Al Khawarismi

# Muhammad West – Ramadan 2016 – Heroes Of Islam 14

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The speakers discuss the importance of learning and bringing knowledge to one's life, as well as the shift in culture from one night to the next. They also touch on the history of Islam, including the rise of the MACU and the importance of mathematics in scientific research. The speakers emphasize the importance of mathematics in scientific research and provide examples of practical examples of how it is used. They also discuss the use of mathematics in engineering and construction, as well as the importance of mathematics in scientific research.

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are we learning mila shaytaan rajim Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam O Allah Shafi mursaleen sagina Mohammed Ali, he was a big marine. Our beloved brother sister Islam Salam alaykum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh

Alhamdulillah 17 17th night of Ramadan, and this is a very important night. This is the biggest night that we've reached so far. That we know that little called there is a night that shifts and into the night as we know the Night of Decree, we won. If you get that night in a Bada, Allah subhanho wa Taala accepts URI by that night, he forgives all your sins, and you get a more than 1000 months of fasting of Salah of Hajj have already Woods 1000 months of maximum reward. And to make you understand what these 1000 months, we say take your monthly salary. But what do you earn in a month times 1000. That's how much you will get from Allah from for working that one night. It's a lot of

it's worthwhile. If your boss gave you that deal, you will really work hard. And we said that as little color shifts, it can also shift outside of the last 10 nights. Most of the time it falls in the last 10 nights in the odd nights. But it can be outside of the last 10 nights. And one of the nights outside of the last team is the 17th of Ramadan because a lot of great things happened on the 17th of Ramadan. The Battle of butter occurred on the 17th of Ramadan. I Sharia law passed away in the 17th of Ramadan. It's a very prominent night the date comes up a lot that amazing things happened on the 17th of Ramadan. So tonight could be later called. We should have that out that you

know great

motivation to do as much as we can. It's Pinilla. We had the sad news of our brother passing away. We don't know what's left in our books of decree. We're here today and tomorrow's panel. We could be gone and so sad. This brother has kids between the age of five and 12 for children and the children that attend our nursery school banano primary Pinilla Melissa panatela make it easy. And grandma brothers I place in Jana, may he may he be in a happier place than we are and make easy, obviously kids for the rest of their life. They won't have a father, but I'll help alleviate this burden and grant them to have sober mean. So we don't know what's in our book of decree. And our night, whether

it's tonight or next week, that night is coming. So Allah grant us the strength to do the best we can to achieve the most in that night. I mean, we continue with our discussion on the heroes of Islam. And tonight insha Allah, as I said, we change a bit of the peace. We talk about a different dynamic to show you that Islam is not just about the masjid. And it's not just about Vicar and Hadeeth. And Mara hit that knowledge, all of knowledge that benefits humanity is part of the deen you can be a hero and be a doctor, you can be a hero and be a sportsman, you can be a hero and just be a father or a mother just by being a good person. They are eight doors of genda, one for fasting

one for Sora. What are the other doors for what are the other good deeds that you can do that enters you into Jannah if you benefit mankind, and we are also going to give you some perspective of the history of Islam, there's almost almost 1500 years it's been in existence. We had good days and bad days. And if you want to split our history up, you could split it up basically into five stages. You had the stage of NaVi salsola, those blacet 23 years. Then we had the age of the qualifier Rashid in 40 years. So this is very short periods. Then we had 100 years of an Omega dynasty and the rule kind of like an empire, not always doing things for the sake of Islam. And we had good leaders and we had

bad leaders were leaders like Omar bin Abdulaziz and we had other leaders who are not that great. When there was a change of government, the Mayans were overthrown. And a new dynasty came in called the Abbasid Caliphate, the of assets. And they were very different to the domains in the way they did things. They didn't focus so much on jihad or other expansion of the oma, the oma is very keen on expanding and entering to Spain. So all the things we discussed happen in the omega times. And we could see that when the omegas reach Spain and they reach China till today that hasn't really gone further than that. That's basically a way Islam with the empire of Islam, you could say stopped,

there's only one piece missing, and that's Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and inshallah we'll get to how Islam got to our ancestors. But this is where the woman basically stopped and the new Caliphate came in the baskets and what was the legacy they ruled for about three 400 years until they were completely demolished by the Mongolian invasion. But what stood out about the Abbas it's where they will play tons of knowledge and culture they wanted to bring, they had this huge empire now. They were leading the one of the biggest Empire on Earth. They wanted to bring civilization and culture they wanted to develop

sciences, they were the most wanted to be the most advanced people on earth. And they did do that by bringing in the base of the brain throughout the world to Baghdad and made Baghdad really the center of knowledge. Like we would say, New York or London would be the center of learning. But that became that and it gave birth to some of the best scholars in the history of humanity. If you look at mankind, and this is the the bias of history, and history is always biased. When you look at history today, they will teach you about ancient Europe, Plato and Aristotle. And then they'll start teaching you about Isaac Newton, and the Europeans in other nations. So it's about 2000 years is a

gap. What happened? They said, No, it's the Dark Ages. Basically, everybody was sleeping for those 2000 years. No, the world wasn't sleeping, that other other lands like the Muslim lands, the Indian subcontinent, China, they will stay development and progress. and Europe was lagging behind, and then Europe caught up. So it was in this age that Islam carried the knowledge of the world, Islamic oma Muslims carried the knowledge of the world, I read a beautiful thing they said, if you are alive at that time, and they had Nobel prizes, in every single category of the Nobel Prizes would be one for about 600 years by a Muslim, the best scientists, the best

people in geography, chemistry, mathematics, literature, all of them are Muslims. But the time was one at a time it was. So we starting to talk about these great, these great personalities. Then just to complete the discussion, the domain of acid dynasty, they came to an end by something which people thought was piano, we'll talk about that. And then a new Caliphate, the Ottoman Empire, and they ruled up until about 100 years ago, up until World War One and a new age we are in this very new strange age, the post Ottoman Empire, we don't have a halifa we we scattered and divided and it's basically left to us to determine which way is three is going still left as a question mark,

waiting for big personalities to shape the future. But inshallah getting back to our hero, our is me, the greatest or one of the greatest mathematicians, not just in Islamic times, but in the world. And he lived in the time of the US it's his name is Mohammed even Musa al Hawa is me, and he came from that area, how autism. We spoke about this when we spoke about Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. It was the north of Pakistan. So in omega time, Islam conquered that area, Muslims conquered that area. This is about 100 years later. So this man is a second generation Muslim, his parents reverted or his grandparents reverted to Islam. And he grew up as a Muslim, but he grew up as a mathematician, a

scientist. He was a Muslim, Muslim mathematician, and an astronomer, and he was brilliant in his time. Till today, he's so brilliant that his name, you know, when your name is still survives, he invented algebra. The word algebra comes from an Arabic word algebra, from the title of his book, and his name adhaar ism. If you read you look at the word algorithm. Basically, it's his name, they still kept his name. However, his algorithm is the latinized version of his name. And even in Spanish and the Portuguese language. The word for digit is grease, no, grease, no after him, it means digit, because this man was a man of numbers. So how, what was his career? What can we say?

the caliphate was situated in Baghdad, in Iraq, and the halifa of that time, Moon was a patron of knowledge and thinking, and he, as a visionary, he had some good things, and he had some bad things, some of the bad things we spoke about. He's the guy that locked up Abu hanifa. So he had some problems with Abu hanifa. But he's also the one that asked him and Malik writes for us the motto, right? So this leafa, he loved knowledge. And he had the idea of let's have basically like the most advanced research institute in the world, he called it by to hikmah, the house of wisdom or the house of knowledge. He said, in this place, I will pay the best scientists in the world, Muslim or

non Muslim. Come here, you do research, you translate books, and you come up with new inventions, and I will award you and give you prizes and make you rich. So the call was out. If you have some brains, come to Baghdad and come to the Bible Heckman House of wisdom. And at initially the house of wisdom. His job was to lick the books that were the ancient books, the books of the ancient Greeks and the ancient Indians and the Chinese, translated into Arabic, and let's learn from them. We have all these cultures within the Islamic empire. Let's learn from them. Let's not throw away and destroy that culture. And one of the first directors of the Bible hikmah was and how are his me. He

was the head of way to hikma and he was a scholar in his own right. He translated so he could speak Greek. He translated the books of Greek and he translated the Hindu books or the Indian books and script books of mathematics. So he obviously

We speak the Indian languages as well into Arabic. And he learned mathematics through this way. And he became more and more well versed in mathematics. So he wrote his own book, he came and he brought his own development. And this is the guy. As I said, all of us has suffered under algebra, in mathematics, all of us have looked for x, and we continue to look for x. This is the man that basically lost x. Right? Right. So he was the man that introduced this idea of algebra, how do we solve problems? And I was struggling with this topic. Honestly, this is not my forte in mythic methods, basically, we went in, and we think sometimes what are the what is the reason people, you

know, write a x and B x equal to c? Why do we need to know these things and why sign 10 and cause because they were practical problems at a time, people had to build their to build canals, that to build bridges, they had to cultivate areas. A very simple problem, math to solve was not simple, but it's a problem. It was common. A farmer has a field, a square field, 10 meters by 10 meters. So how much harvest will be in that area, you have to learn how to calculate that area. And the government had to learn how to tax that man. So we know this guy has 10 fields, each 110 by 10. So we know sort of more or less how much taxes he should pay, because that area of land should give so much wheat,

you understand how the thinking came about? questions we seem to buy to hikma we have this problem, you guys have the brains solve it. So an hour is me, his job was to put these things into motion. And some of the things which you have used, that this man discovered or invented or theorized, for example, with equations, he was the first people to think about bringing, making a problem into an equation. Right, so we have an unknown, we can't understand it, let's put an X ray or whatever it might be. And we can try and solve this equation. Now we all know our basic maths, we know when there's an equal sign. If you take a number from the one side to the other side, what happens to it,

if it's a negative, and it goes to the other side becomes positive? He's the guy that discovered that, obviously understood, the equation should always balance. If there's, if this side, like, like a scale, what do we do to this side? What will happen to that side, so he's the guy that's to solve the problem, you bring something to the one side, and it balances at the same time. He's also the person that added it understood, if you add things to subtracting things from each side, they would balance. So this is the beginning of algebra. And he was able to

solve problems, what they call to the second degree x squared, this as far as it went. And this was revolutionary at that time. And again, I asked why when did anyone need to solve something to the power to the power to when do we ever work in power tools? And the answer is, like our screen, literally a square 10 by 10. We don't know how big the square is. So we leave an X, it's x squared, the area is x squared. That's how we should solve this problem. So you can begin to understand we have a field of unknown size, how much wheat is going to be in that field. Let's put an X this area is the amount of wheat is x squared. And it's worth from the that's the thinking. But his book, his

book focused on the beginning on algebra. But there were other chapters in his book, let's see what else was in his book. He explained in detail, how to calculate the area of other shapes, not just squares, triangles, circles, more complicated shapes, how do you find the area and the circumference of those shapes? Also, the Jews, the lunar calendar, basically, he showed how you reconcile the lunar calendar to the Islamic or to the Gregorian the solar calendar, again, a very practical problem. All of us have these timetables, when there's the sunrise and the sunset of the first people to actually bring like a calendar, a table of sunrise sunset, to calculate the watts, the

time of solar, the last part, again, from the Quran, inheritance.

The man has one house, but he has two sons and one daughter and the son must get X amount and the daughter must get half of that and the mother must get one six, how do you shave his house out of the field out? This is how algebra developed. So you can see practical problems that have to be solved, happened by this man. And he wrote his book, his book on algebra, and this is the the title of the book. The title of the book was, this is the Arabic word Al Kitab and matassa faceapp Allah jabber while mocha Bella, the Compendium I mean, the shortened version of the easy book of calculating by completion algebra means by completion and balancing by completing the equation and

balancing it. So they took the word out

Java, and they called it the science of algebra. I'm not going to explain to you I put this on the slide, initially, to go through an equation to refresh our maths. But I think

and basically, I mean, I would have loved if our math teachers taught us this in metric. So we have an equation x squared plus 10, x equals to 39. How do you solve that? And he shows it like you do with a, your two year old four year old five year old child, when they have a maths problem, what do you do? Draw a picture, five apples, six apples. So he drew a picture, x squared is a squared with two sides called x 10. x of four squares are four rectangles, two and a half by x. And basically, you draw that image, and that area of that image is 39. And spy, so he calculated using the by drawing geometry, he solved this equation. And now he understood that there's a link between

geometry and algebra. And this began a wonderful field until today, we still struggling with it. But his greatest, but this is not his, this is his most famous book. But this isn't his greatest contribution to humanity, what he really contributed, all of this would not be possible. If we're still working with Roman numerals, New Roman numerals, didn't use numbers, they use betas. And imagine if you had to write maybe 10,000. In Roman, it's x ml, you know, it's a long bunch of letters, it would have taken you forever to learn. And in fact, you couldn't go forward in that. He came across that the Indians had a smart idea. The Indian people were the first people to use the

number system that we have today. They invented the zero. But it wasn't common knowledge. It wasn't sprint, he learned of all and he learned different number numbering systems. And he said, This one makes the most since and he spoke to the halifa. And he said, Let's change the number system to have a zero and not letters, we have nine digits and a zero. And we use this and both on Twitter. Khalifa liked the idea, he was impressed, he agreed, and he changed the entire number system of the Muslim ummah. And that was the beginning of the numbering system we have today, he brought that digital system to the world. And even if you look at the English numbers, is based on the Arabic numerals.

So in Arabic, the nine in English and Arabic is identical, they basically use the same thing, the zero and zero in Arabic is adopt, they took that as well. If you look at the two and the three, it's just the number turned on its side from an Arabic numeral, it became an English numeral Europe six or 500 years later, would adopt the Arabic or the Hindu Arabic numbering system. And it now obviously the numbering system of the world, he's the man that introduced it to the world. So every single math, every single number, every single currency, every single computer, is based on something which this great scholar brought and give gave to the world. And because we don't have so

much time, and we can only do one hero at a time, I wanted to bring some of the other mathematical contributions, that in Islam. So this is one scholar brought this, but obviously it was the beginning. Many other great mathematicians would come, and they would solve more complicated and more complex problems. We'll talk about medicine, and chemistry and surgery in the future. But I wanted to discuss some more of the mathematical developments done within the Islamic empire. We know maths is the language of science, Max has to develop so that science can develop with it. And I am not qualified to talk about maths. So we asked our brother, a son who studied maths at university, I

don't know why. But he, he wanted to do that. For some of you, you feel that there's a place in jahannam purely with maths. But for others, it's there's a place in general with maths and we'll ask if sand to discuss some of these, I've listed some of the discoveries or some of the not inventions, but some of the developments in mathematics by Muslim scholars, and exam will be a lot better than me to discuss these things.

So maybe I just want to convince some people that studying maths is so worth it.

You know,

maths. And so, as you're saying math is really the language of science. And it's really the basis of a lot of what we have around us in the world. Because you look at in the technological advancement,

every construction, everything that we see around us, is very fundamentally based on some very abstract maths that maybe we don't want to get into.

But really like anyway, we must emphasize that we must be aware of everything from that we can see

On the screen,

that this, this this Masjid structure stands that we can we can talk on our cell phones, the car can go. If you look at, you know, if you go to the government and ask, also what's the employment rate in the country? Or what's the GDP, all these statistics, that's all based fundamentally on on mathematical theories. And so really, most of what we know, comes from comes from math. And and even if you you think how do we

come up with all the stuff about the universe, the stars, the relationships, the orbits, we can't taste that way, there's no way we can we can go to another star another planet and, and measure the distance between them is maths and needs to be used.

tools that we use in astronomy,

but at the basic basis of it all is is this maps. And so a lot of these fundamental contributions come during this time.

So a couple of the couple of the contributions.

So two of the contributions on the theory side would be integration, which is

summing the area under curve, induction, which is,

these these are, these are both essential tools for creating proofs. And without proofs in maths, you, you're really guessing you can't really prove anything. If you look at trigonometry, without trigonometry, you can't model any of the if you look at all the curves that we use, if you want to look at any data that you want to fit the curve to.

If you want to do anything in terms of predicting how the motion of something will be in the future, for example, if you have a very complicated system, like your weather, how do we know what the weather is going to be? Tomorrow? How do we predicted as the weather service give any accuracy, we need to model it and we use trigonometric functions to model it.

And at the very core level,

and

yeah, that

a lot of trigonometry was introduced by by many of these of these thinkers.

And then the last so just to list some of the names. So Abu bakkar, even Mohammed even Al Hussein al careggi.

So he developed the algebra without geometry, which is the beginnings of algebraic calculus, which is really what we use a lot about too much of it's in my in my undergrad.

I will hessen even alien look harmless Sadie.

big complicated names.

algebraic symbolism, botany.

Or,

oh, this is

Europeanized version of his name.

Alberto igneous

astronomy, as I was saying, a lot of what we know just comes from these these these from theory and mathematical projections.

And, and a few others.

The last thing I want to say is that, you know, this link between geometry and mathematics

is really is really quite, quite straightforward. So if you think about what happens if you have so she talked about

degree two equations, what happens when you have degree 10 equations, the 15 equations? How do you how do you deal with the value model?

And so to give an example, so the the farm example, what was was was a was a very practical example. But the more theoretical example, just as useful is if you have some kind of

employment data. Let's go back to this example. Some Africa, you know, employment data is very important.

Unemployment.

And you get the curve of employment across time hours, then employment numbers move as you go across time. How do you how do you how do you algebraically

model that and

you have to use x to the 15th, you have to use x to the 20 in order to get that many shifts in the curve.

Sorry, that wasn't a very good explanation.

But the point is that the more the more times you have in the curve, the higher value the degree

You have to have in terms of the X.

But anyway, so this last thing is that

as you have very high terms, very complicated expressions, we can't conceptualize it. And this this logical breakthrough that was made by by some of these thinkers to say that later, instead of using just algebra, we can map it to two shapes, instead of using x to the 15, we can use conceptual shapes to,

to look at to to to solve the equations.

So if you go to, I think it's the last slide, and it was

the last slide. There we go.

So national Dean a to see his work is really in the, the first in history until economically as an independent branch of pure mathematics, and the first in which all six cases would right angle, spherical triangle as set forth. Okay, so I say,

the, sorry, okay, this is not the slide I was going for. But

what I'm trying to express here is that, when you have very complicated expressions that are too complicated for us to understand, and to understand, manipulate, this logical breakthrough, we have shapes instead of algebra that you use, is something that really helps us to solve a lot of things from predicting the weather, to,

to, you know, problems of evolution in populations, for example.

As I said that, what's amazing is that if you go to university today, as you're starting to study maths, you still use the same methods that someone invented more than 1000 years ago. That's what's amazing. And a lot of these these observations, and for those of you I know, at least you should know, sign b 10. b. Cosby, Bill Cosby, you know, you know, these these are relationships in triangles, they basically explain how triangles work. And

there was a lot of these relationships were discovered by Muslim scholars later on. And once you understand how shapes work, and you can, understanding the whole universe, and I don't know, as I said, I try to ask people who I knew studied maths, why would you need to know extra? The powerful thing is like super saiyan to the power 50. And I love that I understand you need to know why. But why would you need to know it? But the answer is every time I'm not wrong, it's not every time there's a curve in a in a in a graph is x is an another, another power that you need to solve. So it's like, like, it sort of says it's like a curve. And you have to solve this without a calculator

without a computer. So you need to draw pictures, or you need to draw shapes that will answer and give you the answer to these things. So these great scholars and to, you know, just to add on to the final final note here, these great scholars paved the way for the next batch of scholars, which maybe we can understand more clearly the astronomers, the chemists, the medical doctors, how they were able to now build and develop science, because the mathematics was they, they had these great, great thinkers that paved the way until today, we basically are still using the methods and the methodologies to solve complicated problems, how we discover how we map the universe, based on the

principles that they discovered they were using. And this shows you the greatness and this broad Islam, and we call this age abasi age, the golden age of Islamic Islam. So we'll talk about that inshallah in the coming weeks, as well, because a lot easier questions, no mathematical equations here. Don't worry about it. And again, this is from Ebates. I haven't gone through these questions as we were going through last night's question. So which profit left these people in anger and you're swallowed by a whale, Nabil who says easy one. Okay. Number two, which prophet guided the Israelites often to be Mousavi heroine which maybe he's not in the Quran mentioned by name, but he's

referred to at the end of surah calf, maybe you shall he was a boy that ob musasa is Yeshua who was the successor to the Mimosa. When which when the miracle of novicida was what he asked for a camel, a she camel that came out of the Soraka big she can. So those were last night's questions as with tonight's questions.

Today's quiz. Now be Moosa partnered with see the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea.

Right number two, which of the following is not a pillar of Eman? The Pillars of Eman which one is not the pillar to believe in a lot to believe in all those books to believe in the last day to believe that the gym exists.

Okay, number three, maybe Adam gave NaVi Dawood how many years of his life so beautiful story when

Every day would be Adam when he was created Allah showed him all these children like stars, and he saw a very bright star and he also was that star. So Allah said that is that would your son, but he so spamela he has such a short life, his thought is going to burn out very quickly. So he said, our gift I want to give him some of my years of my life to my son, How many years did he give a gift in a B that were 20 4060 or 80. So, you can calculate with some graph or some geometric equation and find the answer inshallah. Tomorrow, our hero, known by many as the seed earlier, one of the greatest qualities of all time till today, he's remembered and revered up to call the Gilani with

discussing tomorrow's challenges. So let's say Mohammed, Saddam Hussein, amin soleimani