The Quran – Sciences 58 – Naskh Supersession 1

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Jamal Badawi

Channel: Jamal Badawi

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Alaikum and welcome to Islam and focus. Today's program is 58 in the sea resources of Assam and today we have a new topic. It's naskah I'm probably pronouncing that wrong and Dr. Jamal will correct me.

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I'm your host a shot Manish and survey conducted by

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Dr. Dahlia. Before we get to our new topic, and you correct me with my pronunciation, could you

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could you please give our viewers a quick summary of last week's program? Okay. Last week, we almost finished with the topic of the Mecca, Medina revelation, with more emphasis on the subdivisions in each of these two periods into three earliest middle and later, as a nice summary suggested. And we try to examine briefly the characteristics of each of these sub periods,

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especially the meccan period, and how this

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represented a source of change or evolution or growth of the Muslim community and how the revelation related and interacted with the incidents and events that took place in their lives.

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We also noted that in each of these periods,

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despite of this subdivisions, the common characteristics of the Mecca and Medina and seem to be reasonably distinct.

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We compare that, of course, to show the soundness of the methodology used by Muslim scholars, as opposed to the orientalist attitudes which was based largely on speculation or unauthentic. Reports. So this is basically the focus that he had done a show before leaving this topic as one question I want to ask last week that time, and that is why would you say the meccan and the Medina chapters are inter next are intermingled rather than each appearing in one separate section? Yeah, this is an interesting question. And it's quite common that some people, for example, would say, you know, since the Mexican Revolution was first and then the Medina and why not the chapters in the Quran are

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arranged in that order. And that relates to some discussion also that we had before on the, on the order of the Quran, and who determined the order. Our conclusion there, of course, will that the order of the Quran was not of the own making of the companions of the Prophet or even the Prophet himself, he was directed to put the chapters the way they are. And that seems to have puzzled many readers of the Quran that you might find a few chapters, which would have been done in Medina, followed by one in Makkah, then you go again, followed by Medina, and why they are like this.

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In addition to the fact that this might represent one of the aspects of the miracle of the Quran, that the various sources were revealed at different times in different places, in different stages. And then in the in the final analysis, regardless of place of Revelation, each and every chapter, the present, cohesive

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topic, or basic topic or topics you might say, in conglomerate of topics together, that shows that there was pre design of what to be included in the Quran, a design that related even to events that are going to take place in the future, which shows that no human being or group of humans could have ever done that it must have really been a divine plan to put it in that order ultimate.

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But in addition to this, the miracle in terms of the style and the contents, despite of the variations or intermingling of the two periods,

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they reflect another practical aspect of Islam. Islam is a very practical face in the sense of really addressing the real issues and problems

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that people face in their lives. In addition, of course, to eschatology and other unseen both of them are combined. That's very practical in that sense. It doesn't just give a theory without showing how to apply it. It's not just a book of utopia, but also something that relate to the life of human beings.

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As the great scholars, Yusuf Ali, Abdullah, Ali, the famous translator of the meaning of the Quran, once observed, he said that, on one hand, you find that the mechi revelation emphasizes faith in Allah. The Medina that came later emphasizes on how to translate that faith in Allah into action.

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The Mexican or earlier revelation, indicate that Allah reward people for good and punish them for doing evil.

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And the Medina revelation, it shows and defines what is good and what is a what's that good to get rewarded for and once that evil terrorists you get punished for.

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Thirdly, in the Mexican Revolution, we find verses that are more prophetical. It gives prophecies as to what will happen in the future at the period when Muslims were few and severely persecuted.

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And they maintain a revelation later, it shows how these prophecies came to pass as Allah promised and how Muslims emerged as victorious and how the face began to spread even among those who oppose the initial.

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Firstly,

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the metcons revelation synthesize the notion of tranquility, and happiness. So knowledge about the creator and relationship with him. In the Medina and revelation later, it shows again, how can that happiness also spread and go beyond relationship between the human and the Creator, to relationship between human and another human that is happiness also, among human beings. So it's really a nice and beautiful thing that even sometimes in the same chapter, even as we have indicated in some previous programs, in the same chapter, or surah, you may have even some verses that are met and some are Medina, in the order of the chapters, this doesn't just follow any particular chronological

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order to show how these theories or concepts can be actually implemented. Thank you very much for

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coming to our new topic, how is not related to other aspects of interpretation then within the Quran, that have been discussed before? Well, in the past few programs, we have discussed certain aspects that help in the Tafseer, or the interpretation and proper understanding of the Quran. One of those basic topics was the

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Babel majority are reasons for revelation to try and find out what was the context of certain verses what happened there and so on, to get some idea about what is really the meaning of those verses.

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Secondly, we discussed on Justin, his discussion of the meccan muddiman revelation, which help us also to understand the gradualness of how the Muslim community evolved over time and the kind of teaching that came to suit the developing community.

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However, if you examine the contents of the Quran, from one angle, you can divide it basically into two things, or two basic areas.

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There is one area in the Quran that has been quite conclusive, not evolution, quite conclusive, from the very beginning from day one, with absolutely no compromise. And this is the area of faith in Allah beneath correct belief. Because if you're going to comply, compromise on belief, then you're compromising between truth and falsehood, which is done what doesn't. And you don't need really to give people enough time.

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to gradually move from unbelief to belief. It's either you believe or you don't give me the choice, but otherwise you don't compromise and watered down fundamental beliefs and faith in the Creator, to satisfy people because they came from pagan background or whatever other practice has to be really clear from the beginning.

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That was conclusive. However,

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in the Quran, also, we find that it deals with the purification of the humans, purification from certain customs, and practices and behaviors,

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which they used to do all their lives. Now, as far as people's behaviors, not belief,

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you can't really ask people to change overnight.

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The example that's most clear on that somebody who's used to drink and he's an alcoholic, we know that you can't tell him that this is bad. And you have to stop.

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Effective tomorrow at the hour 1200 or whatever, you can do that. So you have to really tell him

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But it's bad, but provide a program of detoxification images. That chance you need patience, you need gradualness.

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For that reason, we find that some of the injunctions revealed in the Quran can pretend for human behavior. Were not finalized from the beginning, but came in a gradual way, in accordance with a divine plan.

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This means that some of the earlier verses in the Quran, especially the ones in let's say, in Mecca,

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represent a stage or represented a stage only in the evolution of the ultimate law that Allah wanted to reveal.

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But get people to gradually accept it.

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And that, of course, leads us to another discipline in interpreting the Quran besides the first two topics, reasons for Revolution, the neck and Medina and type.

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That is which of these verses were earlier, which was letters, which ones modified some earlier instructions that were taking basically as a stage in the development? And that is really what is meant by the topic of NASA. I think you did a try that.

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Well, that is an

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English equivalent.

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The question is significant because it relates to some degree of confusion about that topic, especially in the minds of many orientalists. And maybe that's why I didn't mention the equivalent from the beginning.

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The semantics are quite essential here, because many are interests, for example, use the term abrogation application,

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which is right in one particular sense that the problem here is that if you check, for example, Webster's dictionary,

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abrogation means to cancel

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to abolish, or notice, to repeal repeal.

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Now,

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like any other term, whether in Arabic or English or any other language, you have to be careful because sometimes,

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the same word may have a literal meaning. But it could also have a technical meaning use as a specific term.

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In the Arabic language, the Arabic term mess, which like I said, has been translated abrogation

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could mean to remove something,

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or to replace something with something else,

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or to transfer something like transfer from one person to the other, like an inheritance, for example. Or it could even mean simply to copy something.

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In the technical sense, of course, the meaning really refers in the jurisprudential meaning to replacing an injunction with another injunction. That is an injunction comes in the Quran, another one come to replace it.

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That is why perhaps the Arabic English dictionary, the famous one by Hans Berger, has given perhaps a better word than abrogation. He used the term supersede something that supersede the others.

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But the lack of precision, like I said, all the difficulty with the term abrogation even though it could be used in specific meaning, is that in the mind of some orientalists, I want to look at it as cancellation and nourishment or repeating.

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They came up with some kind of erroneous conclusion, that this means that God has changed his mind.

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Like you're you do something and you repeat it after you discovered that you're an error. So they mistakenly thought that abrogation actually means that God didn't know something. So he established one injunction, and then he discovered something. So he changed that which has nothing to do, of course, with the concept of NASA, and a proper term. I guess it's just emphasize that you got to be very careful when you're interpreting terms and

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anything for that matter. Now has a term used within the crowd itself? Well, the word muscle again, quote unquote, abrogation of superstition,

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and its derivatives, has been used to the best of my information, first times in the Quran.

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In three of them, it has nothing to do with the technical meaning of abrogation, or superstition to replace one injunction in the Quran with another.

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Let me start first with the ones that are unrelated to the technical meaning, but the term has been used.

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Chapter 45, for example, in verse 29. The word mask or dispenser is used in a sense of keeping a record of our deeds

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During this life, that there is some record of what we do.

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In chapter seven, verse 154, describing the revelation given to Prophet Moses, peace be upon him the Torah. And it says happiness. Katya Hoda, another derivative of Nazca again, which means in the writing of Torah has nothing to do with intention again, that in the writing of Torah, there was guidance.

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In chapter 22, verse 52,

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it refers actually to

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Allah, removing nothing and a sense of removal of the forces of evil that stands in the face of the core, or mission of all of the prophets, and show how Finally, the revelation of Allah, and his will, shall prevail. And despite all of these obstacles, this might come to analysis time. So, with this theory, there remains only one single verse in the Quran that clearly are seem to talk about, abrogation or superstition, or,

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more explicitly, and that's in chapter two verse 106, man and soften it out and see how not to hate a man hit or miss the, the translation of the meaning is whatever.

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And the word Allah could mean son, message, or verse I have to be careful again, because each one has some implication, whatever sign message or verse we that Allah can sing.

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In Arabic means cause to be forgotten. But another meaning also,

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which means closer to be delayed,

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two meanings, whatever sign we can sell, or cause to be forgotten or delayed, we bring one that has one verse or is

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better than it like it? No, you will not that Allah has power over all things. You see, the terms here are quite important.

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The most significant part here is the term a a, a with a Macron, or a a y, h.

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ls may not necessarily mean a verse in the Quran, it could mean a verse in the Quran, it could mean American, but it could be a sign.

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In that sense, then that reference could be made as a response to the unbelievers who used to dunk the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. And so like if you're really a true prophet, next, some metaphysical miracles, you know, to impress us

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as some of the prophets before you have this physical miracle.

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So that's the one.

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However, the contexts which seem to be more relevant here in my humble understanding in the verse, is that era here, in fact, refers to a message rather than American or verse in the Quran, a message because that's also correct meaning of

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which means then a message or law going into any profits, which means then, that Allah chose to send or reveal another set of laws are another

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law, if you will, to a new profit, in order to replace or supersede one that was revealed before or giving a previous profit before or to supersede a previous scripture, then it is up to him. Because only Allah knows, what are the needs of humanity, and what suits them? And what is the proper timing, to make modifications in certain detailed laws, or even to finalize the law in one flexible and final form that suits the needs of all human beings four times as

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well change can you trust to explain the context which favors this interpretation?

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Okay, if we go to that chapter, chapter two,

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you'll notice that the verses surrounding or element one was six.

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Discuss the relationship between the Israelites with their creator with Allah, and with the prophets, Prophet Moses, peace be upon him.

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The section immediately before that, verse one, verse six, it speaks about the rebellion among the sidelights against the teaching and guidance of Allah, rebellion against prophets, Moses. And then finally, the rejection.

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permission of the successors of Moses and Jesus peace be upon them both Prophet Muhammad and indicates

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the reason for the rejection. And by the way that historically again, recorded that they used to object to the mission of the Prophet and they say, Listen,

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if what the Quran says that's a relation that you claim

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was identical to the law of Moses, then it is redundant.

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And if it is not Laden, if it's not identical, if there is any difference, then we are not going to accept it. Because of course, they assume that how could allow even two different type of messages they don't understand that they could be evolution also under evolution didn't understand also that some of the things that they believed to be laws of Allah were actually men, a type of laws are being replaced with divine revelation. But in any case, this was the kind of trap that he wants to give the Prophet either identical or different. How could you take something contradictory to the revelation.

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But the reason as the Quran explains, their rejection

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is to indicate that the title of the book and in that particular case, the references made to the Israelites, that they didn't like the idea that Allah would choose a person who was known as a like a Gentile, as they classify people.

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Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, was non Israelite Prophet, to receive the honor of that final revelation of Allah or to receive the revelation of the Quran.

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But it should be interesting here to notice that while the herbs and Israelites belong to the same grandfather, Prophet Abraham, and as we find both in the Quran, and in the Bible itself, there is a promise to bless the nations of the earth through the descendants of Abraham. And we all know that they say that prophets came through his second son, Isaac, and then through his first son, Ishmael came the last prophet, Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, which means, in fact that the Arabs and the Muslims, a few generalized Muslims and Israelites actually belong to the same common grandfather Abraham.

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And if we also remember that in Genesis in the Bible, the book of Genesis chapter 21, verses 13 and 18, we find that in addition to the promise of blessing Isaac and his descendants, there was also specific promise to bless Ishmael and his descendants. And we all know that Prophet Muhammad is the descendant

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of Ishmael.

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What that means, then, we check the context of both the chapters as well as the section immediately before the verse 106. The meaning of the verse Allah knows best means that since Allah is the source of all divination, scriptures, that were given to previous prophets, Moses, Jesus or Muhammad peace be upon them, then he is entitled, as the creator, to also send a new revelation and you know, superseding the Mosaic law

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or to reveal a law that

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represents a combination of the essence of his wealth, and His revelation to all of these prophets and he happened to choose the last prophet in an Israeli Prophet, Muhammad peace be of

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this emphasis

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on the absolute power, and win of Allah is connected not only with the section before the verse but also diverse, immediately following that, because if you notice it says, Allah tala and Allah Allah,

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no you not, that to Allah belongs the domain of heavens and earth antenna anila homolka Sinatra, no, you're not that Allah or to Allah belongs the domain of heavens and earth. And that besides Allah, you have neural patterns, or helpers. So looking at the chapter, the verses before and the verses after the city the meaning seems to imply that that don't criticize Prophet Muhammad, or don't make it

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really sound unreasonable that how come Allah revealed a superseding and finally communicating message through him because Allah decides whatever he feels appropriate for the needs of his creatures. And this is the only verse in the entire Quran that speaks about NASCAR superstition

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as it relates to Revelation in such an explicit

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way. That sounds very reasonable. There is however, one thing that needs clarification. In the earlier translation of diverse under discussion here, you

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The term replaced or delayed. Now what are the implications of both these terms, okay? In some Corrado some recitations, the word could be read new

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ordinance,

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and some translation even when you need it even in Syria, and some biotics even have to also mean

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delay. So it could mean cause to be forgotten.

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And of course, when you use the term forgotten notwithstanding memory, when you say, for example, that one law, a complete and more perfect final law is revealed, you might say that others have forgotten. This replaces the previous revelation or replaces previous injunctions or law, if you might say, that's one meaning, and then, of course, to be forgotten, and instead means delays

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caused the delay, which means that the fact that Allah chose to reveal certain things to Prophet Moses or Jesus or any other great prophets in history

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does not necessarily mean that the knowledge of God was limited. So later on, he discovered something and he added more or modified, that that Allah chose, in his divine plan, to reveal certain things in the past, something to Prophet Moses something to Prophet Jesus, but he chose finally to complete things and to have his final ultimate guidance, through his lost profit center in Santa here means delay.

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If Allah chooses to delay the timing or to choose the proper timing for any particular messenger or message, then it is up to him because he knows best, what is good for us.

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I should say, however, that these two meanings are not necessarily contradictory meanings. In fact, they are complimentary, because to have something

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being replaced, to be replaced or to be superseded, carries also the meaning that that last message was delayed deliberately. In other words, to delay or to cause to be forgotten are complimentary meanings are not mutually exclusive.

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We have already explained in the answers to the previous question, that the first meaning

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could be visa V, the argument of the Israelites or it could mean the revelation of the Quran as replacing the law.

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But in both cases, as we have seen, they seem to be no difficulty at all, in responding to objections that are related to this topic of, of NASA. So what I'm trying to conclude, basically from that, that

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the topic of NASA has been subject to a great deal of misunderstanding, particularly on the part of the orientalists because somehow they want to give the impression to the reader, that there's some difficulty with the Quran, because how come certain things are revealed at one time, and then

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God changes his mind. And the basic point really, that they fail to understand which I believe, not only relates to this topic of NES or superstition, but it relates also to the previous discussion we've had about reasons for revelation about the meccan Meridian, or meddling in religion and revelation is that they have to distinguish between matters of belief where there is no change of mind whatsoever. That doesn't change his mind, he knows everything doesn't have to, but the matters of belief have to be explicit, but in terms of evolution, or gradual change in the life of the Muslim community, gradual legislation to carry them from the state of ignorance and, you know,

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paganism to the state of proper practice in their lives to have the piety and fear of Allah in their, in their minds when they act as something that's required, some sort of gradualness

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Well, thank you very much, Dr. deli. And thank you all for joining us here today. We welcome your comments and we'd love to hear any questions that you might have for us. On your screen, you'll have our address and our phone number. A lot of us you understand focus Assalamu alaikum See you next week.