Channel: Muhammad West
Jabir Ibn Hayan And Ibn Haytham
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Are the Villa shaytani rajim Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala should have been more serene Sayidina Muhammad Ali he also married my beloved brothers and sisters in Islam Salaam Alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh
How y'all doing?
19th of Ramadan and we are almost a for the last 10 nights in sha Allah and this is way everything we live as we say nothing. We put everything on the field. We should have nothing left in the tank when it comes we can rest inshallah when it comes but this one of these nights one of these when these last 10 nights could be layer two color and you get that nyjah Martin muslimeen all your sins are forgiven. A lifetime of good deeds guaranteed place in Jenna Pinilla.
10 nights 10 twin nights just to focus on and work hard as well as Parma grant us to get the most bang grant us the strength to get the mean.
We spoke about the scientists, the scientists of Islam. When I was last year, I spoke about the mathematician and how it is me. And as I said that he came at a time when there was change in government. It was a time when the new government in control the abus it Caliphate was interested in technology and science. And they wanted to be the most advanced nation on Earth. And they were for almost half a millennia, Muslims in Baghdad and in Andalus they govern the world in terms they lead the world in terms of science and technology, in terms of civilization and culture. imagined a time when the rest of the world would look at the Muslims. Well, how would they fix this problem? If
there was a drought? How do they fix it? When Muslims set the tone in terms of literature and fashion when Muslims set the tone in terms of the greatest buildings and the newest and latest developments Pinilla? What a time it was what a great time it was. And inshallah we continue talking about these great scientists. Just one thing I forgot to mention, I found it very interesting when I spoke about the the mathematicians we said that LG but I was invented by, by by Al Howard is me. And we know algebra to find find for X. X is not in the Arabic language. Do you know which letter they used to use to find the unknown? Who can guess what price? one letter in the Arabic language they
chose? That's the letter you need to find. Find for
no find for sheen. I don't know why. Maybe someone can search and find out but find for sheen. And also how are his book the book on algebra didn't have a single number in the because they hadn't yet used the numbers was all in written form on the later on Savannah law. So it's something amazing to think about. But tonight to new This is the first night we're going to do two heroes at the same time in child law
in two different fields and two different disciplines. And when I did the slides, they told me the subject is a subject I'm struggling with the most in matric so it's a good subject I'm going to focus on our two year the story our first about two heroes.
Jabir even a young
job or even a young and we'll talk about urban Haytham as well of the him job and even a yen is called the father of chemistry. The man who basically discovered the entire science of chemistry before him, there wasn't a subject like chemistry after him. There was a subject a science like chemistry. Let's do a little history on the science of chemistry. Chemistry began from a an art called alchemy. alchemy was kind of like magic and superstition and philosophy mixed with science. Because you know, when chemists mix equations and the mix substances, it's likely making magic, one thing turns into something else, a substance that glows in the dark things that disappear, you can
make fire come out of nowhere. So people were experimenting with site with substances, but they used to believe it was magic. And before Islam, there was this art called alchemy. And based on Greek philosophy, they believed that the world everything was created from the four elements fire, wind, earth, and water. And if you could change these elements around, you could create anything. So there was a race to create gold out of iron. They believed if you could play with iron and cheap metals, you could convert into gold. And this was the the science of alchemy. And behind that as well, they were searching for something called the elixir of life, that if you played with these elements, and
you found the right substance, you could you could have this thing that gives you immortality. So this was superstition, mixed with a bit of science. This was alchemy. alchemy is like what astrology is to astronomy. astrology, it's superstition. It's a myth with a little bit of science and astronomy together. alchemy was like this to chemistry, as well.
Right? So before before Islam, there was the subject called chemistry. In fact, the word chemistry comes from an Arabic world el keema leukemia, which refers to measurement because they would say you add the Kima of this substance to the Kima of that
substance and you get a new substance. So the subject became the science of measurements of substance or chemistry. Right. And many of these terms that we know today, alcohol, all that old, alkaline, alcohol, benzene, all these are Arabic terms that still survived today in the English language. In fact, as I said that the term chemistry is an Arabic word. That's how powerful and profound the Muslim chemists work that they invented, we would say they discovered the science, and it all began with this man, Abu Musab jabbing even a yen. He lives in the Iraq in Iran and he moved to Kufa amazing he was a student of Jaffa sodic. So Jaffa sodic, this great, great grandfather and a
resource alum didn't only teach Arabic and Hadith and he even taught sciences. And at that time, he taught a little bit of alchemy, they didn't have chemistry yet. And our hero jab, and jab it, he began as an alchemist. And he also wants to do find gold and the secret to life, the elixir of life. And he began experimenting with substances. But during his experimentation, he realized that everything that a lot of what the Greeks put as an effect was actually a myth. So we started to do independent research. And he started to experiment with different substances, different metals, and he documented his findings. And he put these things in a systematic order, and did systematic
experimentation jabiru. Today, there are over 3000 documents which are ascribed to him. Now they today scientists, it's impossible for one man to have written on so many experiments. And what they feel is this man was so prolific, he was such a big name, he was like the Einstein of his time, that later chemists would sign it by his name, it's called pseudo anonymous writing, they would say, under the name of jabiru, even though it wasn't him, but a lot of maybe this man actually did these 3000 documents, but there are 3000 documents, we have a scribe to him,
he wanted to find a way to dissolve gold, not melt gold, dissolve it in a substance that you know, some some elements, if you put them in an acid or an alkaline they dissolve. Now, gold is very unreactive, very, very difficult to dissolve gold in an acid and he search was is there not a way to dissolve gold without melting it. And this is shala through this discovery. Through this search, he discovered chemistry by searching for the answer to melting gold, he discovered the science of chemistry. So, the first thing he began is he both the template for the modern periodic table, the periodic table explains all the different elements. So he categorized elements in terms of metals
and non metals, and here the third type of categorization substances, which would could easily turn into powders. So he has three different types of substances. And this is really how the periodic table is built on metals and nonmetals. Really, he tasted how they reacted under heat, how do they react with one another? What happens when you dissolve the one in the other, and he wrote the answers each time, then he began during his scientific study, he actually perfected many methods of many methods we use in chemistry, till today, some of the methods which he even invented or he perfected. distillation is one of his great contributions to science. Now fractional distillation
who knows what that is?
of one, you forgot,
we all use, we all need fractional distillation. The Petro now call you as a result of that, when we take oil out of the ground, it consists of so many different compounds, or so many different substances all together. But each substance can be separated, because they have different boiling points. So when you heat the oil, those things with low boiling points, they evaporate. First, we collect the guests and transfer it back cooling off, and it becomes a liquid again, it's called distillation. And he was one of the first people who understood this, that you could separate compounds by boiling them capturing the guests and then causing it to condense. And this is how we
split substances into the pure forms. So he really invented distillation. And then of course, the other side of distillation is precipitation, forming solids of precipitation, forming solids from a liquid, and then crystallization as well. It's another way of purifying, purifying a substance calculation, is that how you pronounce it? Count of one calcination calcination. And this is the type of heating if I'm not mistaken without boiling, without melting the substance is the type of heating to purify the substance. So he and these words, basically a lot of it, he invented them in his writing, filtration again, his whole idea was how do we separate substances from each other and
get pure and true substances
while he was trying to do his experiments,
He realized he just didn't have the apparatus to do it. All they had were ovens. So he had to invent over 20 different apparatus. He invented highly accurate scales. And one of the most major inventions that he had was the the retorts and the Alembic. So he invented this and as you can see, once again, an Arabic word, the Alembic. It's an Arabic word that l sound comes from an Arabic word. But what was really amazing about the scientist is a lot of the essence he personally he invented and discovered the acids that occur naturally. And he invented new essence why, what was he trying to do to dissolve gold, and it's one of those difficult things to dissolve, but he found a way to do
it. He of the first people to actually document and find natural acids like caustic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, these things occur naturally in in fruits and vinegars, and he found a way of creating very powerful assets like sulfuric acid, hydraulic hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. So he found ways of dissolving different substances with other substances. And then he found what we call the equity Asia with the Kings water, and this is an acid which can dissolve gold. So he discovered the first person who discovered a way to dissolve gold in a very powerful acid. And his writings was so prolific. And as we know chemistry, on its own, is difficult. It has numbers and it has
equations, and it has a weird terminology. When the Europeans translated his work, so many so many of these books, they said it's like a new language jabesh gibberish. The word gibberish comes from this man, because it was like a totally new language you couldn't even understand the the way he wrote, and how detailed and how in depth his knowledge was. When people translated from Arabic to Latin. They said this is like a different language, still, still not Arabic. It's a language of Jabir, a language of its own. And this man is the, as we say, even today, even with the bias of history, he's still regarded as the father of chemistry. Before him, it was an alchemy, it was a
superstitious art, he discovered the the science of chemistry, and he put down how you do experiments, he put down laws of how a scientist should, what kind of clothing a scientist should weigh when dealing with certain compounds. Obviously, he did this by trial and error, he burned his house down probably a few times before he learns which substances are dangerous and not. This is Japanese yen. And many other chemists afterwards, alkaline and this entire side of entire you have acids and alkaline The, the alkalines. As you can hear from the word it's an Arabic term, Muslim scientists basically discovered this, how to neutralize acid, when they try to find a way of
purifying yourself with you. So soap comes from alkaline, which was found a way of purification THROUGH THROUGH THROUGH discovering alkalines.
Our next hero, and this heroes panel was an amazing and wonderful story. I'm sure we're gonna have a movie of this man one day, even hate them or al has in as he's referred to, in the latinized version, today's countries in the world still have his face on the money. Who is this man? Abu Ali Al Hassan, even al Hassan Ibn Al Haytham even alive them well known as Allison, he was about 1000 years ago, more than 1000 years ago, he was born in Baghdad, again, the center of Islamic learning. It was about 100 years after the house of Hickman has been established. So 100 years now of scientists, 100 years after Howard is mean. So he's coming in a time when knowledge and the Muslims
had set a high standard of scientific development. He came at a time when there were a lot of scholars and lots were being written, the bar was set very high, and he came into this environment. And still when he left, he's referred to as the father of optics. And actually the father of the modern scientific method. He laid down the rules how you do an experiment, if you are a scientist. So how did how did this come about? He was a young scientist in Baghdad, around many, many different scientists. And he had very radical, strange theories. People thought he was kind of crazy that his theories were out of this world, that he challenged the norms and the modern, accepted rules of
science at that time. He debated with many people, and he made big claims I could do this, I could do that. At that time, Egypt was ruled by a man called al Hakim, who really was crazy. The ruler of Egypt al Hakim, he was mad really, and he studied if we don't have time to talk about him, but he's one of the the most, the most dreaded rulers in Islamic history called al Hakim. He heard about this young scientists in Baghdad making crazy claims and one of the things he said if I was in charge of Egypt, I would regulate the Nile so it doesn't flood I would have a way of damming the entire Nile River.
And controlling its flow. So the rule of Egypt said, Great, bring him here. We want him to do it. And this young scientist full of confidence, he comes to the Nile. And he tries and tries and tries. And for years, he tries to regulate the flow of the Nile. And he realizes many great scientists from the time of the pyramids, tried to do this. And he couldn't do it. It was a feat of engineering above him. And he failed. And he had to tell this ruler who was so ruthless, and was so merciless, that he failed in this attempt. And he knew he was going to be executed. So what did he do? He basically feigned madness. They basically went along with all the stories about him was that he was
a mad scientist. He said, I am a mad scientist, and I'm insane. And I'm Islamic law, you can't kill someone who's Majnoon. So the halifa, the halifa, pardoned him because he was mad. But he was put in an asylum for 10 years, he was locked up. And he spent most of the time in a dark room, all he had was his thoughts and his theories, and there was a little hole we liked would come through. And he now began to study this beam of light. And he saw that light travels in a straight line. And sometimes that light that would come through would actually have a picture on the wall of the outside world, it would bring through an image. And from this, he began to understand that the way
the AI works at that time, the belief was that light exited UI. That was the rule. That's what everyone believed from the Greeks light exited UI. And that's how you saw, he realized it was the other way around. The image of the object comes with a light entering into your eyes. And he understood that light travels in a straight line. And he began to write a book, the book of optics, and he had to start or first by disproving all the theories of the time. So you have to show him step by step in a systematic, experimental way, how each theory that was available that time was incorrect, and why his theory was correct. And he had to build the first camera to prove that his
theory was right. And he built the first camera.
And he understood that how the eye works. And many of the terms that we have in the eye, the cornea comes from definitions, which he explained. And he now understood why these are holding the eye, why things contract and get in this hole gets bigger and smaller, what's the purpose of the retina. Now it made sense when he once he understood how light works, he understood how the eye works. And obviously, the bit but he's getting contribution, besides for his book of optics was how a scientist goes about proving a hypothesis. So after 10 years, he was released from his asylum. And he comes with his book, which would revolutionize the world, which would explain how light works and explain
how the eye operates. And you would continue to write almost 100 books, 50 of them survived. They were translated into into Latin. And when the Europeans started to study his books, they called him the second Ptolemy nutonomy was the great scientists of the ancient Greeks, they would say this, he's the the best scientists of all time. After Ptolemy, they would call him He is the physicist, and he is the model, the model under which the Renaissance scientists would use his method for experimentation. Today, there's a crater on the moon named after him. And there's a an asteroid as well, that's named named after him. And if we just go to the last two slides, there were some
problems he couldn't solve in his lifetime, some theories, which just didn't make sense. So he asked this crazy question. He said, Okay, we have algebra.
What What is the answer? what is x? Or what is sheen? If we shoot a beam of light on a circular a spherical mirror? It comes back what angle? Should it be? What's the value? It took a scientist in 1997, to solve algebraically what he solved geometrically. So from his time, over 1000 years, this problem, what they called Allison's problem was a problem until someone in Cambridge, I believe, solve this problem. And there are still problems, which he theorized which we still can't solve. He says he can't explain why the moon appears bigger when it's low down to the horizon, versus when it's right on top high in the sky, it looks smaller. But when it's closer down, it looks so much
bigger. What causes this optical illusion? What is happening with the light that causes us he was the one that understood the refraction that light bends in water, and how to correct it using glasses and these kind of things, but he couldn't understand why the moon was bigger. Until today, no scientist has come up with an answer. So maybe one of you youngsters inshallah will be the next Allah Xin and you will come up with an answer. And this is the father of modern day optics. And because of his works, many, many more advancements in medicine, particularly with regards to the I would come about and Muslims would, would dominate the field of ophthalmology and being in the base
of optometrists of that time, you'd go to a Muslim doctor to help you with your eyes. So these are just two of the great scientists. Next Oh, tomorrow in
Allah, a man who knows no needs no introduction. It was 1000 years ago, when the oma was shocked when a foreign army from Europe came and conquered Masjid locks off. And one man stood up. After 100 years of trying, Muslims tried, they didn't succeed Allah sent them. Salahuddin the weapon of the dean, the defender of the dean, to reclaim Basilica and for us living in the time that we are, we know this wound, how painful it is, and inshallah we learn from him. How can we get back and reclaim Muslim mcsa inshallah that's for tomorrow? Getting back to our quiz. So the questions the answers from last night, and Abby Moosa lift these people for 40 days and came back to them came back to
find them worshiping what what would they worshiping? They're worshipping an idol. Okay, question number two, which was given the ability to control the gene through his power with Well, let me see a man and how many times is in Ibiza Korea mentioned in the Quran, but the difficult one seven times is mentioned in the Quran. As for tonight's questions,
number one, which of all US creations obey Allah perfectly without any will to commit sin? It's quite an easy one. So is it a mankind we should be the prophets. See the angels D, B, and C.
Write Write your answer down on the card collected. Number two, who is the angel in charge of Jenna?
Adrian? b Malik, is it CG video? Is it the moon car?
Number three, who is the angel of mercy and rain? Is it Nikita? Is it Mika L is the sort of feel or is it jabril
shala write your answers down and we'll see tomorrow what the answers of sokola heyde or some of la si number hamadryad early he was up your salon was sending me a Solomonic library.