculine names get the 10 mean, feminine names do not.
In reality, something a little bit, a little bit more complicated is going on.
And this concept is called the North Minister of
Something that does not accept 10 week south pier in this phrase, it means can we.
onto the next slide.
Yes, that's do not take all vowel endings that do not take all diacritical marks. If we imagine in our minds right now, what are all the possibilities that could happen on the end of a letter? It could be Bama. That's hot customer. It could be two bombers, right? 10 we vomiting. It could be two fantastic could be two customers. That's for a normal now. There are some nouns that do not accept all of those vowel markings or diacritical marks. Okay, hamdulillah they're very regular. Meaning that it's not like random, you know, one word is going to accept Velma and never have Tesla and the other one is going to only accept that I know it's not chaotic like that. It's regular. There is a
class of words that's called them not Minnesota that do not accept 10 wheat
and they do not accept cassava.
Okay, they do not accept 10 wean and they do not accept customer. So
okay, if we have the sentences, and we have these feminine names.
In the sentences, we have to account for that in what we say in the sentence. So for example, which we did, we said Amina to Phil Beatty, instead of mean to
if it would be men's rule?
Well, we'll get there. We'll get there. Let's not get there yet.
Okay, so all you need to know is that there are some nouns feminine names are part of them. They're not all of them, but they're part of them. They're one of the groups that does not accept anything and it does not accept customer.
Yes, so a masculine proper noun will end in 10 we will have done
whereas feminine proper nouns do not end and incidentally, Are there exceptions? Yes, there are exceptions but they are few.
What's the whole purpose of those
The whole purpose is
in Arabic grammarians, they want to differentiate between
nouns that resemble verbs, and we'll get there later. But if you're wondering what this thing is so random, why did they decide to randomly you have these, this group of words, not adhere to the normal rules, it's to avoid resembling a verb.
But we'll get there later. So we had prepositions, we learned prepositions, Ana fee. And these are many, meaning they're not going to change their endings for grammar.
And today, what we're going to learn, oh, Lord, there's only two more sentences. Two more minutes left on class. Well, I'll introduce the concept and then give you guys opportunity to practice. Well learn two more ILA meaning to like, direction, going to the store, to the market to the messy, and men, the opposite coming from the messy
mean, and while especially mean but also Illa have several meanings beyond this. However, they are secondary meanings and not primary meanings. And so we'll we'll not worry about them right now.
So as an exercise to do at home, practice, reading these names, identifying which ones are the masculine ones, and which ones are the feminine ones, and pronouncing them accordingly. Have you done the same who, you know, to? I'm
sorry, you don't help him at all, just to get you used to that. And now we're learning
these two new words of a two minute debate. So we have the house and then from the house
lmsc do the maths street eel, Muscovy to the MSgt and that takes us to the end of our class time.
So that means that next class inshallah we will run through this we have like a conversation so we'll practice doing the conversation. And we will be using our prepositions and learning a few new words such as
a couple of countries and also some other pronouns that we haven't seen before and Chava does anybody have any questions at all before we
Okay, everybody, I hope you saw I sent out an email with some
suggestions for vocabulary, apps, very important.
Try to look that over inshallah as well. And I hope that Allah
helps each and every one of us and makes it easy for us. Thank you very much, everybody. See you next time. So that might equal