Channel: Jamal Badawi
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Welcome back to our Islamic focus program.
Glad to be back to you after a brief recess over the summer. We're continuing with our series dealing with the sources of Islam. This is our 34th program in this series, we'll be discussing the authenticity of the Quran. This is the second program dealing with this subject. I'm your host, Hubbard machine. And I have joining me on the program as usual. Dr. Jamal Bradley of St. Mary's University College, Omar Assalamualaikum.
I wasn't able to be waiting for the first program, in this topic, a number of steps for my benefit, and for the benefit of the viewers, we could just have your very quickly highlight the main points that you touched upon in that first program. Sure. First of all, we try to explain what is meant by authenticity. And basically that even if you say that the scripture or the holy book is authoritative, ie It is based on divine revelation, the main question is how do we know that it has been preserved until now in its purity? How do we know that there have been new change, deletion or addition or modification? And I mentioned also in that program that these questions apply to the
Quran as well as to other scriptures as well.
To answer this question, we began to examine the interment evidence about the preservation of the Quran that is from the Quran itself. And in its references, especially two, sort of 15 verse nine and sort of 41 verse 42, which show the clear statement that there is a promise, divine promise that the Quran will be preserved and will not be mixed with people's writings or interpretations can be kept separate.
In addition to that, we find that the Quran itself made some references to the fact that it will be preserved through memorization. Among the most important verses just cited, there were 2114 and 7516 through 18,
which were corroborated also by the same piece of
additional corroborating evidence was also presented, which indicated that there were a large number of people who memorized either parts or the whole of the Quran, there were many. The entire Quran
also discussed some of the
circumstances or factors, which were helpful in making the memorization. Easy isn't that widespread? In fact, towards the end of the program, there was a short
segment that showed an actual notification of the Quran by a small child, probably 910 11 years old.
mother tongue does not Arabic can recite very nicely memorized, perhaps most of the Quranic not all of it. When approached from from what you've just said, and I know that also
seems to be a lot of emphasis in a very strong tradition of
encouraging the memorization of the Quran. Is that correct? That's true. In fact, this tradition goes back even to the days of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him itself. And there are lots of references to that and authoritative references of Hadith professors sayings, like Bukhari Muslim. For example, in Bukhari, you find even chapters under the title like committing the Quran to memory teaching Quran to
children in and keeping regular dissertation on the process, not to forget it.
In Muslim For example, we find some chapters
titled like virtuous of the Quran, in which the Prophet was quoted, for example, saying that the best of you is one who learned how to teach it that is to others. And even though writing was known, but still, memorization was the most important instrument that people use to
memorize the Quran.
Moreover, even in the distant community, a person who memorized the Quran was highly honored. He was the one also who is requested to loot prayers, even some in some cases a child even
Who sometimes is the one to lead the prayer since as you know, in Islam, there's no concept of church of clay or clergy as such. And anyone can compete with this virtue of memorization of the Quran. This traditions that you refer to a strong traditions, I think he is the proper word for it. Just continued century after century, generation after generation, I heard of some people, for example, in Saudi Arabia who depended generation after generation, just on memorization of the Quran, you know, one after another, and there are people who just that back to the days of the perfect case, paper, and when we listen to the recitation is just identical with the written form in
which we can find the Quran.
Personally, just to get some, you know, personal touch to it. I know personally, that many people in different countries, Muslim countries, even in the West, right, you're in a North America, who memorize Quran and Allah, quote unquote, religious scholars as such are specialists in Islamic Studies. Some of them are physicians, some are engineers, professors of different fields, sometimes workers. And it's amazing to find this widespread attention that was getting to Chris, I'd like to add to that, that
the emphasis on this tradition of memorizing the Quran says whether the Prophet until today does not mean that one should not exert some effort to understand and apply the code are not just repetition, memorizing it's memorization for the purpose of also understanding application. Let's
turn now to some discussion of the preservation of the Quran in writing. First of all, was the one known to the Arabs at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon us it was it was maybe not that common. And we find some
documentary evidence actually, that the Arabs before they even before the advent of Prophet Muhammad, peace, as you will work on very keen and about poetry, and is to really pride themselves by you know, showing God
and his sermons, even about the pre Islamic period, speak about something called an Magna Carta Sabha, which means literally, the seven suspended ones, what they were referring to, in fact, in that the best of poetry used to be written on some of us freshman's and they used to be hung around the Kaaba. It's a sort like of showing us
politics, skills, which shows that it was it was known, maybe not as widespread, but it was known
that the Koran was preserved,
and was like the intended evidence discussed in the previous program about preservation of the Quran by memorization. There's also similar evidence.
First of all the several passages in the Quran, especially the first one, in particular, to the first revelation given to the Prophet as in chapters 96.
The first few
Nick's mentioned or make mention of the pin actually chooses twice, it says root or the site and the name of your load, and cherisher, who created created the human which is my preferred translation of the Arabic word incense in sending the human, the human out of something that clings that was discussed in the previous programs as a possible reference to the effect realized on clothing in the wall of the uterus. We discuss that under Quranic signs
from something that cleans food and you know, it is most bountiful,
who taught by the mother, she
taught the humans that which he is not, she dimensional, the pain is there, which of course is a reference to the fact that the Quran was also represented by by the pen the profit was
dictated for others to write.
The Prophet himself
was very cautious and was very interested also, even though he didn't know how to write to make sure that every portion of the plan that was reviewed is committed to writing.
And other evidence we find is in the second Surah of the Quran number two, particularly in verse two, it refers to as Vatican keytab. This book or this
book, and could have come from Canada from writing so it refers to something again which is in a written form. Elsewhere in the Quran, he refers to it as minutes or pages.
For example, in Switzerland t eight and two and three, describes the Prophet, Muhammad peace be upon him. It says an apostle from Allah, rehearsing scriptures kept pure and holy, were in laws or decrees are right and straight, that's used again to speak about
pages and cannot talk about scriptures of pages
unless you talk about something committed to God.
In fact, there is an interesting area in the Quran that not only shows the bacharan was available in written form, but even make mention of the pious companions of the Prophet who devoted themselves to committing the Quran to writing in addition to memory, and that appears in Surah, 88. From
era 11 through 16.
And it says in the translation of meaning,
that this Quran is, or in its
books helped greatly in order, exalted
in honors, are exalted in divinity and kept pure and holy, written by the scribes, honorable and pious. So not only describing the pages of the Quran, but even describing as pious and honorable those who were in charge of making the Quran interesting.
In gross declare, speaking, of course, the word that appears in both of these verses that I cited last
definitely refer to something that is written No wonder we find that the first collection of the Quran known as the, the one that made by
what's called the
Falcon, from the center pages with
Roger curry indicates that the whole of the Koran was written down during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be a panelist, yet we know that there was to raise some doubts about that. And they, they seem to suggest that there's a need to have some difficulty with that. What is the basis of their position as you understand it, and how can we respond to that? Okay, a famous interest, for example, who wrote about the Quran is known as Arthur Jeffrey and his book about massage, massage.
He claims that there is one tradition or some traditions, indicating that
Israel for him died at the time when nothing of the Quran was, quote, unquote, collected.
And he was that tradition to say that this common claim made by the Muslims and the Quran was written down seemed to be contradiction with this kind of tradition.
The question here is, how correct is that statement by Jeffrey?
We have indicated in the previous question, the answer to the previous question, how the Quran itself indicates that this was an election form, how could that evidence overwhelming evidence from inside the Quran itself?
Simply negated by a tradition, one tradition or two that make this kind of statement. But even then, it appears that Jeffrey as Dr. Xu Rodman's observed indicates, in his book seem to have mixed between two things between writing the Quran and compiling the Quran or putting the pages together in one place because the original words he was that he refers to in this traditions when I'm religion Amina crunchy, something akin to German, and German Arabic, could refer to it could refer to
compiling also putting together
the first one is writing is referring to the preservation of the Quran in writing that is during the lifetime of the Prophet where there's overwhelming evidence for that, there's no question about that what that tradition apparently is referring to, in general, in a sense of compiling, that is the Prophet died, even though the Quran
was committed to writing. That's in addition to memorization, of course, English was on writing it still it was not all under one roof, it was not all put together as quote unquote, let's say one volume. And there was a big difference between saying, you know, the writing and compiling because you could still have something even though it might be in different places, or different zones or different homes, but not both. Together. This kind of mix up by Arthur Jeffrey
shows of course, the extent of his understanding of the Arabic language is natural After all, it's not history.
attendee might be a scholar an avid but still has humans might not be totally aware of that, even if we assume good intention on his part. But the result of this mistake of his is to give an
impression that this tradition simply means or proves that the Quran was not pertinent, get informed. And I'm glad that your question actually says somebody's interest because there are many other interests other than Jeffrey, who do not necessarily uphold his view, and they find the evidence more than enough
to show that the Quran was fully written down in the light of the perfect English and even some traditions in which I found
this question requires a little further examine examination and clarification. First of all, I'd like to get some indication from you, as to have the commands written during the life of Prophet Muhammad, on what material was written, according to the most important authority on the selling of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, that's
one of the companions of the Prophet
saying that says he was saying that, at the time of the prophet or with the Prophet, we used to, you know, collect or write the Quran on parchment.
Now, according to Abu Dawood, which is another
reference, a collection of the prophetic sang also refers to a man at Northland, who was the third
Caliph after Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. And by the way, he was among the very, very early group that embraced Islam. So his witness would be very significant in that sense. And someone says that it was customary with the Messenger of Allah,
that when potions of different service in units of the Quran, were revealed to him and when any area that is very motivating that, that is one of the scribes of Revelation.
He was one of us one of the scribes of Revelation. And he says, right, this is right, this universals are this universals in the chapters or surah, where it says such and such, that is referring to the specific a place in the sweater, where death liberation is supposed to be placed.
In addition to this, we find the, the reference, which is direct, actually, to the writing of the Quran, in the lifetime of the Prophet peace be upon him is quite evident and quite clear. It's not only what's being stated there, but even corroborating evidence seem to be quite consistent when
we talk about evidence, could you perhaps give us some examples of the evidence that you refer to when that's right? That's the whole approach of these programs to take anything dogmatically? Well, first of all,
to show how consistent the issue of writing the Quran was, from the very beginning of, of Islam, refers to the foremost authority in Islamic history, particularly in the lifetime of the Prophet,
which is well known and widely accepted by Muslim and Muslim authors alike, most important than the earliest one of the earliest documents available. In which,
in which, yes, exactly, admission describes how much the second penis after the Prophet became Muslim. It's a classic story,
as you know, even though he later became a very good Muslim, was an unbeliever. And that one time, he saw that he can get rid of this new phase, Islam, the prophet and he took his church. And he was on his way to kill Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him on his way, he met a person, a friend of his and he said, I'm going to kill Mohammed.
He said to him before you look after Mohammed, look after your own sisters. And he told him that your sister and her husband, that's your girl, have already secretly embraced Islam and the following Prophet Muhammad said he was very angry, and he went towards the house of his sisters. And since he was very tough, they heard his voice coming. Certainly, at that time, they were reciting the Quran. So
much so that patience a part of the story,
the parchment on which the Quran was written so that he would not fall on his hand, but it was too late because he has already he had already heard them deciding on before he entered the house, and he started assaulting his brother in law. So the honors
sister who is the wife of that, for, started to defend him. She got injured in the struggle. And when he saw the blood in his sister, he became, you know, a little bit touchy and merciful and somehow touched. And then he demanded that you should really show him What's that for and that, you know, they're following. And she gave it to him and his sermons, according to mention, for example, indicate which Torah that is Surah Taha, which appears in the present day must have that he has a Quran that he has in our hands, number 20.
And then we will hear that, you know, he was very much touched, and he ended up embracing Islam.
That shows in other things, it shows, first of all, that the Quran was written from the early days because he became Muslim also in the earlier period, just before the announcement to the public, this new face or new revelation that God has sent through the prophet,
it also indicates that you're talking about a specific service or didn't just talk about the Quran was part of the Quran was in writing. So that was revealed at that time was one of the early sources by the way, the mecca was that particular surah, which was the consistency of the story
that we should notice here that admission or other historians, when they get that story, it's not ready to give any undue importance to that particular surah
of that incident, the doesn't even deal with the preservation of the Quran, it doesn't come under a chapter of preservation of the Quran. It's just come casually, which shows that this was not the only case or unique case. And it shows that the Quran was available in in writing. In addition to this, we find other corroborating evidence. For example, in Bukhari,
it has been rated that when one verse in the Quran by a stellar card, which is a sort of force, I need to find,
the prophet said, that was the one of the scribes of Revelation and asked him to bring some lighting material. And then when you can show Dr. Lester was I dictated the revelation that to him.
When Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him migrated from Mecca to Medina, when they were planning to to assassinate him.
As you know, of course, very dangerous, just like an apple box has to take the most essential thing for the chip, of course, some food, water and guess what, trim and extend and backing material, which means that he was very clear for the ladies on the strip, some revelations may be revealed that he didn't want us to depend on memory, maybe you can get a buck
committed into writing. Another evidence we find, for example, it started
in several references, one of which is such a berry, which is a sort of commentary and explanation of the collection of Hadoop.
In which the Prophet was quoted as saying that, don't try it anything from me, except the Quran.
When we interpret that to mean that in the early days, the prophet forbade people throughout any other thing that he says, except the Quran, other series, as meaning don't try with
anything other than the Quran, in the same pages where the Quran is being written. The idea here is to make a clear distinction between the Quran as the Word of God dictated the person to the Prophet, so, Angel Gabriel, on one hand, and between the
you know, the hydrolysis or selling of the profit, which of course, is nothing different. It's not verbatim the Word of God as particularly communicated to him. But whichever is the meaning it shows a great deal of care and attention, to make sure absolutely sure that the Quran will not be mixed even with the words of the Prophet when he's not receiving
revelation, when all of this apparently
shows that the Quran was written down in the life of the Prophet, in fact, there is an additional interesting, indirect
evidence of this. The Prophet also was quoted as saying to his companions, don't travel to the lands of unbelievers and carry the Quran with you. That again, wasn't the elegance
what he mentioned it perhaps that when you take the Quran with you, it might be subjected to some disrespectful treatment by some of the unbelievers, especially those who are very hostile to Islam. But what is the implication? What does it mean that he's telling not only one person or group of people is telling the whole community don't travel and take the Quran with you under the circumstances, which means
Not only that the crime is committed to it, but that it was common. It was widespread that he's addressing the public, don't take copies of each other in dangerous places. So all of these are quite
official scribes for the Koran, I guess we can infer from what you were saying earlier, but in addition to
other people that can as official scribe for revelations, yes, actually, it was not really the only scribe of revelation or writer. So
the Prophet dictated revelation, that perhaps he was the most important one, maybe because of his exceptional competence in writing as well as his integrity because the prophets would not ask him like that you are someone who's really trusted. That Indeed, there are many other famous companions of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him,
who also were among the scribes of Revelation. That includes, of course, the most famous after the process, the first four rightly guided caliphs, Abu Bakr.
In addition to those there were other famous companies or profit, anyone who studied this kind of history knows their position, like as a very valuable because hands Allah
by the name of Abdullah
Abdullah, and this is Luke Mooney, we're actually scribes of revelation appointed actually asked by the prophet to keep track, which means that it's quite conceivable that several people would be, would be writing the revolution at the same time.
Indeed, some historians give as many as 42 means,
and actually, the people that you can trace them just changed their biography and where they lived in, you know, their families and clans and all that, who are actually official, scribes have the revelation. But I'd like to add one more thing here, because even this official scribes of revelation
cannot be presumed to be the only ones who are actually committing the Quran to writing. This are the ones who are appointed, asked to do that.
But there was evidence also that there are lots of other people also, who wrote either the whole or part of the Quran for their own use. And history tell us that other people also removed reading and writing, including, for example,
the daughter of Uncle Buck, the daughter of armour. And of course, the example that was given to force about traveling with a couple of locker ensures that not only the official scrubs, because obviously, if you're an efficient Skype, I didn't have to ask you to travel. Because you have to keep the record. So the message really was for also the public who may have had, who actually must have heard, I should say,
parts are the full color. I'm using
interactive form. So it's not the only one, but quite a few.
Okay, we'll stop at that point for today's program. Thank you for the interesting program. I trust that you our viewers, to be interesting, informative as well. We want to invite you back next week when we continue our discussion of the authenticity of the Koran