Channel: Taimiyyah Zubair
At-Taubah 1-15 At-Taubah Introduction and background
lw humanus shaytani r rajim Bismillahi Rahmani Raheem. Lesson number 102 sudo to Toba. I am number one to 15
pseudo Toba is imaginary surah. So it was revealed, after the hijra of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam from Mecca to Medina.
And what exactly was it revealed in the madonie era in the ninth year of hedger? So basically nine years after the Prophet sought a lot of sort of migrated to Medina, then this surah was revealed.
And this surah it contains 129 verses,
how many verses does it contain 129
and it is the last of the sub monthly web sources of the Quran. What does it mean by that server? What the server only seven nPy long
so it is of the last of the seven long surah of the Quran.
From now on, you will notice that the sutras are very short. Why? Because all of the major long surah of the Quran, the ministers of the Quran, are now over. And from now mainly witches are going to be their marquee salons, there will be some other disorders. However, all the major ones meaning the longer ones, they're not finished with disorder.
And sort of the Toba is of those sorts that will reveal towards the end of the profit sort of artists Adams life. As an engineer, it was revealed when in the ninth year after Hitler said it was revealed towards the end of his life. If you look at it, the Sora before sort of adobo was so rotten and fat. And when was that revealed after the battle battle, and the Battle of butter was the first battle that was fought the first major battle. And how many Muslims were there in that battle?
300 according to some 313 only,
and Serato tober was revealed after the battle after book,
it was revealed in the context of the Battle of the book. And the Battle of the book was the last battle in which the Prophet sallallahu wasallam himself participated.
So the Battle of whether was the first one. And the Battle of the book was the last one.
In the Battle of whether there were 300 Muslims. In the Battle of the week, there were 30,000 30,000.
This was the Baraka that a las panatela put in the efforts of the prophets Allah alone isn't
how the numbers of the Muslims group.
Imagine Where are 300 and we're 30,000 over a course of nine years. And this is unimaginable to do within nine years. The numbers grow so much.
And if you look at it both of these sources, they come side by side. We learnt earlier that in total and fan, the main lesson of the soldier is the keys to success, the steps to success. And this sort of shows how the believers were successful, how the success of Islam was established.
And this aura has many names. Sugata Toba has many names. Professor Dean have collected at least nine names of the surah.
However, the most common name of the surah is a Toba. And what is atovaquone? repentance? Why is it called October because the word over appears in the solar at least 17 times at least 17 times.
And this is the greatest number compared to any other solar. In total abakada it's mentioned 13 times and into lots of Missa it's mentioned 12 times and both of those words are very long.
However in this sorta 17 times a worker workers What does Toba literally mean?
To stop? Do desist from one is engaged in
whatever work a person is doing. doba is to stop it to stop doing that. And it is to return to go back.
So with regards to a human being the word Toba is to turn to Allah in repentance. But there's a word over me
to turn to a loss of panel data in repentance.
And what are some of the conditions of silver?
First of all, recognition being a person recognizes his fault.
Because many times people don't even recognize their fault. They don't even realize what they're doing is wrong.
The second condition of doba is renunciation. Meaning a person leaves a person abandons the crime that he's committing the sin that he's doing.
Thirdly, it is to regret to feel remorse over what a person has been doing.
Fourthly, it is to reform meaning whatever wrong a person has done because of that crime because of that sin that he was engaged in any harm that he has caused, he makes up for that.
And then the fifth condition is resolve meaning a person has a firm resolve not to return to the same again not to return to the crime again.
So, this was called a tober. Because as I mentioned to you, the word over appears many times Why? Because the theme of the solar eastover
how that in this solar, several types of people are addressed. Many many types of people
and all of them are invited to repent to a mosque
and amongst these groups or who, even the believers
as inshallah you will learn that in this lesson is the mention of those believers who Stobo was accepted by almost
the three companions who Silva was accepted by almost 100 and other companions as well who several was accepted by Allah.
And along with them, there is offer of repentance presented to the court for those people who had been disbelieving up until this point, as well as the wish seeking those who were not willing to give up their religion, even though they knew that it was false. similarity the majority do. What does motera dd mean?
Those who are shaking those who are unsure about their religion, the hypocrites then when African, the Malta, D apostate, all types of people are invited in this law to return to a loss penalty, to preventing to leave the wrong that they are doing, and return to normalcy.
Why is this the theme of the soul?
If you look at it, this was one of the last words to be revealed. It was revealed towards the end of the Prophet sort of audits of his life.
And now the messenger was going to leave very soon, isn't it so? And the profits on a lot of sitting was a last messenger. So before the messenger goal is before the messenger leaves, before your time expires during to Allah, repent to Allah.
So one of the most common names of the surah is a Toba.
And other names of disorder are, for example, Alberto,
what does Bara mean? Why is it called Bara? Because the surah begins with the word Bara and Bara is to declare this association with someone to declare that you have nothing to do with them.
So this aura is called Bara. Why? Because it is a declaration of this association from who, from the mashiki.
And at all the covenants that were made with them, all the treaties that were made with them have now been dissolved.
Similarly, the soil is also called alfalfa
fell, we have
a leaf bud half with a demo routine.
And what is found to have been one that exposes
So what does this all expose the evil traits of some people, evil characteristics?
And in this soul, at least 55 traits of the hypocrites have been mentioned
55 traits. Why so that every person may analyze himself in the light of the surah and check himself is he really of those who are a minute and a half?
Those who are truly believers, because in total and file there was emphasis on Eman and not just claiming to be a believer, but proving yourself to be a believer. So in this surah 55 traits of hypocrites are mentioned that every person can analyze himself can check himself that Do I have any of these characteristics that don't make me a believer in truth?
The soul is also called Alka Shiva. What does al Qaeda mean? One that discloses? So what does it Sora disclose the faults of the machine, the fault of the co founder of the hypocrites, so on and so forth.
Now, this Surah Surah Toba It is the only surah of the Quran before which you do not recite Bismillah
when beginning the surah when beginning the recitation you don't say Bismillah Ar Rahman Rahim when beginning any other sort of the Quran, you have to recite Bismillah.
Although Bismillah is not part of the surah What have we been taught that we must recite Bismillah except for this one soldier.
Many explanations have been given by them of assume many explanations.
However, when earth model they learn who when he was questioned
Why is it that Bismillah is not recited before disorder? He said that I did not hear it from him, meaning I did not hear it from the prophets or logos on them. That's the simple explanation. That's the simple reason, the Prophet sallallahu Sallam did not read it. Therefore, we will alternate read it, and this is called
following the messenger sort of,
to the point that you recite Bismillah, where he recited Bismillah and you don't recite Bismillah, where he did not recite Bismillah
because many times we say, okay, the Prophet sallallahu wasallam didn't do that good deed because he didn't need it. We need it, we need to do it and we innovate our own ways and the religion. However, that is not at battlesuit. It developed as soon as that whatever the Prophet did, we do it, whatever he left, we leave that as well. And that is what the companions of the Prophet sallallahu Sallam did.
So, why is it that Bismillah is not recited, because the Prophet sallallahu Sallam did not recite it, he did not recite it.
And the Mufasa on the altar say that the beginning verses of the surah there are very direct, they're very strong, the opening of the soul is very strong, extremely strong.
And because of this reason, Bismillah is not to be recited This is why the prophets are allowed, also left it out.
Because generally, when there are such verses in which Allah subhanaw taala sprays as mentioned,
or the believers are being commanded something, then at that time Allah's mercy is mentioned. But in these ayat as you will study, there is a declaration of disassociation from the mushrikeen
that Allah and His Messenger have nothing to do with shrieky No, nothing at all. No peace treaty with them, nothing whatsoever.
So in that case, there is no mercy for them either. And Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim, there are two names of Allah so panel data would show that he is very merciful, therefore Bismillah is not recited.
Now, to understand this order, the historical context must be understood.
Because, unfortunately, sort of the Torah is one of those students, which is misunderstood by Muslims as well as non Muslims, even Muslims, it's misunderstood by them. Why? Because many times people forget the context of the soul. Remember that the Quran was not revealed, just like a book given to the prophets, let alone this.
How is it revealed? Depending on the situation, isn't it? Because the Quran is a guide. So in every situation, where guidance was needed, Allah subhanaw taala revealed either the Quran or surah of the Quran.
Therefore, to properly understand some sources, we must know the context as well.
Which is why we consider as to if a surah is muddy, or murky. And when it was revealed, at what stage, what's the incident? What's the background? What's the context?
So what is the context of the surah?
The beginning 37 verses,
the first 37 verses of the soldier,
there were all revealed together at once. And in these verses, is the announcement of the nullification or the cancellation of all the treaties with the Michigan
as you know that Arabia was such that the system over there was tribal
people, they didn't have one central government.
But what would they do? They would live as tribes and tribes related by what blood
and whatever matters, that the people had to deal with whatever issues that arose, who would deal with them, their tribal leaders?
Now, obviously, if you're living as just one tribe, what do you need? You need to have connections with other tribes, because you alone sometimes cannot defend yourself. You cannot provide for yourself sometimes. So you need alliances. So in Arabia, people would make alliances with other tribes.
And these alliances meant that you are with me and I am with you. Both of us are at peace. We're never going to fight. If somebody fights me, you will fight along with me to defend me. If somebody fights you, I will come and protect you. We are like one.
Now these alliances were very important.
And the prophets are along the center. He also made alliances with
with some Arab tribes. Why
under protection of Muslims, as well as for the protection of other people, so that they would also have support with the Muslims.
We learned that in the year six, after digital, the believers, they left Medina and headed towards Makkah. Why to perform over six years after digital
six years after Hitler, where did they go back to Makkah in order to perform or Milan? What happens to us?
If we are away from home for six days? for six weeks for six months, we want to go back immediately. But the prophets on about Islam and the companions, how long did it take them six years?
So they went to perform around them. But the Quran What did they do to stop them, they prevented them from entering Makkah even. So the believers they camped at who they be and who they be is near.
And over there, a peace treaty was signed between the believers and the Kurdish
a peace treaty was signed between the believers as well as a correlation marker,
which allowed the Muslims to come for Umrah when the following year.
It says that the Muslims must return to Medina this year. Next year, they can come and perform on
and off the clauses of this treaty, which is known as a treaty of davia. Where that first of all, for the next 10 years, there will be no fights, no battles, no war between the Muslims of Medina and then wish to King of Mecca.
For how long for the next 10 years. So a treaty of peace was signed, was established.
Because in these six years, there had been at least three major battles between the Muslims and then we should have been six years only three major battles, that's a big deal. Imagine the amount of people that had been killed. Imagine the casualties imagine how much people would have suffered on both sides.
So this peace treaty was signed, but no fighting for the next 10 years. No battles at all.
Another condition was or another clause of the treaty was that the various tribes of Arabia, they were free to establish alliances with either the Muslims or the wish Tiki
So now there is there are mainly two superpowers, the Michigan of Mecca, and the Muslims of Medina,
the rest of Arabian tribes, they are free,
that they can establish their alliances with either the Muslims, or we do the most cheeky. What does that mean?
That if for example, a tribe has an alliance with Muslims.
And there is another tribe that has an alliance with huhtamaki these two tribes can also not fight with one another.
You understand why? Because the Muslims in which seeking also cannot fight.
Okay. Similarly, if the tribe that has alliance with the Muslims, if they go fight with them shrieking, the Muslims are not going to aid them, what are they going to do? They're going to stop them.
On the other hand, same thing, the tribe that has alliances with them wish to keep if they go and fight the Muslims, then which sukeena are not going to help them What are they going to do? Stop them.
So this was also a major clause of the treaty amongst many other clauses.
Now what happened,
we learned that the tribe of Hosea they establish alliances with the Muslims with the believers. And on the other hand, the bonobo,
the tribal bernbach, they aligned with
And these two tribes, the Hosea and bannenberg.
They had enmity since a long time, since a long time, and they had been fighting one another since ages since decades.
So now one group was on the side of the Muslims, and another group was on the side of the bush Turkey.
So now what happened?
The treaty said no wars for 10 years, there should be peace in the Arabian Peninsula.
But Arabs are warriors
couldn't hold themselves back. Especially if there is someone who does not fear a loss of predator.
So within two years, what happened in the year, eight after his little, six year after his you know what happened? The Treaty of Philadelphia was saying,
It's here. What happened? The tribe of bernbach. What did they do? They attacked the tribe of bonacasa.
But no backup.
there was one worker,
they had alliances with Ruth and Michigan and they had alliances with the Muslims.
Now this was a clear violation of the treaty.
How okay find their fault. But what did the courage do? What are the most she can do?
The mushrikeen, they aided the brubacher.
They help the bonobo, they assisted the bonobo. And this was clearly violating the terms of the Treaty on their part. And this was a sudden attack that they made on the heels of
a sudden attack. And obviously, they were not prepared at all. And it is said that when they came to complain to the profits of the lobbyists, and later on, they said that the people of pazar they were killed even while they were praying, even in the home.
And the machine even they respected the fact that in the halon, no one should be killed. But they didn't even respect the sanctity of the home, and they killed the people of Gaza over there.
And it was a sudden attack. And only 40 people, only 40 people from the entire tribe, they managed to survive. And they went to Medina to get refuge over there from the Prophet subtleness.
Because just imagine in Makkah, also in the harem, even they were not given any protection.
And it is said that in the harem, and when she came, they would give protection to people that if a person saw the murder of his father, even in the harem, he would not dare do anything to him. This is how much they respected the hell.
So the machine What have they done now? First of all, they had violated the treaty.
And secondly, they had violated the sanctity of the covenant as well.
They have violated the sanctity of the Kaaba as well.
So now what happened, the prophets are allowed us and it was informed about it. Now tell me, should action be taken against such people?
that Muslims, they're living in Mecca, they're not allowed to live in peace, they have to leave the harem and go elsewhere. And if they don't leave their life is in danger. They were plotting to kill the profits on
so many Sahaba. They were tortured, they were persecuted. They were made to leave Makkah and they went to Medina.
And then on top of that, one battle after the other, one attack after the other.
And then when the Muslims wish to go to Mecca, from where no one has stopped, they wish to go perform or mother told you cannot come go back. The Muslims even accept that.
They say no matter for 10 years, the Muslims even accept that.
And there's such conditions such clauses which are against the Muslims.
And now within two years, they disrespect the Kaaba divided the sanctity of the Kaaba, and at the same time, they also violate the treaty.
Now, obviously, major steps had to be taken against such criminal people.
Because now they had crossed all bounds. It wasn't just that they were not respecting human life. They were not even respecting religion. They were not even respecting the sanctity of holy land.
And when people come to this level, then action must be taken against
because such people are merciless, they have no heart, they have no respect. So the Prophet said a lot of them he took action against them.
Because now, too much had been done. Too much harm had been done. Action had to be taken against these people.
So what are the profits or losses of
the Prophet sallallahu sallam, he took action against them how that he silently prepared, do conquer Makkah to attack Makkah.
But he silently prepared
and he silently prepared an army of 10,000 people
how many 10,000
and he marched into Makkah planning to conquer it. But remember, this was a secret plan, a silent plan, the Michigan were not informed Why?
In order to avoid bloodshed
in order to avoid bloodshed.
So, the Prophet sallallahu Sallam went there silently, quietly, and he did not inform anybody outside of Medina, only the Muslims were informed, who were told, get ready, and quickly the Muslims when and the conquered Makkah with peace without causing any kind of bloodshed whatsoever.
And because of this reason that was shaking, they were not able to defend themselves, they were not able to do anything to harm the Muslims or to fight against them or to resist them in any way. And with this peacefully, Makkah was conquered.
Now you may wonder, why did the prophets are allowed to conquer America? Why didn't you just go and punish those people or just fight against them?
That would be
because it would not solve the problem. What would solve the problem? conquering Messiah? Why? Because Messiah was the hub of Arabia. It was a center of Arabia. And whoever was in Mecca, controlled the entire Arabian.
Whoever was in Makkah, what did they do? They control the entire Arabia.
And the Michigan and Makkah they had been there, obviously they were there. But they had been misusing this authority,
misusing this authority,
the pilgrims who would come? What would they do? They would tell them incorrect things false propaganda against the prophets or about Islam and the Muslims.
And besides that, because they were the custodians of the karma, because they were the caretakers of the karma. The entire Arabia respected them.
The entire people of Arabia, what would they do? They would respect them.
So they were misusing this authority that they had. And now they had to be removed from power, because they had done too much they had done too much harm.
So this is why the prophets are allowed a certain plan to conquer Makkah, out of all places, because it was a center
and obviously the wish Tiki now they were not respecting the sanctity of the Kaaba, either the sanctity of the harem.
If the Haram would stay in their hands, in their control, would they respected anymore in their enmity against the prophets or a lot of Southern Muslims? Not at all.
And a believer can ever tolerate that.
That the sanctity of the Holy Land is being violated.
This is why the prophets are about us and and went and conquered.
So just do a quick review. In sixth year after digital what happened.
The believers they went to perform work but they were prevented.
Instead what was done the Treaty of her debut was signed in the seventh year after his you know what happened the Muslims came to Makkah they perform love for three days and they went back they were allowed only for three days. Just imagine three days
in the year it after Angela maka was conquered to understand.
Sixth the treaty was signed her debut and in eighth year after his you know what happened.
Makkah was conquered by the prophets I don't know
when exactly in Ramadan.
Now, after Morocco was conquered, the restrictions that were placed on Muslims to visit Mecca to perform or to perform hajj, all of these restrictions were removed.
So now the Muslims they could go freely perform what I performed the wife go for Hajj, without any restrictions, and they were seeking as well as Muslims who were together, worshipping at the cabin. You understand? Because then when she came, we're still there. But the restrictions that had been placed on the Muslims thus far, they were now taken away. They were not removed.
Now the profits on a lot of sudden did not perform hedge that here.
Which year the year eight the prophets had a lot of them did not perform Hajj that year. Why? Because soon after Morocco was conquered, where did he go?
Her name. The Battle of her name was fine. But it was conquered all of the surrounding areas they were conquered.
So by the time the profits or losses and return the time of hydrogels gone because after Ramadan what comes
Joe? Well, Denzil Carter and so barely two and a half three months and then the profits on a lot of them by the time he came to Medina, what happened? The time of Hydra was gone, so he wasn't able to perform Hajj that year.
Now the next year, the year nine after
again, the Prophet sallallahu Sallam did not perform Hajj that year.
Why? Because still the machine what were they doing?
What were they doing? They were coming to the halon they were performing your rituals. They were also performing their hedge their, their version of that.
And remember, as I mentioned to you earlier, as we learned that the machine of maca when they would do to laugh, how would they do it? Without any throats. And the profits all of a sudden was not to become a witness to their evil practices.
So again, in the year nine after he shot the profits out a lot of them did not perform Hajj. And what happened
he sent some Muslims to perform Hajj that year.
Instead, what did he say? A group of believers from Medina to perform Hajj in Makkah
and Abu Bakar Oh, they learn who he was meeting.
The amid of that group,
he was made the leader of that group.
What year was that? Nine. So, the year nine after his, you know, the Prophet sallallahu Sallam sent a group of Muslims under the leadership of Abu Bakar of the Learn how to Makkah to perform Hajj.
Now when obaku doted on who left, what happened,
the first 37 according to first 30 to 40 verses of the pseudo will review,
sort of the beginning verses of the pseudo were revealed.
And these verses in them is a major announcement for who for them which team.
Now, the Muslims are going to perform hajj and over there, who else was there when she came,
and Hajj is the time when all the major announcements were made? Why?
Because people from all over Arabia would come. And whatever you would tell people on that day, in hajj, it would spread all over.
All right. So welcome to the learn who left these Ayah to interview and in them is a major announcement.
So what is the profit sort of on sort of do he sent or the lovely guy
he sent early, lovely, learn who to go and join? A robot could have learned Oh, why is that he could make the announcement, which is mentioned in these ads, at the time of Hutch.
And when I do that, aren't who when he caught up with avocado, avocado, I asked him that have you come as an amine or move? Meaning Are you going to be the leader? Or are you going to be under me? Why did he ask him that question?
Because he came after him? The profits are a lot of them sent him. And now leadership had to be clarified. Because many times when leadership is not clear people they get divided. This is a no no we're gonna follow this person, we're gonna follow that person. So, I asked him to make things clear that who is the leader here and are the learn who said I have come as a mood, meaning I am going to follow you. And he continued to pray behind Apple back around which show that I will talk a little bit on who was the leader and on Yamanaka that is when arguably a lot more I know he made the announcement.
So inshallah we will learn as to when exactly the announcement was made what was in the announcement, in the declaration as we go through the dialogue. But this is the context of revelation of the soul, especially the beginning.
When were these is revealed. After the conquest of Makkah,
why did the Prophet said a lot of them conquer America? Because the machine, they were not being true to their promises. And they were violating the sanctity of the Kaaba as well. They had misused their authority for a very long time. And it had to be taken away from them. Because if it continued to stay with them, constantly, people would be oppressed. And then the Prophet sallallahu wasallam sent our little denardo with these Ayah to make it clear to the machine that from now on, you're not allowed to be here anymore. Why? inshallah we will read about that, as we continue the