Channel: Jamal Badawi
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Assalamu alaikum peace beyond you. Welcome to another episode of Islamic focus. Today we have our 31st program in our series dealing with the sources of Islam. We'll be continuing with the third segment of our discussion on the question of the possible existence of the command. Before its revelation, the Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him. I'm your host, Tom Rashid. And I have joined me on the program as usual, Dr. Jamal battery of St. Mary's University of Jamal assalamu Aleikum
waiting for another interesting session on this very interesting topic. For the benefit of the viewers who may not have seen the last two programs that we've done dealing with this very interesting question. Could I have you perhaps explained briefly, the nature of your research on this question? Okay. Well, to start with, the main reason that motivated me to do this, you know, small piece of research, is the fact that the Quran as a book, a holy book was revealed in a way that is unique and quite different from any previous scriptures. In a sense that number one, it was revealed over a period of 23 years. Number two, this 23 years include a period in Mecca in the about
13 years of initial spread of Islam, and some were reviewed in Medina about 10 years later, or the following 10 years. Thirdly, that many of the revelations of the Quran many of the citations are as
were revealed, actually, by way of commentary on certain events, or an answer to certain certain question that might have variable from time to time in the life of the Muslim community. And then we looked at that while many sutras in the Quran or units were revealed, namely, either in Makkah, or in Medina, we find strange enough that in many of these, there may be something in the middle, maybe two, three is just in the middle of the sweater that were revealed later on in Medina, or the reverse, which means that there have been, there have been no particular order or clonal chronology and that revelation, and after you mentioned some of the basic reservations and limitation of this
research in terms of the certitude of what is revealed in McCann, Medina, both in terms of the sutras and specific areas with the reservation also of the reasons for revelation, which are sometimes subject to question. I said, however, if you follow the the classification that we find in many copies of the Quran, about where each surah was revealed, and what are the exceptions, using that as a framework. We counted 41 sutras in the Quran, which has a combination of both revelation in Mecca and Medina. with yours, you get by way of gap between this revelation. And what we pointed out last time, and to some extent, also towards the end of the one program before that is that it is
amazing to notice that if you look at the flow of the meaning of the verses are a as before the idea that are different, or were revealed in a different place, and the ones after or both, you find that the meaning flows very nicely, not only in terms of the sign, Orion, but the flow of meaning gives the impression as if they were revealed all at the same time in the same place, which is not the case. And that, of course, is the basic question as to what can really explain that unless the Quran exists in front in the knowledge of God, prior to its revelation, and then it was revealed a small party in small part there. And then the Prophet was directed to put it together and direct where
each single verse or area should be placed. And finally it came up setting completely and perfectly, which again, shows that it all existed before its revelation.
Understand that your research on this particular subject has been has not been published at the moment. And since no other publication appears to have addressed this particular point, I'd like to have you perhaps continue in today's program with a summary of your findings. Okay, I hope it will not be too tiring to you because of course, this is not the same format that we used in other programs but what I did I get your copy also of the translation of
Quran by Yusuf Ali. And I would suggest also that some of the viewers who wish to review that with us they could do so or they can take notes and check it for their own.
But in any case, I'll be given both the surah number and a number. Just by way of clarification of the terminology when we use the term surah. We're using that instead of the common term chapter because the Quran is not just divided into chapters, like any textbook or any subject, so that would sudo su r h means a portion of the Quran or the unit and the word a why h means what is usually referred to as verse with just one
small passage, if you will, one or more passages.
To start, for example, from Surah 42.
Notice that in the 20s, for example, in the area 22. Towards the end
of that if it speaks about the reward that Allah has prepared for those who believed and did good deeds, and that would be enjoying the bliss in paradise. And that this is this such a, this is a really magnificent bounty that Allah has given them. So the end of the verse talking about the magnificent bounty, Allah give to the the pious
you continue with 23 or 23 it says that is that is the bounty which God has given or that God gives glad tiding to his servants.
if you look at this
two passages, can you notice any difference in flow, can you tell whether one of them was read in a different time or place, you know, just together, actually one of them is commenting and other talks about the mountain and the other one says that this is the boundary that Allah gives clarify, the fact of the matter is that up to 22, it was revealed in Makkah, 23 through 25 were received in Medina.
Again, without any noticeable break in the meaning of that I am, again, what can explain that if there were any human authors who could be no human authors with this kind of thing. Now, in the same sort of again, you find that area 26, which is from the previous three passages, which were revealed in Medina 36 was revealed in Mecca. And if you look at the connection between 25, which is another knee, higher, and 26, which is a mucky area, again, there is the same kind of flow of meaning Why? in higher 25 madonie.
It says that Allah who will accept the repentance of his servants and forgive their sins and know what they do already, in the following area, it says where and he listens to those who believe and do deeds of righteousness and give them increase of His bounty. Again, you hardly find any difference in the style, it simply describes acceptance of repentance, the forum is number 26. And how Allah listen to their prayers and accept them, which is again a perfect flow of meaning one of them is enough. One of them is in Medina.
Interestingly enough, is indicated before that the it's not that some ads were revealed in Makkah first and then the completion of the surah in Medina, but like they are scattered here and there, in the very same surah when you get back to area 27,
you find that a 27 actually was reviewed in Medina. So again, there's even one and one by one I have 26 is Nike 27 is Madden 25 is Madden Sora, which shows again, that is the new way that someone can alter this and scatter them, and then they fit together.
You'll notice for example, that in 2007, I made any
passage, it says if Allah give provision for his servants without any limit, or enlarge it, we get more that some of them might transgress but Allah gives this wealth and measures some measures. All right, the Frederick area 28 It speaks also about Allah sending very down after people have discouraged. Now, sometimes the connection might not be as obvious. But you notice here that the term universal in Arabic is used in both of these is University which means Sit down, sit down once or sit down rain. Now this connection here because they
Rain and wells are matters which are coveted and desired by the people. So there's one similarity. Secondly, as it is dangerous for bounties, and willing to be too much, because when people get too much wisdom, it can become arrogant and too watery and unintelligent, and concern. So is excessive rain, because again, excessive rain might be damaging and destructive. So you see, again, the perfect connection of the meaning, again, with the variation of the time and place of Revelation.
Let's take the following Surah 43.
And let's get around to number 54.
Now, can I add 63. And the previous is actually, let's say from 51. To 53. It speaks essentially about the story of the pharaoh in Egypt, and how he was too hot and too proud. And he claimed that you know, that he has the domain of Egypt and the rivers are flowing underneath him, started to belittle and criticize Prophet Moses in passage 52. Again, in 53, he says, if this were really a prophet, that is Moses, why doesn't he get some kind of God bracelets bestowed on him from Heavens? Or why not angels come with him? So all of them dealing with the attitude of haughtiness on the part of the Pharaoh and his argument to his people to convince them that they should not listen to
Now, in passage, 54 or 54, it says, first of all, for karma, who does, did he that is the pharaoh through his people, that they obeyed him? Right, the following passage 55 it says, and when he attends they, that is the the Pharaoh and his people and guards are provoked us, executive retribution from them. Now, can you tell if there is any difference here, the flow of the meaning is perfect, or good with the study of the thorough it describes his arguments. It describes the result of this argument of his people being fooled by that argument and following him blindly, without thinking, and then talking about the consequences of following Pharaoh, that they angered Allah and
Allah punish them and he joined, as we know the study of the Pharaoh, in his own words, a perfect connection of the meaning. However, it is interesting to notice that a a 54, that says that Pharaoh food his people, to obey Him, comes in the middle and that was revealed in Medina, whereas the test is just before and after were revealed, perhaps years before in Mecca.
sort of 4544, there is no there is no problem because there is no mixture of
passages to read. And Matt can tell you that instead of 54, for example, if we get around a passage number 14.
You notice for example, that from passage 12 to 13. It speaks about how Allah made subservient the sea to people so that the ship might say and, and it, it talks about how Allah made subservient to humankind, everything in Heavens and the Earth. In passage 14, it says 10 births were believed to forgive those who do not look forward to the days of Allah, days of alignment like the Hereafter,
that Allah May recompense people or each people according to what they have earned. In passage 15 it talks again about whoever does righteous deeds, it is for himself, whoever does wrong, it is against himself again. Now, between 14 which is revealed in Medina, and 15, which was revealed previously in Mecca, 15 and 16, which deals also with the Israelites. You notice again, that the meaning seem to be flowing because you talk about people who are not remembrance, do not remember the boundaries of Allah. And that after all, you people can forgive them, that after all, the ultimate reward for punishment or punishment for their deeds, with lying with Allah, which exists or is found in 15.
Again, the meaning still flows without any, anything that might sound them as an interruption in the in the meaning
in sort of 46
that's another interesting area, odds are sort of because there are three areas not necessarily in the same city.
cones, which were revealed in Medina, while the rest of the Shura was revealed in Makkah. But again to connect, if you look, for example, at
number nine, and sort of 45
addresses Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and say, say, I'm a firm that is to people. I'm not a drinker of a new tangle doctrine that Islam is nothing really totally new, it has been revealed to previous prophets before. And it ends by saying that I'm only following what has been revealed unto me. And we all know, of course, that what was revealed to Prophet Muhammad, the Quran,
the number 10
says, say, if this teaching or the Quran
was called be from Allah, and you reject it, and a witness from among the children of Israel is justified to its similarity, that is with the scriptures.
And he has believed, while you are arrogant, how unjust you are, truly, Allah guides, not a people. And just again, you notice the continuation of the meaning because the previous speaks about the Quran, to the Prophet, which is nothing new, which is basically the same essential message received by previous prophets, including Prophet Moses, peace be upon him. And
the interesting thing about it is that it was not revealed in Mecca was revealed the Medina and it was revealed also commenting on a particular incident. And that incident was that one of the main Jewish scholars and leaders in Medina, Mohammed went to Medina, by the name of Abdullah Alam, he was regarded as the most knowledgeable among his people. And in fact, he
embraced Islam, but he did not want to declare it immediately. So he asked Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, to Allah to invite the Jews, the Israelites in Medina to be his present. And Optima has hid himself behind.
And then the Prophet asked them, What do people think of Abdullah, Abu Salah, and they said, Oh, he's the most knowledgeable Jew among us. He's our leader, he's respected and this and that. So abdomen of Mr. Lamb came from his hiding and said, If you people believe in my knowledge and my integrity, I have found that the Quran brought to Prophet Muhammad is the truth and you should tolerate at that time they started attacking him say, No, no, this man is the worst of us. And they started getting all kinds of, you know, bad description, so many, many, many writers on the exigency, sort of explanation or interpretation. And they said that this
was developed in medieval North America, in the commentary of that incident, and it says, How could you reject a Quran like this, which has come from Allah, and a witness from the children of Israel, ie, that man has already testified to the truthfulness. And it says, initially, that this court is similar to previous scriptures, at least in some essential concepts. And he believed that you reject it. And notice again, that the following passage number 11, it gives the argument this time not of the Israelites, but the argument of other Arab pagans who rejected the Prophet. And they say that if the Quran
or the message, or Islam was true, or good, how could those poor people be the first to follow the Prophet
as when it talks again, about profit losers, and before it, that is, before the revelation of the Koran was the book that was given to Prophet Moses, again, the flow of the meaning, you know, just perfect as if it's all revealed at the same time. In fact, it was not.
Let's take for example, surah number 50.
Again, if we look at the citations before Ls 38.
Basically, it deals with taking lesson from the punishment that Allah has given to previous people who rejected the mission of the prophets. In our associates, it talks about the creation of heavens and earth, it says that Allah created the heavens and earth, and everything in between in six days actually spirits we discussed that in the science and Quran before and and that Allah who was not touched by any sense of readiness, the immediate area after that, that is 39. It says there then or Mohammed with patience, all that they say, and celebrate the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun, and before it's setting the flow between 38 and 39. Again, this is perfect. You talk
about the creation of heavens and earth
such a fun word, be patient with their rejection because that's the context of the whole surah. Or at least that part, people rejecting the mission of the Prophet say, be patient with them, and supplicate in the name of the Lord. Again, 38 was revealed in Medina, the remaining part of the surah. Before and After reviewing,
again, how could it fit like a glove with this perfection, texture 53, for example, and that's an amazing one also,
the entire surah
was revealed in NACA, with the exception of one, single error, number 32. If you look at the error before 32, you find that it says that, to allow the ones that is in heavens and on air, so that He rewards those who do even according to their deeds, and He rewards those who do good with what is best. So it talks about the word of the good people 52, which was the good many years later, perhaps in the dinner, it says, Those who avoid great sins, and shameful deeds,
not to switch. In other words, it's almost like a continuation of description of those good people, that Allah who wrote them, and that those good people who deserve this Mercy of Allah tried to avoid great sins, perfect continuation of the meaning with the variation of time and place of Revelation. Instead of 50, for
the internet sort of is really Denmark except for 44 through 46. The argument before this different pious is the argument made by the the unbelievers.
You know, that combated them that this unbelievers among you, or people of Christ, or the tribe of the Prophet, you are not better than those whom Allah destroyed in the past.
And this different is revealed in Medina 44 to 46. It talks about the argument of this the same crocheted unbelievers that they claim that they will have victory, but they would have defeat and they will show that that, that after all the hours, or the Day of Judgment is the appointed time, and this is even more grievious. And more better.
Up to that point and the madonie revelation, the revelation that was revealed before that in Mecca, which is a continuation of the surah that is a a 47 on it describes again the punishment of this people and that they have judgment that they will be invalid in Masada to be straining and money and mad. In other words, still continues with the same type of punishment that would be reflected in 48. For example, it says how they would be dragged on their faces in the in the Hellfire in Surah 56.
That's an interesting one too, because in the passages, for example, from 77, on, you find 77 let's say 280. It speaks exclusively about the Quran, the Quran is an honor book and so on, and that it is revelation from Allah.
In 81 and 82. You find that speaks about the Quran
being listened and rejected. In this he refers to Quran as this means there is, isn't that such a message or caught on that you would hold in light steam and so on. Again, a continuation talking about the Quran. In fact, 81 and 82 were both revealed in Medina, the wrists before that, after were revealed in a meta
suta suit on 68. That's another interesting passage also, which is quite lengthy, but just to abbreviated, up to passage 16.
It talks about
the immediate Tigers before that, about one of the unbelievers who used to claim that whatever the Prophet says was just the stories of the past.
Because Allah has given him wealth, and many children, he became so haughty and arrogant. Okay, so it talks about women and children. As one reason one that man became so elegant
from passage or 17 through 33. It says we try them as we try the people of the garden and he felt about some people who used to own a garden, and they were very stingy. So before the poor come and ask for some charity, they said we'd wake up in the morning and go and get the fruit before anybody
He asked for charity and so on, and how allowed Australia to punish them. But notice again that the flow of the story even though this was revealed in Medina, that is 17 through 33. It's basically similar to the story before that, that is testing the human with wealth and children and to see whether they will be responsive to the message of Allah. Cause to hottie. Again, we have about three more Do we have time to go through them relatively?
Quickly, okay. In Surah 73. For example, up to passage number nine was revealed in in Mecca. In fact, number nine, addresses Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. It says that Allah is the Lord of east and west, there is no God, but he take him for the Disposer of affairs,
passages, numbers 10 and 11 was revealed in Medina, not in Mecca. But you notice the style, it says and have patience, or Mohamad with what they say, is still continuing to address the Prophet.
In other words, again, with the difference a place and time, the flow of the meaning
is not interrupted at all. And surah number 77.
Again, that entire suit was revealed in Makkah, except for one passage in the middle actually, or somewhere in the middle, number 48, which was was revealed in Medina. Again, if you look at the context before it
in passage number 47, you find that it continues to use a passage that was repeated very much in that surah if you go back for a few passages, why are you doing Yama in Makati been war that day to the rejecter of truth. And then in 48, it says, and when it is said to them, prostrate yourself they do not. In other words, it's pretty continuous, the description of those who are rejected of truth that they refuse to bow down or prostrate in worship, to Allah in 49, which is the law, the diversity for last, and that sort of it uses again, the same repeated sentence. And that's what a row that day to the rejecters of truth. Again, if you look at it, can you read it as a whole, you
can hardly feel any difference whatsoever, no one would come to the conclusion that this surah must have been, in fact checking all at the same time, under the same circumstances, even though in fact, the state is perfect. The flow of union is equally perfect. The last, sir, I have here, at least among those that we'll cover today is 107. Towards the very end of the Quran. Now, this sort of is almost divided into in terms of two parts. The first three passages were revealed in Mecca. The remaining part in Medina, the first a passage is speaks about those who deny judgment, that is the the Hereafter, those who repulse the orphan and are harsh with the orphan, and those who are not
helpful to the poor and needy. Now, there are many parts of the surah was revealed in in Medina. And it says, So, notice your sole provider, which means just a continuation of any war to the worshipers who are neglectful of their prayers, those who want but to be seen, that is to show off on but refused to supply even the neighborly needs. So there's first the flow in terms of the Ryan, there is the flow also of the meaning. And notice here the difference between Mecca and Medina because in Medina, some people already became Muslims, but they were not really good Muslim, some of them were just showing off. Some of them were doing that but not applying the teaching of Islam. So in the
first half speaks about those who do not believe at all. The second half is like even if you believe you still have to follow certain rules and certain, you know, standards in order to be a true believer, again, a perfect fit. The main question that is here is very humble piece of research, how could any human being or something like that scattered over 23 years in different places, and sometimes commenting on certain events that were not known at the time of course, when he had this master plan, unless the author of the Quran is none but the Creator Himself of other demography exhauster time I'm sure many of the viewers of the programmer, he is leading the publication of your
findings on this very interesting topic. We want to thank you all for watching Assalamu alaikum peace