The Quran – Sciences 56 – Criteria For Classification

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Jamal Badawi

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Assalamu alaikum peace beyond you are back for another episode of Islam focus. We're glad you could join us. We're continuing with our series dealing with the sources of Islam. We have our first program today dealing with Quranic sciences we'll be discussing,

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continuing our discussion of the macro

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revelations. I'm your host, Mr. Rashid and I am joined in the program, document that we have some diversity by the Jamal

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program last time in the beginning of discussion of the mecca Medina revelations I want to perhaps I could ask you just to quickly highlight what we touched on in that program, surely.

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First of all, giving some examples about the importance of understanding the reasons for revelation in time the various passages or various parts of the chapter in the Quran

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indicated that the fact that the nurse may have a different reason for revelation does not mean that it shouldn't apply only to that incident, but it is genuine in application. That is it applies to any similar case regardless.

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We also indicated that

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the reason

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why God chose that style in the Quran, probably is to make the teaching of the Quran not just dogmatic old list of beliefs, but rather something which is tied and related to the lives of people

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and problems and practical questions and concerns. Because this will help in understanding the Quran properly.

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And then we started with the other aspect, which is very much tied to a dangerous revelation. The distinction, as you said, between the neck and medium in Revelation

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indicated essentially that the Quran was revealed over 23 years, it was mean.

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But the first 13 years of revelation took place in Mecca, which was mainly a period of persecution of Muslims. Now that 10 years were in Medina, where they began to establish

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an Islamic community. And I said that this is very helpful in understanding the gradual

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process of Revelation.

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He also indicated that the main criteria for distinction between the two types of revelations relate to the place that his word diversity was revealed. Or the time that is whether before or after the migration of the Prophet, or that match the nature of people that the type of people who are addressed in this versus whether the Mexican people are addressed or the

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Midianites people

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and then indicated that's why these three criteria may overlap and might perhaps be the same in some respects. But the most helpful perhaps, is the subdivision by the time that is prior to migration, yes, and after migration from Mecca to Medina.

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But in addition to that, you said that some Muslim scholars have also paid attention to other criteria, which are more detailed and interesting observations pertaining to what was revealed last night What was revealed in the day, winter, summer.

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So they will really be quite careful in trying to chase the various circumstances surrounding the revelation of any particular verse, which is very helpful in understanding the Quran.

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will give a few examples of that. And I might conclude by saying that, despite all of this interesting

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reports,

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it is unfortunate that many orientalist seem to totally discount or disregard the supports in favor of their own speculation.

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If I could get you to comment on that point and experiencing point that in spite of the mass of evidence and the meticulous research and so on, as you say the argument still don't accept the these reports related to the authenticity of the Koran.

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Why do you think that is? Well, if the problem was simply a concern for authenticity, and verification, one would not blame them. In fact, Muslim scholars themselves were very, very meticulous

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about that and we would not just accept any report historical report without some verification as indicated before, both

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examination of the narrator's as well as the analysis of the story itself and how whether there is any flaw in that story.

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So

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the Muslim scholar were just as careful also in terms of the person not saying all of them there is no flaw whatsoever. I mean, humans are humans, but I don't think this is the reason why orientalist discounted that because there were many good

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authentic reports that they also wholesale rejected.

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That is questionable, however, in the attitudes of some of the interests, as Dr. Salah indicates is that some of them like I said, totally discount on this authentic reports and replace it simply with their own speculation and assumptions as the blusher for example,

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but will the other hand we find that some of them go to the other extreme, like grains, for example, HGRIW me my grain to some degree, William were also who go to the other exchange by accepting some weak

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reports without, again, application of this skill of verification that Muslim scholars have been particularly you know, skillful as.

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And again, there's all kinds of fantastic results on those who are less authentic type of the person with the problem of going to either extreme rather than being careful in explaining or verifying in Perth.

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It appears according to Dr. Salah that new orientalist were influenced by the famous orientalist, not the case,

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who held the view that the Quran should be

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altered

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in a way that is different from best clinic methodology. Another word starts aside from any merit to the method that we're using, the method that was used by Muslim scholars is increasingly we should reject that altogether and find some other methods.

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And we just seem to have followed suit without actually finding also that this basic position is justifiable or not.

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Now,

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what we said before is basically that, for example, we can verify if the report has come through an eyewitness to the Prophet, like the companions and how they report reached us. Well, it is the chain of narration is all trustworthy. And it will be useful here to mention something that we mentioned before, that some companions of the Prophet like Elon Musk, and

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clearly stated that they have a great deal of wealth of information as to the reason for the revelation of the various verses in the Quran. So under circumstances, you know, why they were revealed?

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This is the problem actually with the orientalist. It's not the verification aspect.

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Muslim scholars are reluctant to express opinion or apply some judgment. And not necessarily, because even if the there's an authentic report, if you will, which is the basis for their conclusion, that SMTP approach also is subject to interpretation is subject to analysis and also

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application of some learned judgment, if you will. But that's different from saying I discovered I don't care about any historical report, no matter how authentic and I'll just replace that totally with judgment. So another objection is okay. Opinions fine, but expressed also within the proper context with without neglecting available documents.

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Because that would be just as efficient as jumping to conclusions on the basis of either weak evidence or just sheer speculation. And since both elements of judgment and analysis were included, actually, in the research done by by Muslim scholars, we find that the most obvious manifestation of this judgmental and analytical freedom that they use is that we find that they differ

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in some issues pertaining to what is next and the denial type of Revelation. Mind you, some of those differences might be possibly reconcilable. But that shows again that

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to use carefully authentic historical reports, does not mean that you just take it blindly or you don't apply any judgment or analysis. It was unrelated. Or do we can you give us some examples perhaps to illustrate the point about the difference the kind of differences exist

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Have a plan, for example for one scholarship indicate that there is basically about 82 somebodies most 82 chapters out of the 114 chapters of the Quran,

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at least that number is agreed to among scholars to be living in America.

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On other hand, there's also general agreement that a minimum of 20 Some believe more even than that 20 chapters in the Quran were revealed in Medina.

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And then a maximum of 12 chapters or the 12 remaining chapters could be less depending of course on the other classification, but maximum of 12 chapters in the Quran. There is some difference of opinion among Jews, even though there might be some reports as to whether those chapters were revealed in Mecca, or Medina.

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So that again, is one illustration of the freedom to enter the given even the available reports to them.

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As indicated also in the previous series, on the authority of the Quran.

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We have seen again that many times you have a chapter which was removed in Mecca. But in the middle, there are a few verses revealed in Medina, because the chapter was not so good all at once, you know, different periods of time. Similarly, there were chapters in Medina, but they also contain some passages that were revealed in Mecca.

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As I mentioned before, the opinions about which versus where the different ones will be generally accepted, but it's not personally 100% agree. And that, again, shows that judgment analysis difference of opinion also was used alongside with the available reports. But in place of the reports, it could be a matter of interpretation and sort of giving more weight to one report or the other.

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This example shows that many Muslim scholars

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were quite careful. We're not simply a collectors, automatic mechanical collectors of of anecdotes. As well as the question of reconcilable it I mentioned also that some of the differences actually could be reconciled. It might get slightly technical, but I tend to make it very simple really.

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We mentioned for example before, that

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the basis for subdivision of the Mexican and midnight revelation could be either the time when it was released or the place It was really many times they might do the same thing at times, they are not necessarily the same thing. So reconcile ability here refers to the methodology used by different scholars, one scholar might have divided or classified strictly by the place of Revelation, the other by the time, and obviously they would come up with different classification. Not because there's any major problem, but simply because the methodology of classification raise.

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But even if this is not the case, if it cannot be consigned, in that particular manner.

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But the difference could be really more of a semantical problem than a real

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substantial type of difference. I'm giving you an example of this. In both Bukhari and Muslim, they narrated to our Asian

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the life of the Prophet that the first thing that was relieved was the beginning of chapter 96 Acropolis, right? This is very, very widely accepted. There's hardly any difference in that

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show the meticulous honesty of Muslim

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narrators past down to the various sutures. We find that in the same reference even itself, Bukhari and Muslim, he gives also another story narrated through a companion of the Prophet by the name of jabesh. And Nabila.

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When somebody asked him what was the first to be a rule of the Quran? And he says, it was chapter 74. That is 96.

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But he will again, do a look and see

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why, as a explains, maybe the question was about which chapter was removed in full first, yes, and that could be very reasonable, because as we said before, the chapter would not all be revealed in sequence, in other words, maybe chapters 96. And actually, there are indications that chapter 96 was not available at the same time, but the first few verses were revealed, and then other chapters were revealed, and then the completion of 96 which means that the first complete chapter that came in the middle

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First, yes, that was the very first the first complete chapter today again, of the Quran. No problem with this? Or could it? It could be also that

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the question was understood

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by jabbers, or was intended by the one who questioned him. To me. That was the first thing that was revealed, after the initial period where the Venetian was not coming to the Prophet, because again, history will say that the first revelation came to him. And then there was a period where there was no revelation and then it resumed again. So maybe the question actually was about what is the first after this just an initial period. So these things are examined carefully, many times, not 100% of the cases, many of these apparent differences can easily be reconciled. Just one more example that might clear that issue also, upon also mentioned, for example, that there have been difference of

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opinion as to which verse in the Quran was the very last to be revealed.

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And some refer to and not as the number two, chapter two, verse 278. Some refer to chapter two, verse 281.

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Some refer to chapter two, verse two attitude. And it says, You're talking about the same chapter, you talk about, you know, a few verses, which are very close to each other, which does not preclude the possibility that all of them actually will reveal.

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At the same time, a whole section was revealed, but people just to express those what they understood the 94 to one aspects of that group of passages, one would refer to this, but actually, there's a setting basically, really, to the, to the same thing. But the basic point to be made here is that the very fact that you have this difference of opinion shows clearly, it was not an attempt, as some might allege of trying to suppress any opinion, even if that opinion might not be well, based, that there was this freedom of research in the scholarly study was open

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from

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any type of study, whether the yardsticks which perhaps could have helped in the classification of the mechanism, but any revelations,

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there are some basic criteria, which, beyond even the verification of the reports, the narrator's and the story itself, that pertain to subject matters. And the, you might say, the orientation of both types of revelations, the one in Makkah, and the one in Medina.

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Well, as indicated before that limit campaign, it was a period where Muslims were weak, they were,

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they were constantly persecuted, they were hurt. So the emphasis in the revelation in that period, was to

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help them persevere.

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Tell them about patience, give them the hope that ultimately, truth will prevail. There was no legislation at that time, how to get into or even down below, because there were so few they could not even engage in that kind of. So it was giving them the chance to

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inculcate the proper belief, faith in the creators in their hearts.

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To remember, the nature of Revelation, the Hereafter, the punishment and reward, which was useful both for them, as well as in addressing the unbelievers. Because you notice also in the second revelation, that the chapters are normally short.

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They are very strong in their, you know, style.

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As if they are shaking, those traditions that people have grown up with,

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appear like they're struggling and powerfully shaping the ideas that has been predominant among people awakening their conscious to the to the truth that has been concealed for too long.

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So this is one style.

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In addition to this genuine style, if you might say, of the second revelation,

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we found that scholars also have spent a great deal of time researching some of the other characteristics of the of that day. And you'd be surprised about the accuracy and the meticulous research they did. For example, they noted that every chapter that includes a prostration you know, in some chapters of the Quran, when it talks about prostrating to God, there is a subtle thing in the side of the branches which mean that when we recite that verse, you should

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react to it, physically actually, by cross stating and bearing to the Creator.

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There's no that's not essential that they feel that all of these

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are actually in nutkin. Paid. Okay? They noted also, that

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almost every student that begins with all mankind,

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instead of unbelievers, representing all members in the great majority of them seem to be the basic characters of the Mexican or Mexican Revolution because it addresses mankind, whereas in Medina, you're addressing believers to teach them how to do their prayers, and establish their communities and so on.

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It was noted also that, by and large, in the mechanization, you find a great deal about the stories of different prophets in the past, different stories about Adam, and the temptation by Satan, down the exception perhaps, to the mention of the stories of profits and Adam in the middle of the night. The other revelation is just the second chapter and bucha. But otherwise, it's mainly the characteristics of that. It was also noted, for example, that the chapters in the Quran which begins with broken letters, alphabetical letters, we haven't touched on that yet. or, indeed, in the end, that can tell you now, notice the comparison. If you move on to the midnight period, in Medina,

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referring that, first of all the blue characters of revelations in that period, was helped to build a Muslim society,

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who finally found sufficient freedom to practice their faith in various aspects of their life. And as such, you find various aspects dealing with worship, with legislation, legislation pertaining to the family,

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to society and social relationship. Again, another interesting remark,

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the Mecca, hypocrisy was not very close.

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You know, nobody really wanted to become a Muslim hypocritical, because Muslims were already persecuted and nice. Yes, it was.

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But now, as Muslims became more powerful, and permanent Medina,

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you'll find

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some hypocrisy emerging that some people just, you know, became Muslims, because Muslims are powerful. And the Quran again discussed their designs and their attitudes.

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in Mecca, the population was mainly pagan. in Medina, you have people so called People of the Book who hadn't done scriptures before. And that's why we find that the midnight revelation discusses various aspects of their beliefs and try to bring to their attention, what was the true message given by previous prophets in the past and try to bring them back to the Christian immaculate monotheism that all of these prophets uttered, that does not exist? You know, in that form in the in the meccan. period?

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We find, for example, that in the midnight period, this was the time when Muslims were attacked by the pagans, and by the other allies of the pagans. So we found that no question to word and piece and what to do with prisoners of wars, and all of these were legislated, which was not really needed. And as such, we have here a basis, not only to say that, yes, some reports say that this was met and revelation and this is midnight. But by careful analysis of contents, you can make sure mistakes, in most cases really, that this could not be met and Revelation talks about Jehovah talks about animals giving the cat

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The cat was not really mentioned that much, at least in terms of payment of regular money to the needy in Mecca, because Muslims were weak, and they were very poor. Yes, it was as close as lectures that it was Midnight's this is, this is a sort of distinction, which, again, as indicated earlier, would be very, very helpful in understanding the change and graduate needs of legislation and reflection, help us to reflect actually, on the Divine Wisdom as to why revelation took those stages into account. Can I get you to comment about to illustrate this gradualist that you just mentioned in closing off your comfort. The last question is specific illustrations. Yes. One took, for

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example, in the nature of the mission of the test. On one hand, you find evidence very early evidence in the Quran that the Prophet was sent to the entire mankind is no question. For example, in Surah 81, which is one of the early mechon revelation there is mention of that but instead

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of the methodology, or stages of invitation, you find that the first revelation in chapter 96 was basically you might say, Prophethood news to the Prophet, or indicating that God chose him,

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ask him to reflect, or to read and the name of the Lord.

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But it didn't say go until others or invite others.

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In the following stage in chapter 74,

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you find that there is mentioned explicitly the second stage, that it is not enough for you to realize that, you know, God chose you as a prophet, but you are also a messenger, because it says,

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Get up, and then begin we're struggling to convey the message of the Lord. And the same thing for chapter 73 gives you the same kind of invitation.

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In chapter 26, you find that it's moved to clarify again.

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And it says wonder Ashura, tequila Sabine begin with your close friends, relatives, why? Because of course, these are the ones who know best. Yes, and that's a logical beginning. In chapter six, it talks about the Prophet being ordained to invite the people of Mecca in general and the township around it. In chapter 21, it talks about the profit being sent to the entire mankind. So you see the Gladiolus Yeah, the circle, variety of expanding circle of invitation, even though as indicated earlier, one of the illustrations it's a common message of all the prophets, it's a universal message. Another aspect is that at the time when the Prophet came, they used to drink alcoholic

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lettuce almost like fish,

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quite whiners, exotic wine lovers very much. So they have lots of poems about it, and who have not been really possible to come all at once and say, all right, from now on, stop drinking. You need a pinch for detoxification. Yes, that's why again, we find the Quran start first by telling them that like, even though they might feel there is benefit in drinking, that our hands but the harms are more than the benefit. Second stage, it's so dumb to come, don't come to the prayers, while you're under the influence of intoxicants, which meant, as you might have indicated in some program some times ago, that since the Muslim prayer is five times every day,

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and these times are close, like early morning, like dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset and night prayers, the period

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between prayers that if somebody really wants to get back, down defined we can do is after the amount of prayer so that you might be surprised enough before the end of morning prayer the following day. So that discouraged people get the message, they started reducing their intake, and then finally became diverse, of course, that irrevocably and totally, you know, prohibited all kinds of intoxicants. So this is another reflection again, that in the Divine Wisdom, it shows us a model that shows us an example as to how could you if you wanted to change a society, not just to come by shopping hands and hemsson and saying that you're doing the best thing that could be done or you're

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implementing the will of God. It shows us that you have to be considerate, you have to be careful, you have to be gradual, and of course, nothing breaks beliefs are not compromised with matters of personal habits.

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In connection with even in society, one has to be gradually and carefully.

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Well, Jamal, another very interesting program. Unfortunately, we don't have time to continue our discussion today. We want to thank all of you, our viewers for watching and invite you back next week we will continue our discussion of Quranic sciences. Thank you for watching Assalamu alaikum peace Biondi.