Channel: Tim Humble
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Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala Abdullah who are solely Nabina Muhammad wa ala alihi wa sahbihi Hmm, am I right? So we moved on to the Tafseer of surah authority.
Sort of Tarik is, as you may know, caphyon he said Rahim Allah we're here makiya. It is a surah, which was revealed in the time that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the Macan period, the time when he was living in Mecca, salallahu alayhi wasallam
the solar begins was semi electronic. And just before we begin, we just make a note that today's class is going to be a little bit short, because we have an appointment at eight o'clock UK time. So it's going to be about half an hour, the class today It won't be too long. So alarms, which I said was summer, we'll call it. The wall here, as we've covered many times is a cousin Allah is swearing an oath. And we have also covered many times that as for human beings, our oath must be by Allah. We can only say voila, he will tala he, water bill carrabba.
Like the Prophet sighs I'm used to say well, leadin, FC Brd and so on, all of this is swearing by Allah. But as for Allah azzawajal he swears by whatever he wants from his creation, but everything that he swears by something important. And that's a principle we can take that the reason that our last swears by something, is to highlight its importance to us how important it is. So here, Alonzo church swears by two things. What summer he swears by the heavens
and he swears by authority.
Now, the word public generally speaking in the Arabic language is something which appears or comes at night.
And it doesn't relate to what we now say particle bap knocking on the door. That's not really a usage that is found in classical Arabic. Patek is to
turn up at night, like in the poetry of Antara Lucia dat.
Antara is one of the points of J helia. One of the famous Arab poets whose poetry was hung on the on the Kaaba.
And we know that the poetry of Jay Haley is important to understand the Quran generally because through this poetry you can understand the language that was used by the Arabs when the Quran was
was revealed to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam
Antara just to highlight the word thought he said in some of his poetry why why later higher and minkee Abdullah
era euro fee by Jeff nibi to more sour QB
to tell a story a little bit about the story by the way it's interesting to be honest if you have time to read his biography Antara Lucia dead
he was asleep he was actually his father was a normal man from the from the chieftains of the of the Arabs. His father was a was a chief, very, very high status in his tribe.
And he had a an African slave.
And she gave birth to a child, which he didn't accept as he didn't take as his child who was Antara and Antara Of course, resembled his mother. So he used to suffer a great deal of racism, they used to, you know, use all kinds of racial slurs for him. They used to abuse him, but he had one thing in his favor. He was extremely good in battle.
Very, very light. He was a warrior, sometimes single handedly, his tribe was being you know, killed, slaughtered, and he would single handedly come and just, you know, get rid of everybody. So he has a very interesting story. And he has very interesting poetry as well. But the point of this line of poetry was actually that, like many of the points he had, he was in love with a girl. And this girl, she was his cousin, and she couldn't marry him because of his status because he was a slave and because his mother was an African slave and so on. So he said, why later hire me minkee Abdullah farrakhan. He said, I wish that a vision or Abdullah of you would come to me at night and that's
what we want to work party.
means to appear at night. Y'all are failed by Jeff need to do more. So RPB
I wish that your vision of you would come at night and see the floods of tears pouring from my eyes.
Here we understand and the reason I bought this I wanted to really highlight the word todich in the Arabic language is used for something that comes at night. And that's why even in the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam that the prophet SAW Selim, and yoked Raka rajguru Allahu Toro.
The prophet SAW Selim forbade a man to come as a Tarik to his family. What does it mean as a thought it is coming from traveling. And he turns up in the middle of the night, and his family doesn't know that he's going to come.
And there are many reasons for that, but they cannot prepare he might see dislike to scholars say he might see from his family something which he's not, he doesn't like because they're not expecting him. They're not ready and he turns up in the middle of the night. So the prophet SAW Selim forbade a man from
an Yoco original Allahu tarakan. He turns up as a Tarik at night, and in the death of the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasallam Illa Torah can yet to be higher in Yama that we seek refuge with the perfect words of Allah from everything that comes at night. Sheltie bad dreams you know thieves robbers anything that comes at night in law party can yet rock will be hired except for someone who comes at night with good
in the Heidi's dryer which thoughts are all to be Kelly Matty like Tom Murphy I
mean clearly know what the author wants come from my mind.
No, no, not that one out we can imagine a term that ality language with ohana Barun Well, I mean Chateau de mahalo kuwabara with our woman shall remain zero Amina, semi, Karima
yada to see how I'm sharing my data I fill out the woman sharing my woman her woman share the feet and the lady when the half women share the coolest thing in talkin, yet Roku be hiding your raw data I was thinking of.
So in that you ask a lot to keep you safe. From everything that comes at night, every potluck that comes at night, except for a Tarik The one who comes at night with with good.
So this is the word Tarik in the language of the Arabs. And we need to understand this because the Quran came in the language of the Arabs. And that's why they say that you cannot make Tafseer of the what we're doing here is we're reading a book of Tafseer. But you can't be the one to write that book, unless you have comprehensive knowledge of the language of the Arabs that was used in their poetry when the Quran was revealed, because that's the language the Quran came with. And that's the reason I say that is, you might hear some people now making Tafseer of this surah where they bring a different word for
a topic or a different understanding. And some of them said that you know, science has found a star that makes a knocking sound and things like that, that the star makes a knocking sound. But this word thoracotomy knocking was not known by the Arabs when the Quran was revealed. So this is not the right you can't make Tafseer like that you have to make Tafseer in the way that it was understood by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam by the Sahaba by the Arabs who this was their language. And this is what they knew when the Quran was when they heard the ayat of the Quran. And that's why all of the scholars of Tafseer whether they were scholars of Tafseer, or scholars of language, or
scholars who may have seen it in light of the language and they were focused on the language and the meaning of the words all of them said that the tonic is the one who comes at night.
Now here the interesting thing is Allah subhanaw taala says warmer adorar methodic what will make you know what a thought is? And then Allah says and Nigel
and Nigel imagine a star which is Falcon, Falcon, the scholars of Tafseer they had different statements about it, but they said the words
socket means very bright
extremely bright has a lot of light. These are all you know all of the meanings of Falcon come around this bright and shiny.
So, here what we have is an example of Tafseer Alcor and bill called
the Tafseer of the Quran with the Quran.
Allah is making Tafseer of the Quran inside of the Quran. And this in a general sense is the strongest and the best form of Tafseer. And there are many we've said undercurrent of zero could be sooner,
type zero for an aqua Sahaba. To silica and the aquatic tambourine. There are many different types of seal sources of type seal, but the strongest of them all is the type seal of the core and that comes from the Quran itself. However, that type seal can be divided into two types. And there are two types of Tafseer of the Quran with the Quran. One is a Tafseer, which is directly connected like this. And this there is no it is not permissible for anyone to bring their opinion about it. And you take it as a law set because there is no room for anyone's opinion or anyone's judgment. Because Allah said what is a product, it is a measuring circuit that's finished, there is no discussion
about it. But there is another kind of zero called endocrine where what happens is the scholar of Tafseer sees a connection between one idea and another idea elsewhere.
And they might be right about that connection, and they might be wrong about that connection. So they see an idea and they understand that Allah has explained the meaning of that is somewhere else in the Quran.
But they may be right about that the link and they might be wrong about it, they might not have got the link correct. So that is yes, that is also Tafseer and Bill Quran. But this is an example where it is possible for the scholar of Tafseer to make a judgement and it's possible for them to be wrong, where they connect one idea to another ayah in the Quran. Because they understood that Allah is explaining one
you know one part of the Quran with something else, and this people can make a mistake like the Sahaba they made a mistake in the Tafseer of the ayah and levena Ehrman will Ameobi Suleiman whom we will hula Ella who will do certain and
they made a mistake in the Tafseer of the ayah.
They said O Messenger of Allah which of us does not oppress themselves. So from the eye they understood the word volume means
voluminous feminism Volume One lien FC. Ne they understood that the ayah that talks about oppressing yourself explains this idea. And the Prophet size said it's not like you think you made a mistake, you are wrong this the Tafseer of this ayah is not
like you thought it was so that this habit what they understood is that the word volume in the ayah oppression, it means volmer nefs firming home volume or lean FC.
That it means oppressing yourself. The profitsystem said no it's not that what the ayah means is what look man said to his son, yeah, buena Yella to Shrek Bella initial calavo, Hallman. avi, that the woman the ayah means chick, it means making a partner with Allah. And the Tafseer is from Surah lokman, not from the ayah that you thought the Tafseer was from. So this is an example of Tafseer of the Quran with the Quran, where the scholar of Tafseer in this case, the Sahaba, who were listening to the ayah, they connected the ayah to another Ayah but they didn't connect it correctly. And the Prophet sighs and corrected them and told them it's not this ayah it's another If so, your you'd
made you said that this ayah explains this one, but it's not that high. It's another idea. So that can happen. And it can happen later on among the scholars of Tafseer who wrote about the field, it can happen that they connected one idea to another idea in another place in the Quran, and they connected it incorrectly. But here it's not incorrect because here it's a direct allies directly explaining to you this is what authority is. This is what it means here.
What it means is a natural therapy. It means a natural,
a bright or the bright, shining,
the bright shining star
or the star that burns I think Mujahid Rahim Allah, Allah Allah, He said the star that burns brightly.
And the star that shines the star that is bright. He really is he said, the bright star, the star that has a lot of light, and so on. So hear
that there is now an area where the scholars of tafsir they discussed. So they didn't discuss the meaning of the ayah. No one is allowed to to to discuss, no one is allowed to debate because Allah says clearly, this is what the ayah means. But from there they discussed is the meaning of one particular star.
Or is every star that comes out bright in the night sky and disappears in the day, is that what is meant, because the word and najem could mean a particular star. Meaning it's one particular exact star in the sky.
And it could be that it means all of the stars for which you can call them pirate and circuit. So the star you can call potluck is the star that you can see at the night, but you can't see it during the day.
The star you can see during the night, but you can't see it during the day. So that obviously excludes the sun and so on yet, this is the star that you can see in the nighttime. And you can't see in the daytime because this is what the meaning of target and it has to be 30 bright and shining and burning bright. Because that is what the word Allah described it as a natural circuit. But many of the scholars of Tafseer this was the opinion of him or him allowed to either is that it doesn't mean one particular style that it means this particular like some of them said it means a three year
I can't remember what the English name for three is but it has an English name. It's karma bodies has a like a Latin name for it.
I find it quickly.
Okay, I found that in a comprehensive okay.
Play play these Pleiades, also known as the Seven Sisters.
This is what they call authorea.
So some of them said, it is the star, but to me and Allah knows best. And this was the opinion of him. That is not a particular star. But every star that shines brightly in the night sky, and every star that comes out at night, but you can't see it during the day. Then Allah azza wa jal, he brought the job and the reason for which the oath was made, because remember, in every time we have an oath, we have the reason behind the oath. Like for example, in our speech, if I was to say, for example, what a law he
Islam is the truth.
So this statement, Islam is the truth. That's the reason for which I said, What lies that's what we call Joe other person, right? The The, the reason for which you swore an oath.
So here, what is the what is the sentence which is the reason for which Allah swore this oath by the sky and the skies? I mean, something amazing, like I remember,
I remember in Makkah,
and I'm not sure if they still have it these days. It's been a while since we went because of the restrictions but they there was a museum, I'm sure it's still there in the clock tower in Makkah, that shows you about the the universe.
And you can see a lot about the different stars and the galaxies and you know, the heavens and suppiler a lot of it's very interesting. But while when you go there, it really makes you appreciate why Allah azza wa jal swore by the heavens, because you see how huge just the sunlight dunia remember that every place we see the stars. This is a seminar dounia the lowest heaven there are seven heavens. The lowest Heaven is the one that has the stars in it. So it seems that a lot most best that our entire universe of
galaxies and stars is a similar dunya it's the lowest heaven.
You imagine how seven heavens above Cuba and one above each other, and the lowest heaven all of these universe galaxies and stars as far as you can see, and millions and millions of yours between each side's Will I see it you see why Allah subhanaw taala swore by center. And why his Obi aquatic, the bright shining stars, and then these tiny stars that you see in the sky, when they show you what they look like inside of a telescope and they are like bigger than the sun and brighter than the sun. And they show us just tiny, tiny little stars that Allah has decorated the sky with them. Allah has decorated the sky. Well I could say in a summer dunya we have decorated the lowest heaven masabi
with lamps, stars,
source of light, really you can see why it is that Allah subhanaw taala
swore by the heavens and the greatness of the heavens. And when you see the greatness of the heavens, what does it do? It leads you to understand the greatness of the Creator. Because you can't actually you can't imagine Allah right? You can't imagine Allah. But when you look at the greatness of
what Allah created alcohol, it shows you Alma Adama to Holic the greatness of the Creator. And then when you think about how great the artist is, in comparison to the heavens, the all of the seven habits and we said the lowest heaven it appears to be this entire universe is the lowest heaven and Allah knows best. Then there are seven heavens. And the seven heavens in comparison to the footstool is like a ring in the middle of the desert.
And the footstool in compared comparison to the throne is like a ring in the middle of the desert.
will love a kebab and allies greater than all of that. So you can't you can't imagine Allah you can only imagine the greatness of Allah His creation to realize how great Allah subhanaw taala is. So the answer or the the reason for which Allah subhanaw taala swore this oath in Kowloon FC lemme la her half. There are two parallel art here. There are two we don't always mention the clearer art, we don't mention the two different ways of reciting the Quran. But this is the clear of awesome, and Hamza.
if I'm not mistaken, if I remember that correctly.
And this they read lemma, in Kowloon F sin lemma Allah have,
as for the majority, and that's other than awesome, and Hamza, and as
they read in kulu, Neff sin lemma Allah have.
And the meaning is different. Even though generally in terms of translation, it's a bit it's a little bit difficult to explain how the meaning is different, but the meaning is different. Now, the interesting thing here is just to bear in mind, if you have two different ways of reading the Quran, that bring a different meaning, how do you approach them in terms of Tafseer? Which one do you make Tafseer of so you have two ways of reading the Quran, that bring a completely different meaning. Because sometimes it's not a different meaning. And sometimes the meaning is,
sometimes the meaning is not different. It's not hugely different. And sometimes the meaning is very different. So when the meaning is different, which one do you make Tafseer of? The answer is both, you treat them as two separate ayat, because both were revealed by Allah. So you treat them as this is what Allah said, and this is what Allah said, and the Tafseer of this is this clearer is like this. And this Quran is like that. So you make Tafseer of each one separately from the other one, and each one has a corrective seal, but they might not be the same. Here, the meaning is not very, very different, and it's probably difficult to explain
in English, but what we can do is bring it all together, just as we conclude because we just have another couple of minutes, we can just kind of bring it together and see that there are a couple of meanings, probably three meanings that we want to focus on here. The first
is that every soul has a half of someone that is protecting them. Now here are some of the scholars of tipsy they said the half It is Allah subhanaw taala. Some of them, but most of them said the meaning of half of here is an angel. Anybody
See if he brought the ayah let him walk to the bathroom in benei a day here I mean healthy he I mean amarilla that you have angels in front of you and behind you, that protect you from the command of Allah. Now here the half of what is the if it's the angel, what is the angel protecting here, two mainstream opinions. One is that the angel is protecting you from the patter of Allah, meaning the angel is only allowing to happen to you what Allah has decreed. So all of the things that could happen to you the angel is
only allowing the one to actually happen that Allah has decreed. So for example, this Coronavirus is going around spreading around to all these different people. But there are some people Allah has decreed to catch it and some people Allah has not decreased to catch it. So there is an angel that is stopping this from coming from affecting you or from coming into you because Allah has not decreed it to happen. Now, that doesn't mean that we as Muslims, by the way, don't believe in you know, like transmission of disease and whatever. But all of it is those things are worldly causes but in reality it's a law who's in control, right? It's a law who decides ultimately whether
something and that's why you have four people in a room and you have one person gets it and one person you know three people don't or three people get it and one person doesn't and they're all in the same place. Because ultimately is in the hands of a lot. So there there is an angel that is stopping things from happening to you. The other way of seeing it is the angels that write down your deeds kill Armin Khatibi Ala Moana metaphor alone, they are noble scribes and they are half if they're there right there recording and preserving your deeds.
We leave it there and shout loud to Allah because we have an appointment that we have to we have to make for eight o'clock. So we'll stop there inshallah to Allah but we'll resume beetelite Allah next week and that's what allies which has made easy for me to mention I won't have any time for questions tonight but we can leave the questions for next week and shout out to Allah. That's what allowed me to easy for me to mention Allah knows best. Wa Salatu was Salam ala nabina Muhammad Allah Allah. He also