Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 04
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 34.91MB
Bismillah Al Rahman Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salatu salam ala Ashraf al MDA well mo serene Nabil in our code Watson a Muhammad Ali Akbar salah. Well as Dr. Salim Allahumma alumna we may have that or no in fact, everything that led to that was even there in a mini Ramadan.
today we have a new lesson. But before that just a very brief review. We started with basically the most basic sentence that we could possibly form.
I'll do a share screen here
wait for it?
which was harder, and then a noun after it. And today we're going to learn how those brother or cousin
that ICA and we'll understand what type of word had the IS, and learn some more things about it. But we started out by just having a simple sentence how the
using Heather, and then a noun to say that this is
and we talked about a little bit about grammar. He talked about how messy it had to have.
Where's my pen here?
Yes, had to have a 10 ween at the end mesh G doing
and that that communicated a couple of things. First of all, the fact that it was a bummer. Instead of say a Fetta. Instead of say a customer was telling us that this was in the nominative case. We talked about very briefly, what is the idea behind the grammatical case, we said that Arabic is a synthetic language, as opposed to an analytic one, which means that it has things as part of the word that tell you
what is going on in the sentence. So we started with our English example, Tom hit the ball.
And then we said, oh, okay, how do we know that Tom's hitting the ball. in English. We said because of the order that the words appear in the sentence, right? If I flip the order, I reverse it, I say the ball hit Tom, all of a sudden, Tom was the one getting hit, and not hitting the ball anymore.
Right. And then we made up a fantastical language called angle book, where we said that we were going to add things to the words to show who was doing the action and who was receiving the action. So we said that we would put an oo sound at the end of whatever was doing an action. And we would put an ad sound at the end of whatever was receiving an action. And so in our new awesome language called angle Beck, it suddenly became Tom who hit the ball law.
And then we realized that if we did that, that it didn't matter so much what order we put the words in, right, we could say the ball law hit Tamu. And it would still mean the same thing, that Tom would still be the one hitting, and the ball would still be the one getting hits. And we said that this idea is probably the really good tool to understand how Arabic works. Okay. So these are the types of things that are going to change what's on the end of the word, and they are going to tell us information about that word. What is it doing? Is it the subject? Is it the predicate in the case of a nominal sentence? Is it a the one that's doing the verb isn't the one that's receiving the
verb? Does it come after some sort of preposition that indicates where it is or location or something like this?
So all of that. Oops, I don't think that was
that makes sure I was recording. I don't think I ever hit the record button one second.
Okay, there's recording. Right. Okay. So that was kind of our introduction to the idea of Grumman.
Got a cold case and we said it was going to be more important the further we got but we started with if that's too much for you we started with how the mesh didn't and all the vocab that came along with it. Then we complicated things just a little bit. We said okay, if I have this basic sentence how the mesti doing
then we learned how to make questions.
First of all, we learned how to make a yes or no question. So we turned our affirmative sentence excuse me, we turned our affirmative sentence had mesti doing and we added a Hamza before it to make a question ah ha mesh de doing I'll go back to the whiteboard
clear my terrible handwriting. So we had
chicken scratch, how the
mesh G doing?
And then all we had to do to turn it into a yes or no question was to add a Hamza Hamza happen to sit on top of Elif Don't worry, it's still a Hamza had MSG doon. And all of a sudden, we're able to ask questions, if we have an idea what something is, but we're questioning what the identity of that thing is. Then we learned a second question word, which was math.
And ma we said was used for
Na had, what is this?
And then finally, we learned men,
which is used for not objects but for people men had.
And we learned a bunch of vocab that is tied to answering those questions. Okay, so that's brings us all up to today we're going to learn a new word,
We learned how the how other meant this?
Okay, that Lika means that
what is the difference? If you're going to explain to someone who's learning English as a second language? What's the difference between this and that?
Let's hear from somebody any volunteers?
I could volunteer. Sure. Okay. So, this is something that is kind of in your hand and right in front of you that is something that further away, because I under something you have to point out. Excellent, fantastic. So the difference between this and that is distance is distance. This is close. And that is far. And we'll talk whether we mean literally or figuratively, it can mean either. But we'll get back to that.
What you need to know at this point is that have is for something that is close. And Delica is for something that is far. What are these types of words called these types of words. In English, are called I'm still in Arabic, sorry.
demonstrative pronouns. Whoa,
yes. demonstrative pronouns.
Oh, excellent. Someone knew that. Sorry. It's a little bit tricky keeping up with the chat and the videos and the share screen but we're finding our way in Arabic. demonstrative pronouns are
asthma, the plural of Assam. That doesn't mean all right. Asthma, all Isha.
And we said that the grammar terms would be important because there's going to come a point where I'm just going to use the arabic terms
because some of the categories in grammar translate to English and some of them do not
a smart all Isha.
Why is it called a demonstrative pronoun? Because it needs some sort of context
that demonstrates what you're talking about. Imagine you're sitting
on a park bench in proctor Park. And someone just sits down next to you and they says, This is really nice, isn't it?
You would kind of have to look at them and say
figure out what what are they talking about? Is it the weather that's nice, the park that's nice. Maybe they have a nice beverage in their hand. As opposed to if you were sitting down at the coffee shop with your friend and you have coffee like I do Bismillah
ah, this is so good.
Right? It's understood from the context what you're talking about this something close to you. So there has to be something that indicates what it is exactly that you're talking about.
That's my only shadow right now we're going to break it down into two categories. We have close
and we said that that is have
and then we have far
and that is valleca.
Now, here's a question. Allah starts sorts of baccarat with
Alif Lam Meem Valley can get Ebola, Roy Buffy.
He says that is the book
that Nikhil Kitab la vie, Buffy that is the book in which there is no doubt.
Why does Allah use a demonstrative pronoun that indicates something far away when we have the core end right in front of us and it's actually quite close
I hinted at it earlier. It's about sometimes most of the time we're using demonstrative pronouns. And literally, this is close to me. That's far away.
Other times we use demonstrative pronouns. Yes, exactly. To indicate figurative distance. Sometimes that distance implies that this thing is honored. Right? There goes that man, he might be walking right by you. But you say that because he's someone of a status that's much higher than you, or an ability that's much higher than you. And so Allah actually uses that he can keep tab to elevate as a distance to kind of elevate the status of the Quran in that particular.
Good. Okay, let's go to the book. And let's get into some examples. Where are we at here? Yes.
Okay, Dr. Seuss. Knee
Let's have Rashad Can you read our first example here?
Sure. Mazda good answer. Zelicah
close net nets measurement So, excellent. Perfect.
So we have we're using is this cumulative. We're building off of what we learned before we have Malika we're able to ask a question right away. What is that? That Lika nudge moon that is a star nudge Moon is a star. The time between tells us that it is indefinite meaning that it's a star among many stars. The Lika nudge Moon
good. Let's have Kailee Can you do the second example here?
had the must G have the must G boom
bye don't excellent good job. had a look at the people who put together this book they made the message even close to the text and the house far away so that they're trying to help you show you one of them is closer and one of them is further how the mesh be doing. This is a mesh data Masha Allah What a nice mesh D that is what that ICA that a little bit further away. Bay tune is a house
let's go to the say in someone from the say it household. Can you do the next example for us?
Oh, ha ha. He's
none. Good. Yes. And the answer, or the next one was
my run Excellent. As a criminal law. This is the closer one is a horse pay saw known. Well that Lika Hema I don't know
And Dr. Marcin let his his wife do this example because he got in trouble I think last time well that came out on and that is a, a donkey. Excellent. This one is near it is that therefore we use how the demonstrative pronoun is money shout out for something close. And nalagarh Isml ishara for something farther away. Let's go to Ibrahim, can you do the next example?
keep on. Excellent. Good work. So again, we have incorporating our questions on our tools for making questions from the last classes that we could Caliban would be a statement that is a dog. But we're not sure. We want to ask. We have a suspicion. But we'd like to make sure so we say that when we put the Hamza in front, it makes it a yes or no question. Is that a dog? And that cute furry cat over there is not a dog. So our answer is law. No, there Lika that bone? That is a cat.
Excellent. Someone from the shape family. Could you do the next example?
Luca, Luca serine very good, Masha. Allah. What is that? So now we have again, our open ended question. We have no idea what that is. We really just want to know the name of this thing. And so we're going to use math. Because it is an object it's not a person. And we're going to ask about the identity of this thing. mad at ICA. What is that? That ICA? Study? Rune? That is a bed.
Oh, now we're gonna get a little more
interesting here, someone from the shahada family? Could you do the next example?
Men Hannah, woman that Nick had that, that her son when Dannic mm and excellent. Very good. So now we've got
our third and final question word that we had learned to ask the identity of a person. Men, it would not be correct to say a Madhava or Malika and gesture towards a person that would be considered rude. So we have to use men who's saying who? Similarly, we can't go up to a chair or a table and say men how other people will think that you're not all there. So we have individuals human beings here. Men have close one men that
have a modality soon. This is a teacher. Well, that Lika M. Moon and that is an imam. Close by His Majesty where he belongs.
Let's keep rolling.
Who else would like to volunteer for the next? The next question.
Hi, this is mir. I would like to volunteer.
Mazza Lika the DECA Hydra? Very good. My Malika what is that? Deca Hotjar rune. Hodge, Arun is a rock or a boulder.
Okay, these are we have a last exercise here. And we have just a couple of people who haven't gone I see a name and Arabic Is it Mossad?
It's Mercer. Yeah. Okay. Can you do the last one for us? Sure. Had the soupcon. Weather Lika Lebbon. Excellent. Very good. And I apologize. The pictures are not very clear. These are sugar cubes. And this is supposed to be a jar of or a glass of milk.
So we have had the subcarrier when it should sound familiar because it's a cognate with English sugar. have soup karoun What Alika Lebanon, and that is milk in some places in the Arab world. Leben is milk and sometimes it's yogurt. I guess here. Again, we don't really have a very clear image. But here it looks like it might be
A jar of milk. Well that Lika Lebanon. Notice again, how every single predicate that we're dealing with here has been.
It has been the 10 Bomber 10 Bomber 10. Right. Bomber time, one more time. On, on, on on. We were talking about in the beginning of class, one of the first classes what the two main types of sentences were
in the Arabic language. Can anyone refresh us? What are the two main types of sentences?
I can try. Yes, please.
Joomla Izmir, and Joomla Fania. Very good. Asante. Exactly. We have two types of sentences. And they're identified by what type of word begins the sentence. So we have Joomla, which we said was the word for sentence. It's me, yeah. Um, Joomla. There, Li.
And we said that we were going to take Joomla, if the idea that were sentences that began with verbs, and we're putting them to the side, we're not even going to think about their existence for a while, we're just going to live in the room with Joomla Ismene.
Now that we're in that room of Joomla ischemia,
we said that we have to know the different parts of the room, and that there are two main parts to that room and move to that.
And I'll cover
and if you can know that much, then you will be well on your way.
Move to that roughly corresponds to the subject move to
Move to that and cover
subject and predicate.
And then we said that in
a Joomla is mean, we have moved to that and we have covered, what is the case, the grammatical case of the move to that? And what is the grammatical case of the hub, they are both the same.
They are in the nominative case.
For now, what that means to you is that that's represented by Obama or to Obama's.
Okay, that's why every single example we have messed up doing love by noon. So karoun.
Everything is in the nominative case, we use the nominative nominative case to talk about identity is statements this is that this is so on so forth. And we'll use it for a couple of different scenarios as well. But the important thing to realize is that both the move to the and the hover must be in this particular grammatical case represented at this stage in our learning by Bama, what is this grammatical case called in English we call it the non
oops, nominative case.
And in Arabic, which is way easier, and I recommend that you learn this, it is called model for
this is more for both the motor and the hub have to be metaphor. So it's not going to ever be happy either. So Karin
has other soup Koran.
It's always going to be how the soup karoun. And that's why remember how we pointed out that with the examples, the examples that were at the ends
of each chapter, they actually got rid of
the markings the Feds had on the customer.
And that now, you can actually read those words in those examples correctly without needing them, you know, automatically that it has to be Paula Moon Hema rune Kelvin because of your knowledge of the word, the vocabulary, and because of your knowledge of the grammar of the sentence, you know that it is a Joomla SME, it's a sentence that begins with a noun. Those types of sentences have two parts will
Today, I'm taller, and both of them are in this grammatical case. So they have to have
to plug this in one second.
Okay, our next question is, and I alluded to this before.
What do we make of the fact that our words that we've been using
don't have Aloma at the end of them in the beginning? You said, Tom, wait a second, you said that the move to the has to be in the case of metaphor.
And that the case of metaphor, we know it's metaphor, because it has a moment at the end. So we have, let's say, how the
I understand Kelvin, Kelvin has that bomb at the end? Okay. But what's going on with Heather?
Why doesn't have a have a dama? At the end? Is it an exception to the rule? Is it not actually in this case?
Would anyone like to take a stab at this?
Anything to do with it?
That's a good question.
There are some words, there are some words where it does have to do with lf this particular word, it does not. So in Arabic, I hope everyone has this that needs to have it because I'm going to erase it just a second.
We can divide all words into two categories. Here's words.
One is called
NAB ni, met ni un.
And the second type
is called more all balloon.
said oh my word what is that?
Simply it means
does the end of the word change to reflect? Grammatical case? Okay, all the stuff we're talking about llama casserole? That's Ha, if the end changes to reflect its grammatical case or not.
Okay, there are words Yes, in the cleanable would be would be a decent translation.
So, some words, their endings never change.
demonstrative pronouns happen to be some of those words. demonstrative pronouns such as have, such as that ICA do not change their endings no matter what, no matter where they are in the sentence. Even if it was the object of a verb, I ate this, however, it would still be had. You said this is good, the subject of a nominal sentence, it would still be habit, it would not change. In fact, the author began the book like that, to take it easy on you. Because we don't even have to think about it. We don't have to change anything. I don't have to explain why it's a bummer. We can focus on the second part of the sentence, which is the predicate, and what's going on with that. Whereas words
that are more Arab.
They are words whose endings change to reflect grammatical case. So there's different types of words. Nouns, by default, are more Arab. There are exceptions, like the sister said, some of them that have an Elif, at the end, there are exceptions. But for the most part, by default nouns change their endings, depending on where they are in the sentence, certain types of verbs, not most of them. And we'll learn more about this later on. But just to put it on your map, in case you are wondering, why is it that how that doesn't change? And there is your reasonable?
Let's go back to there was a question about the shutdown.
Let's look at that shutdown.
Where was it? Okay, why is the shutdown on the tap? In this case? That was the question. Let's get back to the book.
Which tab are we talking about?
Oh, okay, good.
I'm really glad you asked that question. That brings us to another point about the Arabic language that it will be very helpful for your soul for a year kind of just entire conception of what's going on. Notice what's the difference between cannibal and krypton.
And even he modeled in Hasaan
is that it has less letters than the rest of the words. Right? Or we should say it seems like it has less letters than the rest of the words.
in the Arabic language, for the most part, is based off of a three letter roots word.
Okay. From that root word, we derive all sorts of words we derive the noun we derive the verb we derive the
the doer, the receiver of an action, all these sorts of things, even a place like we were using the example doves that I saw.
In last class, Dallas is a verb that means he studied. madrasa is the place where you study the school. That is, or modalities is someone who teaches muda Ross is the thing or the one that's being taught. Right? Doris is a unit of study, right? Like a lesson, and so on and so forth.
So, the default is that every word can be traced down to a three letter root. So we only see that there's two letters here, off and BA. But in reality, what we have is, we still have a three letter root, it is in reality off, BA and BA.
But what happens when something has a shudder, is simply that the first one has a sukoon.
And the second one gets the
whatever the huddlecam, whether it's Vaughn mutton, in this case, peptone or a Fattah In another case, or anything like that. So does that. Does that answer your question?
So the shut that doesn't have to do with anything grammatical. It has to do with the actual word. There are some words that
in order to complete or achieve the three letter routes, they actually have a double letter. And so instead of saying call papa, papa tone, the Arabs, they merge those two with Islam and say,
right, and that's the default rule for most words like that. Good.
So we did all of that. Okay, good. So your homework, your homework, or these exercises to write them, notice how they've taken away the Feds Ha, Bama kestra, you should be able to read them correctly. Without that help. Because now you know, the word the vocab. And now you know the grammar, how the subcat when, what are Lika loved by noon. So practice writing them and we have some new words. And we don't have enough time to get into the next lesson. So we'll start next lesson in sha Allah on Wednesday, where we talk about the difference between
definitive or definite and indefinite nouns.
Very good. Does anybody have questions? Is the response to a Vatika? Always that?
If you're answering in complete sentences, yes. Right? Arabic just like any language, it's going to have various levels of formality. So if you if a bunch of teenagers guys are hanging out, they're not going to say, is that a pen? Yes, that is a pen, right? They're going to say, like, is this a penalty? Yeah. Right. They're going to be clipping off things. And there's going to be the context is going to be speaking louder than anything else.
Oh, I see. You're saying So you're wondering, is it possible to flip the demonstrative pronoun? So the question is, like, for example, we say, what's that? Is it possible to then say this is a Yeah, it depends. That's a very good point. It depends on distance, because something there's something about perspective that's going on there. If somebody says, what's that, and it's with me, it's far from them, but it's close to me.
But then this is something that is an issue of perspective. Right? So yes, it is possible. It is possible to say, is that correct?
People say yes, this is coffee. That's a very good point.
The next question whenever there's a two letter word will the shed the always be present with it when it comes to nouns? Usually, yes.
Particles are different. So like joining words like men, men, men, those sorts of things, but if we're talking about nouns, yes, you're almost always going to have a two letter word is almost always going to have a shudder because it's you almost always based on a three letter root
one second, I need to make sure that this is plugged in so it doesn't shut off on us.
that's better. Sorry about that. I was wondering why the battery was draining.
And it was everything plugged in.
But the cord was not plugged into the wall. So doesn't benefit me at all.
Good. So yes, with nouns. So yes, to answer your question with nouns, it is going to almost always have a shinda to accomplish the three letter roots. And as we said to the other question, yes, it is permissible to switch perspectives when responding to these sorts of questions. Is that coffee? Yes, this is coffee now how the coffee
Any other questions before we dismiss for the day?
Okay, thank you very much, everybody. Insha Allah, I'll see you on Wednesday. And if not, you can also catch up with the classes on YouTube. That YouTube channel is pinned on the misdeeds Facebook site.
And I will see you next time inshallah. I mean, Wacom said I'm like, come on after law he would have