Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 03

Tom Facchine

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Channel: Tom Facchine

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AI: Summary © The speakers discuss the use of gram systemic language patterns and the importance of regular language use in achieving success in language learning. They also touch on the use of "has" and "will" in Arabic writing, as well as the use of "naught" in Arabic and English, and the importance of "by the" in grammar. The speakers also mention various examples and questions, including a "rooster Dijk," a "rooster" driver, and a "rooster" driver. They encourage viewers to check their books for more detailed information.
AI: Transcript ©
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Today

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on

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this one I have no Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala schlafen MBI. Oman serene are being offered Latina Muhammad Ali he offered or sought out it's good to sleep. Aloha Marlon nabina and found Island fattened up in that island and I was in and out of Milan. I mean,

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today is the third session can hear me?

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Let's see.

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Try to Okay.

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Can everybody hear me?

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Okay

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Okay, today is the third session.

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At the end of the previous session, Dr. Marcin asked a very important question, which I debated whether to get into or not. But I think it's worth at this point. Getting into it. It's going to be really important moving forward. And it will kind of

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follow off of some of the kind of

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introductory remarks we made in the first class about the different types of languages and how there were analytical languages and synthetic languages and how different languages kind of communicate meaning. So

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I will just share screen for a second on the whiteboard. The question that Dr. Mohsen had asked, was,

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we had as one of our sample introductory sample sentences, we had had MSG doing.

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That was one of our beginning and I'm gonna write it in my very, very rough penmanship here.

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Haha.

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masjid and we're saying at the end, here is Miss Jean dune. For those of you who know the Quranic script, that's among the 10. If you want it written out, we can also write it out as to one was no problem. And after my son asked, what's with the Bama tan, or the llama on the end of this word? Why is it Bama and not say for example, cassava. Or say, for example, that

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this is one of the most important questions you can ask in Arabic. It has to do with what we just touched on in the very first class about how Arabic and other synthetic languages communicate meaning. And we said, for example, we had our sample sentence, Tom hits the ball. And we talked about how in English, you understand who's hitting the ball, and what is getting hit, because of the order of the words in the sentence

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by the sequence of how those words appear. And how we prepped, I prepped you by saying that Arabic is different is that you're going to understand who's doing the hitting, and who's getting hit, or what is getting hit, not because of the order of the words in the sentence, but because of things that actually appear on the word themselves. Okay, so, signifiers, right? The words are actually going to change what's going to change in an Arabic word. By the way, this whole idea is the idea of grammatical case. Okay, if you've ever heard that term before case, languages have different cases, right? One case or one grammatical case,

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shows or has to do with somebody doing an action. A separate grammatical case is for somebody receiving an action. Another grammatical case, might have to do with location, if something is under something over something to the left to the side, in front, et cetera. Okay, case is a fundamental concept in languages. Does English use cases? Does English use grammatical cases? Can you guys think of any English words that demonstrate grammatical case that are different depending on if the word is the subject or the object? There's only one kind of scenario in the English modern English language today, where we see this old English used to use cases a lot more frequently. But in modern

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English, we really only have it left over in pronouns. We say for example, he hit the ball, right? He is a subject. What if that person

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saying that he is getting hit, what would we say? The ball hit him? Oh, look at how it changed.

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Whereas our first example in our first class was Tom hit the ball, the ball hit Tom, both words stay the same. Right? So that's an example of how an English doesn't demonstrate

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case or how case endings don't change. But we have this relic, this ancient relic from Old English that shows us a time when English use to actually have these sorts of same things. They're left over in the pronouns, he hits the ball, the ball hit him, right him, the word has changed to demonstrate to you that it's the object, it's getting hit. You can't possibly use him in that sentence, except as an object, just like you can't possibly use he, except that it's the subject. So Arabic has that? Like times 10, basically. So that idea that the word itself is going to change. Okay, is what we're doing in Arabic now. Thanks, a question. Okay. What changes? Where can I look for these changes?

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What and what patterns upon what patterns? Do these changes happen? Are they predictable? Are they random? What hamdulillah they're very predictable. They're very predictable and very organized. And they always happen in the same place. They don't happen in the beginning of a word. They don't happen in the middle of a word. They happen at the end of a word to happen at the end. Do they happen to the letter itself? Well, the short answer for now is no, that's one of those little white lies that I'm going to, I'm going to tell you right now, just because it's easier.

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Right now, what we're looking at is the changes that happen to the HUD, aka, the small vowel at the end.

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Okay, so we have here on the end of message you doing what I never put my.on My Jean had that message G doon. Why is it llama, this Dhamma shows that it's in a particular case. Okay? Just like that's hot is for a different case, different grammatical case. And a casserole is for a third grammatical case.

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Some languages like Sanskrit have over 10 cases. Latin I believe, has eight, Arabic Alhamdulillah only has four. So it's easier. It's easier than those languages. And they don't.

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All four of them don't apply to all types of words. Okay, so this is, as you can tell, guys, this is going to be very theoretical, just for like 510 minutes. If you don't get it, don't worry about it. If you get it, this is going to help you a lot. Okay.

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There's four possible cases in Arabic, we can say that they correspond to now. Lama Fatiha. Castra. And what's our last one is sukoon.

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Okay, Bama, we use it for what's called the nominative case, what is that that basically means the subject or the doer of a verb.

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More than you guys ever wanted to know about linguistic theory, nominative case, that's hot is generally going to be called

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the accusative case. Or it's going to be used for objects, right things that are on the receiving end of the verb

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Khasra is going to be used for what's called the genitive case that has to do with like locations by say after before, under, right.

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And then this is something that's very obscure. That's called the justice of mood. I'm not even gonna bother explaining what that is. We'll cross that bridge when we get there.

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But there's only four and they in general, they correspond to Bama. That's Castro sukoon.

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Okay. Now, we said that there were two types of sentences, we said that there was a sentence that began with an essence

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and a sentence that began with a ferret.

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And we said that we're going to focus on sentences that begin with an essence.

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So those types of sentences. Does anybody remember what they were called? From the last two classes? What's the name of a sentence that begins with an essence

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is very good. Joomla is Mia. Good. Joomla is meow. Excellent, very good. So those types of sentences have two essential parts. Can anybody else recall what those two parts

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arts work whether in Arabic or in English, it's not it's not essential

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I have a lot of humming going on over here.

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No.

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Okay. In Arabic they were called up do we have in the chat?

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subject and predicate excellent say family? Yes correct in English we translate it to subject and predicate and Arabic. I can do this here.

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Listen to me. It's not registering my Arabic typing. Yes, the

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move to the cover, very good, excellent move to that and cover

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move to that and hover is the same essentially as subject and predicate. So all you need to know to add now finally getting around to answering Doctor machines question.

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The rule for the for the subject and the predicate. The move to that in the hub is that it has to be in the nominative case. Okay. The subject and the predicate has to be in the nominative case, meaning it has to express VM at the end of both of the words whether it is moved to that the first word the subject, or the humbler. The predicate, okay, in this sentence, how the is the milk to that. And masjid is the predicate. Now, you're gonna ask me, wait a second email, wait a second email. I see this first word. In this sentence, your example, moved it up. The milk to that is had and how that does not have a bummer.

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So what on earth is going on?

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You told me that in a Joomla izmi. In a sentence that begins with an Assam, both parts the subject and the predicate are in the nominative case. And we can tell that or the sign that it's in the nominative case is because it ends with Obama. What's so special that's going on with how the? And my answer to you will be that in Arabic, there are two types of words. There are words where you can see the sign of the grammatical case on the end. And there are words where you cannot

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and how the just happens to be the latter half either is one of the types of words called MEB knee where you do not see the sign of the grammatical case on it. It doesn't mean it's not in that case. No, it still is, because it's melted up, meaning the subject, it is in the nominative case, but because it is this particular type of word, which we'll explain later, it does not show that sign it does not have a Bama on the end of it. Whereas other types of words would. For example, if I switched

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the sentence up to Akhmed cabbie. Akhmat is big or Athleta is large. Both of those words would demonstrate the case that they're in it would be awesome I do

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because of the Jimena ischemia kabhi rune.

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And so there it would be apparent from both words.

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This is Malta that this is harbor. They're both Bama llama, because it's in this case, the nominative case. So forgive me, if that's painful for anybody to go through. But Dr. Marcin asked the question, and

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it must it needed to be answered. So we will keep coming back to these concepts. Don't feel like I said do not feel bad. If it doesn't make any sense to you. If you think it's all Greek to you now. It's not Greek it's just Arabic.

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Okay, so given that let's go back to our book because our book isn't so

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isn't going to jump ahead to giving you theoretical grammar hardcore right off the bat like I just did, it's going to give you a nice easy slow transition to things that are going to be able to

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like tools in your tool belt. So last class we had two ways to ask questions. Okay. The first way was to ask a yes or no question what was that way?

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No, just tell me an Arabic How do you ask with what do you ask yes or no question.

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Excellent. The answer one of our brothers in attendance here in person said the Hamza right.

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If we had several questions that simply changed, our statements had messaged you tune into a question a yes or no question with the Hamza before. Ah ha, ha ha the MSG done. And it became a yes or no question is this MSG?

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Good. The second thing we learned last class was to ask an open ended question about the identity of the object. And some of us still haven't learned to raise our hands after all these years, but

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one of the brothers called it up, which was math. Yes. Excellent. So we have math

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as a second tool in our tool belt,

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to ask questions, this time to ask not yes or no questions, but to ask questions of identity. What is this thing? Right for objects Madhava. And just that is enough for me to leave you alone, during Hajj or Umrah in Mecca, Medina and you can walk around and ask the people who live there Maha Maha Maha Yoga and people can teach you and then you will build your vocabulary.

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And you can even take guesses you can say, Aha, that keytab them. Is this a book? I had MSG dune and they can say yeah, this is MSG, you are in MSG.

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So that was last class. This class, we're going to add yet another tool in your tool belt to ask questions because gaining information is a lifelong goal for the Muslim. Even ambassador, the Allahu Anhu. He said, How did he gain so much knowledge? Lisa Jones says oh, he said because I had a tongue that love to ask questions. So today we're going to learn about how to ask the identity of types of people. Okay, before we were talking about objects, and so the appropriate question word was math. Now we're going to learn a different question word min

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which means who?

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So, who would like to read for me the first example there's a question and then a response.

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Let's have

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someone from the shake family do it?

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Men, Heather,

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good. Response

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V one, excellent. So we have men Heather, which means who is this? As opposed to what is this if you walked up to a person and you grabbed him by the arm and you said Madhava it would be slightly insulting, you would be implying that he is an object, right? You have to use min Heather. This will talk about you know the categories of grammar that this corresponds to later because I've overloaded you on grip grammar theory today.

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The responses have that Bobby Boone This is a doctor that's supposed to be a stethoscope around his neck. You can't really see it but he has glasses so you can tell he's a very intelligent man. Ha that Bobby Boone This is a doctor. For those of you who recall the fact that it is 10 Wien and not simply Loma but to Damas indicates that it is indefinite meaning a doctor among many doctors, but we'll talk more about that later once we get into Alif Lam Atari

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good. Someone who's here with me so now you can you do have the PDF with you on on your phone. Okay, who can read the second example both the question and the response

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body brain

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question first right to left.

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Men good. Ibrahim made us aware of a very important thing to look out for their notice the difference between men and men.

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Okay, you switch up that one how to cut and you've talked that you've made a completely different word mean means from which we will learn very soon inshallah. Men with a that's how on top of the mean. The meme means who? So men have other

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good the responses have that well, doing? What I don't means boy. Means boy

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So we're learning lots of vocab today to inshallah Yes.

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Yes, this

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is this if you're asking a yes or no question you would use Hamza. I have what I've done.

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Is this correct? Matt? Matt means What? What? What is what is? Yes, exactly. Good. Good question. So now we have three tools in our tool belt for asking questions. We have the Hamza for yes or no questions. We have math for objects, identity of objects, and we have men for who the identity of human

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objects but you get the idea. The third example, let's have a sister Saira, are you able to read the third example?

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Mine had

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Oli Boone very good, man. hada means who is this Hava barley, Boone barley Vaughn is a student, a student.

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Again, notice the pattern, it has a 10 Wien on the end, it's llama, because it's hover is the predicate of the sentence. Both the Mukta that and the hover have to have been MA or B in the nominative case. It has two llamas, and not just one because it is indefinite, meaning it's one of many students and not one particular student you're trying to talk about.

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Let's go to sister Nyima if you're able to can you do the next example?

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Yes.

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I have the

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one that will I do. Very good. What's the response?

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That lair had?

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Raju? Very good. Excellent. So the author switched it up on us. It's not just a Manhattan now we have a yes or no question. The person thinks that they know what that is. They studied a couple pages of Arabic. And they're going to take a shot at it. Haha, what a dune. What's, what are they asking? They're asking, Is this a boy? And you told me I mean, I've never seen a boy with a full beard.

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I'm guessing no. And so the response is LA, Heather Rajan. So what are you doing? Being boy Rajon being man? Interestingly enough the root word for Raja which is man is the same as original which is like because of the man is supposed to walk out into the world and get the provision so that's what he's always he's always doing. So we have a lot in Arabic as a very rich language and we go back to the roots and we have lots of books for that in the office someday inshallah.

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Excellent. Who else can we hear from maybe Rashad? Rashad? If you're available? Can you tackle the next on the next page? Sure.

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Okay.

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Man had a good response.

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message on Rush Hour. Excellent. That was a freebie. They gave you a nice little

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last class which was Madhava. So what is this how the MSG doin? Which is it looks like inshallah what our machine will look like.

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This is a

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with the Russian esque domes.

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Good. Let's see who haven't we heard from when it comes to the examples. I'm doing it.

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Step right up

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with the next example

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good on the response

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very good. Hi, Tad, you don't tired you don't. Okay, man. Haha. Who is this? Ha? Tired you don't I'm going to plant a seed in your head right now and point out that Foley one and Tad you don't they sound very similar. There's a reason for that too. But we'll discuss it later. And so Todd you don't is H is a merchant? Right? Somebody who trades they're involved in commerce businessman. Right here we can see it looks like he has a clothing shop or something like that. And that is who he is. That ha that tad you don't

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Oh, Kay. Let's go to

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brother to me. Are you able to participate? Can you do the next example?

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Yeah, sure.

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Trouble. Give me a second here.

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Kelvin. Excellent. Kelvin, this is a dog and in Saudi Arabia, if there was ever an example with a dog or a donkey, they would say right after that Aza Camilla which is like whenever something unpleasant as mentioned, they would say like May Allah like you know, it's like pardon my French almost like we would we would say like pardon my French Isaac from Allah so how about Kelvin?

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Very good um Who else would like to do yeah there's gonna be a lot of vocab this week there's

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volleyball and

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that's me is that you Masha Allah yes

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yes

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okay yeah I thought yeah totally the

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next next example

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I had

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excellent very good so haha that Caliban what type of question are we dealing with? This is a yes or no question because we have the Hamza Aha, the Caliban without the Hamza, it would be a statement. This is a dog. But because we added the Hamza, it becomes a yes or no question. Uh huh. That Calhoun law had been and is one of the many words for a cat. It actually sounds like a cat. Yes, given him this question. So

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yes or no? How that means this. No, no, I mean,

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Hamza? Yes, exactly. And then the mat is not means what are what is was not even know. It's an open ended question. Exactly. Yep. So our three tools that we've gotten so far to ask for more information because we want to know, is the Hamza the man and the men

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and those are the tools that we're going to be using a lot

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good. Let's hear again from dang it. Next question. Next example.

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Good ha that came out on and they would say Isaac, Camilla because of the donkey. Pardon my French came out on his a donkey. I'll point out for the benefit of everybody. The difference between Haza which if you go to Egypt, you might pick up that slang and have that has and had that one of the most common mistakes we have in the Quran.

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In the not in the Quran, you know what I mean? The recitation of the Quran. The difference is, does your tongue come out between your teeth? Or does it stay behind your teeth? If you keep your tongue behind your teeth, then you're in zap mode has has which is incorrect. Right? You have to do Zuma or Zilla, right? But if you want to pronounce the law, you have to actually stick your stick your tongue between your two teeth.

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Like that that legal keytab law right?

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Okay, good.

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So let's have Doctor messin with the next example.

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Ah ha ha the modern law had his son very good. Haha, the hammer. The question is a yes or no question is, is this a donkey? Know how the Hasaan Hasaan wishes a horse.

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Also important, just like the the difference is to put what's called a theme at the proper places. So we have a theme of a song. Instead of he said, like a law says and so it's a rough man hierarchy. And he said, right is actually talking about the whole line in paradise. Insha. Allah Hassan with Assad is a horse. So we don't want to be misunderstood. You could get in trouble.

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Yes. Okay. Good. Shake family. Can you do the following example?

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Well, man, Haza has done Milan. Excellent one that have that now. But whoa, look, we got thrown in. Wow. Which means and so we have here now, many things back to back. So okay, we'll admit, we've been asking a lot of questions. So we'll start to say, and what is this one I have and what is this? It's mad, because it's not a person. All due respect to the camel. It's not a person. So we use math instead of men. And then the responses have Gemma loon

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camel which is actually in the Egyptian dialect, gamma, which is where English took the word camel. Right? You see how that that goes? Dan has a question. Yes, sir.

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Good. Why do we have the well before the math, my belief and Allah knows best is that he just wanted to teach you what well meant right here, which simply means and though we should say that single letters like whoa have many more meanings in Arabic than similar translated words have an English so the Whoa, I think has eight different meanings, just like from men has, I think 11 different meanings. But again, that's down the road right now. While means and, and the same thing I would point out just as a Tajweed point because I love teaching Tajweed that has that instead of Zack, keep your tongue coming out in between your two rows of teeth to pronounce the ol instead of the zoo

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good moving right along.

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Ibrahim, go go for the next example

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the

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good Madhava What is this? Not men because it's not a person has that de con. This is a rooster Dijk is specific to the male the rooster? Yeah there's a funny story about that but I don't think we have enough time to

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I don't think we have enough time for that. Okay. Dang it next example

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that

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my dad has some mothers soon Oh, I gave a very hard one. And that's not fair of me to do. So. What I did it anyway.

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With that as soon okay, he realizes something tricky is going on, but he's not quite sure what it is. So min hadda is easy. Who is this? Ha the letter by letter mu the reason muda muda reason there's a shudder on the raw and a Khasra underneath that shed, which means that it is the sound of a cassava. This becomes extremely important later on. Actually muda This is a teacher. Okay. So you know, and the only difference between the one who has taught and the one who was teaching is that little Kessler under that shutdown well that it is more that it is but that's that's for later how other modalities right now is this is a teacher Moodle reason.

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Moodle reason at the end, because it is the predicate it is the hub of the sentence and we said that both the subject and the predicate in Arabic, they are in the nominative case. And the simple rule I gave you, which is one of those half truths is that we can tell that because of a BOMA.

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Looks like we have oh mashallah, we've made it to our last example.

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Let's see going back to Nyima SR nine could you finish us off here

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have the come call me soon

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Lehre had the mean mean the moon veto very good. So we have a yes or no question it's a have a call me soon for me says we learned in the previous lesson as a shirt tradition like in classical classical Arabic It was also used for a job

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they don't call it that anymore. They call it a film.

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So the question is, is this a commies? And the answer is no. This is a mean deal. I mean deal is kind of like it can either be an it's hard to see it can either be a napkin or a tissue or in this case a head piece of Shamov you know it's actually the you know what they in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries they were the SCImago over them themselves. You can call it a mini deal though every area has different words for it in Saudi Arabia they call the Shema of in the UAE they call it the Lazzara they have different a mama but the actual fabric an actual like long piece of fabric, whether it's like a handkerchief or something to put on your head. The actual fabric is called them

00:34:28--> 00:34:28

India.

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Yeah, yeah, we could call it scarf. Potentially. I don't know if they have a word for scarf over there. don't really use scarf.

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Yes, question.

00:34:44--> 00:34:56

Pauline, okay, the question was, what's the difference between four lib and Moodle resume of Paul EB is a student, whereas a modal resume is a teacher. Okay.

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Paul, literally means a seeker.

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followed by is to ask her something. So Paula was the one who asks, or the one who seeks for something. It's not literally a student, but they use thought of now for students more than they use other words for students. Any other questions before we depart for today? That was a lot of vocab Yes. Yes. Doctor saying.

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See, you said was that a reason is the teacher and Madonna Ruslan Oh, I knew I would get you that say Dr. Muscle is just like me. He doesn't like to go beyond what he doesn't understand. And that's why I always need to know why. Right? So yes, we will get into this. I'll have to, it'll take time to explain. But yes, if we're going for the literal opposite of what is modalities, it would be Modares. Because Modares is the object or the one who is receiving that action, the one who has taught, whereas I don't know that at least is the one who is teaching. This is because of it all goes back to that double letter with the Shedinja. It removes it from what we call the first, the

00:36:03--> 00:36:23

first Bab of more morphology and it brings it to the second Bab of morphology, something I can't get into this class, but it is a rewarding thing to know. So I'm glad you asked that question. The literal the literal opposite, the literal word for student from that word is Yes. As more data is more data that is any other questions?

00:36:24--> 00:36:25

Yes, that's right.

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Yes, exactly. Oh, you guys are awesome. And he connected it to a madrasa madrasa, which is the place of study so we're going to learn a little bit of morphology, because in Arabic and Arabic If you learn the three letter roots, you can derive multiple words from it you can if you know the patterns if you know the patterns you can actually derive 10 Sometimes 15 words at a time right so that will that will be a little bit down the road not too far inshallah.

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Got a very good Doris as well as a unit of something to study. Right that that's excellent. Oh, yeah. Very good. Everybody. Thank you very much for your attention and participation. We will see you Saturday in sha Allah, Allah Assalamu alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh