Channel: Jamal Badawi
benevolent the Merciful, the current system of the universe peace investments upon the servants of Mr. Mohammed forever. I mean, I greet you with a greeting that is common in Islam assalamu Aleikum, which means peace be unto you. I'm your host Tom Rashid. Today we have a nice program in our series dealing with the economic system of Islam. We'll be continuing our discussion of the topic of production and productivity with an examination of Muslim contributions to the fields of medicine, and geography. I'm your host hammer Rashid and I have Germany on the program as usual. Dr. Jamal Bradley of St. Mary's University, Jamal Assalamu alaikum.
Could I have you real quickly highlight summarize the main points that we touched on in our ait program.
program focused mainly on Muslim contribution to the fields of mathematics, and physics, and mathematics. We spoke about the introduction of the Arabic numerals, and the concept of zero which led to a revolution in mathematics. And we examine some particular fields such as algebra, which was initiated by Disney in the ninth century, and from his name came to turn nagarajan a contribution to areas such as geometry, and trigonometry. And we said that Muslims were the first to use sine and cosine. There are contributions in the fields of calculus and commercial arithmetics. In the area of physics, we spoke of admin hyphens or an Hasan's work in optics, which was the basis for research in
this area for several centuries, and had the five eaching influence on Belkin and Kepler. And finally, we spoke briefly about the invention of the compass. And also contributions earlier, such as the hydrostatics and hydraulics
are now moving to today's topics. First of all, looking at the question of medicine, could you explain for us in what way the contributions to the field of medicine may or may be related to the, to Islamic teachings? Well, the interest of Muslims in the field of medicine is related to teachings in more than one way.
First of all, it is related to the ethics of Islam, and that the human body is regarded as a trust in our hands, given by God so that we can fulfill our trusteeship on earth.
And as such, we have no right according to Islamic ethics to destroy that, buddy. That's why we mentioned earlier in 17 years before that, suicide is forbidden Islam.
We have no right to abuse that body that is given to us by God.
Whether by the prohibition through prohibition of
drinking for example, alcoholics or harmful drugs or prohibition of pork, and not on the west, we find also that there are certain other
preventative measures also that is slanted which have some bearing on medicine. This include, for example, encouraging people to seek cures when they are sick. As we find narrated in Bahari, Akhmad mezzi and Abu Dawood and the saying of the Prophet when he said that when the cleric which was a serious contagious disease, breaks out in one place, don't leave it and don't enter which is the modern concept of,
counting the hence regulations to continue.
Also the recommendation that the Prophet made to give attention to the body, when he says to your body also there is a claim on you. Even in the with symptom rituals of Islam if you would use the term natural like the prevalence For example, we find that it's very much connected with personal hygiene and cleanliness, evolution, frequent bathing,
encouragement of sport is part of it because again, the prayer includes movement of the body fasting, we have discussed that also in the series on
Pillars of Islam has also some beneficial benefits, health wise. So in more than one respect, you can say that Muslim interest in medicine is somewhat tied in with the overall outlook of Islam towards life, human body, and health care and protection.
Now, from your understanding of the history of Muslim contributions to medicine, when did the contribution to the field of medicine first began, in a way if you're taking them in history in particular, you can say that even since the days of Mohammed this weapon hence, there have been an increasing interest in enhance both preventative and remedial. In fact, there used to be doctors during his time called al Harris been killed. And the purpose is to recommend people get sick to go and seek some cure. That is at the time when most people believe the miracle cures elsewhere.
England in the eighth century will find that some beginning of scientific interest if you will, in medicine, emerged, and many of the old works in medicine were translated among the prominent translators is a man was an unbelievable author.
In the ninth century, however, we witnessed a great deal of development in medicine. And perhaps the most prominent name in the ninth century is facula, Dean or vazee in English was usually certain vices or H AC or CS classes.
He was the chief physician in the hospital, the main hospital in Baghdad, and as historians describe him, is perhaps one of the greatest physician of the whole of the so called Middle Ages. He wrote
a very voluminous encyclopedia which was described by john Draper as an immense medical encyclopedia which remained for about 600 years as one of the main and primary sources of knowledge about medicine. In Europe. According to Draper also, a says that
Erasmus or read his
book on measles, and smallpox was regarded also as one of the most authoritative writing in the field and remain
used in use in Europe for
nearly 100 years after him even apparently until the 18th century, and more specifically, in 1745. His book was still being translated and used as a basis for understanding this, these types of
The same person also as it was inspired by a saying of Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him narrated in Bukhari and Muslim in which the prophets recommended the use of cold waters to deal with persistent fevers. So he again use it quite effectively.
He was able also to introduce the use of my prerogatives and capping.
In fact, according to another historian, the one that we quoted quite frequently in this last few program, George Sutton,
when he talks about the history of science, he says that many contributions and equity money contribution to gynecology, obstetrics, and ophthalmic surgery, eye surgery can be traced back to him.
In the 10th century, we find that this contributions continued also by other Muslim physicians.
One of the famous names is Edie than sad, who was the first one to write in a systematic way on the subject of Pediatrics, or children, and disease, in addition to contribution also to gynecology and obstetrics. Some of his works also were translated into Hebrew and Latin.
About the same period also the 10th century and Martini was a famous physician who was particularly known for his ability in the preparation of medicines about him. George Sefton says in his first one page 699 and I quote, that you compile at explicitly which was immensely popular in medieval Europe. For centuries, it's remained the standard work on the subject.
Now, many historians mentioned the name of ever Sr. is a legend in the history of medicine. I think that name may be a little bit distorted from Moses is it is my tongue twisted here today it's Islamic origins, but can you
Tell us a little bit about this, this individual and how did he acquire this thing when the Arabic came as well because it's not exactly the
English language is at the center of the center.
In Arabic it's kidney center.
It Messina is amazing, because he combined between being a scientist, philosopher physician,
and not evaluating him now as a philosopher. In fact, many Muslims may have some reservations about some of his philosophical ideas. But looking at his contribution as a scientist and a physician,
it really helped us to understand the kind of atmosphere that existed in the gloveless Muslim days where
scientific investigation was encouraged where freedom of thought was very highly valued in society.
Have you seen out ever since I lived in the 11th century, and the Christian era, and among his most important works in medicine is something called
an English canon. Our presets of medicine composed of five volumes covering such subject as physiology, hygiene, pathology, therapeutics.
According to historians, particular histories of science like George Sefton, he says that for 600 years, this Canon Canon medicine by Messina ever named as the supreme authority in medicine, in fact, he mentioned that it was the basis of all medical studies in French, and Italian universities or faculties of medicine.
In fact, it's really surprising to notice that some of the works of epi center in medicine, were translated and used in European universities as late as the 18th centuries. And according to some historians as late even as the early 19th century,
more than, you know, almost 800 years after, after his death, he also wrote a pharmacopoeia, which included the 760 drugs and how they can be, you know, prepared, which again reflected the excellence that Muslim scientist achieved in chemistry which was possible to apply.
Whenever we think of medicine, quite often our mind goes to the question of surgery. How about surgery? When did the Muslims get involved in this particular field, when they get involved in surgery as early as the 11th century,
in the 11th century, maybe before even better than the 11th century, but the historical accounts of the surgery to extract the cataract problem with the eyes. And they used to do that by extraction of the crystalline lens.
They were also able to treat hemorrhage. They were particularly skillful in the use of cartelization.
Among the famous surgeons in the entire Middle Ages, as they are called, is Apple cousin been our best. Again in English. It's Adam tested again. They call him abecassis
who lived in Cordova and Muslim Spain and the Muslim world. Towards the end of the 11th century and early 20th century,
about Apple custom or Apple, Cassius
Sefton in his first volume says that he exerted a very deep influence upon the development of European surgery bound to the Renaissance that he takes 699 and another historian also back to the subject. JOHN Draper, who we quoted before also says that the surgical works by Abacus has
continued to be used in Europe, as low as 1497. So that's the very end of the 15th century.
In addition to this other custom, also that a medical encyclopedia composed of 30 sections, covering a wide variety of problems, but he has a particularly excellent and the subject of treatment of eyes, ears and teeth. They don't have that separation between dental and general medicine as we see today.
It is interesting to note that in the writings of another philosopher doctor of Doctor philosophical, interest averse, as known in the West, in the 12th century, in his writing,
a verse gives illustrations of sections of the brains and eyes. He shows the eye nerves and an illustration of some of the surgical industry.
It's used by Muslim surgeons and returning birth again, to have surgery.
When our I think most of us have the impression that anesthetics I believe it is or rendering people unconscious is something that's relatively new in the field of medicine. And yet, you're making mention of operations and surgery are being performed. And these are very times what what did the Muslim physicians use to render their patients unconscious. And these are the times when those there seem to be clear evidence that they were able to because of course, you can go through some of these operations really, without some form of anesthesia. According to Don Draper,
he said that mostly physicians knew about anesthesia. And the word they used was a kind of plant called the diamond, dr. D, R and L. Band. And they used to administer that in a gradual way until the patient becomes totally unconscious. And then they did the operation. So they knew something was it.
Now are there any other notable contributions that we should touch on at this point, before we examine another aspect or move on to the examination and other aspects of medicine? Well, there are too many ready to.
to include them in a short program like this, my best recommendation really, would be to refer to the very excellent work done by Jeff satin, on the introduction to the history of sciences, where there, you know, piles of means and contributions, but perhaps I can give you also a few more interesting contributions. For example, in Muslim Spain, Spain and the Muslim world, one of the notable positions was known, again, the origin is
in the latinized form, it's Athens observe.
He was also the first one to write on Brancatelli.
He was outstanding, particularly in the treatment of skin diseases, the mythology as we call it today, at this locations and fractures.
In the 13th century, a famous Muslim physician by the name of a theist lived in Syria. And he wrote a great deal about hygiene and diet, which some people read as a relatively new food, it's not really even about diet and health.
And he demonstrated and that perhaps, was one of the amazing things he demonstrated the circulatory system. And that was, we're talking about citizenship, that is 300 years before the Portuguese physician by the name of server, v. t. v, end seven,
was able to, to the Minister, and many people think that it was that particular physician who
discovered it, but in fact,
in addition to this, we find that Muslim physicians showed some interest and competence also in psychopathology,
they were successful in the treatment of the psychological
or using psychological treatment for some of the patients, which is something many people would consider well ahead of their
Now, medicine, hospitals, of course, always say go together. When was the first hospital built by by Muslims? what we did with the hospitals, so maybe we should make a distinction between two types. There is the mobile hospital, and then the permanent ones. If you take the first kind of the modern hospitals, you can say that Muslims knew that as early as the seventh century during the lifetime of Mohammed peace be upon him. For example, in the famous battle of the trench, or a duck, when Muslims were in Medina, and the pagans came to attack them, and the Prophet all the attention to be back around the city to defend it. In preparation for the battle, also, he ordered one big tent to be set
for the explicit purpose of dealing with the casualties or no treatment of the injured
during the peacetime. The concept of modern hospitals was used quite effectively.
In fact, if I may make a footnote here, many of the viewers in this area have been impressed by a recent TV program that should enable conductors who took his mobile home and started touring the remote areas where people have no access to doctors and staying for some time in every place, you know, to treat the patients and many people regard that as a very admirable which is it is a humanitarian justice. That is not really the predator of the 20th century. In fact, Muslims have extensively used this modern hospitals to look after the needs of people in rural areas.
In fact, in the beginning of the first half of the 10th century, so sort of 1000 years ago even and we find that there is historical
narrative about administers,
during the time by the name of a sudden Java, who wrote a letter to the chief physician in Baghdad by the name of Sofia and the tablet, and he simply told him that there are so many people around in this rural areas who have no access to health care. Why don't you send us a kind of model hospital with some, you know, medicine and physicians alongside with it. And it is stated that there have been quite a few of these model hospitals during different places, historian described them as well equipped hospitals. Even better Paragon chemists, that's the best we could provide by since we don't have the mobile homes of course we have today. But a hospital or the mobile hospital included
everything from food,
surgical instruments, as well as physicians also accompany them and kept moving from one place to the other. In fact, one historian said that in the time of the Silk Road as the September period, this model hospitals became so big that one of them required as many as 40, kemmons to carry, you know, equipments, medicines and other things that are needed. In addition to this, an interesting thing also, that was found is that, in many of the mosques, or some of the mosques, places of worship,
they used to have even a pharmacy, small pharmacy, so that during the day there is an attendant. So if you're passing by and you had some meat or medicine, you can go and he can serve the medicine to you. And on Friday, which is the congregational prayer day where lots of people come to the mosque, a doctor would come to the mosque, and after the prayer, he again examines any person who might need some medical attention as well, because of the mosque of Edmonton in Cairo. I like the storefront clinics that we see in many of our
stations. Right, right. description of the mobile hospitals has been quite graphic, what about the printed hospitals? Can you give some description of how these locked? Well, dependent hospitals also didn't take too long really to be known among Muslims.
It is believed that the first one was built in Baghdad during the caliphate of Walid,
not the medic, and you're really talking about the first half of the eighth century.
And in describing the basic structure of Muslim hospitals, they used to have two wings, one for females and males. And then in every way, there are different holes, each hole is assigned for one particular disease.
And insofar as the hospital administration is concerned, each of these sections have a head position. And then there was a physician chief for the entire hospital or
support staff was provided, including nurses, people who look after cleaning, food preparation.
It was said also that many times the care of himself would make surprise visits, to make sure that people are treated humanely and looked after in the hospital. They had the system which would have to go exactly of having the resident physician, you know, taking shots and not being available all the time. They're in the hospital just in case of an emergency. But another interesting thing is that the hospital also is viewed as we view many hospitals today and consider that a model thing, which is not really the most rugged the hospital so as a research institute, and historians say that in western hospitals after the doctors go around and finish visiting the third the patients, they
would meet again in a big lecture home where the chief physician and other you know, famous physician would be seated and the students,
medical students as well as young physicians sit down and they start an open discussion as to what kind of cases they have seen. How did the person diagnose the disease, which was a very stimulating type of
discussion. This kind of permanent hospice was widespread in Muslim lands, and it is said that in Cordova under Muslim Spain, again, I mean alone, there were as many as 50 hospitals, remembering one problem in the past you said that there were nearly 1 million
Have you caught the back during the glory of August? Sure.
It is mentioned also. And that's an interesting point also, that in many of these hospitals, there used to be a small farm attached to it, where fresh vegetables and fruits is
planted those trees so that people can eat really fresh things direct from the hospital. And some of them had the artificial mix, which showed that hospitals would not just view it as some form of anesthesia to process people in and out. But as a very comfortable place in terms of furnishing and the aesthetic.
Beauty also habits and layout was quite interesting. Another thing that was mentioned by this hospital is that they used to get people to play humorous clips, to cheer up the sick people. And the subang stuffers, the valuable ones that he heard about a trust, especially trust that was in Tripoli, in Syria, which is now in Lebanon, actually, I should say.
And that trust supplied funds are the funds were designated to hire two people
whose duty would be to go around and visit hospitals around. And they talk to each other when they pass by patients, but
in such a way that deliberately make the patient he has them all look at the sparkle in his eyes, or look at the services,
etc, that is really improved, which is really interesting trusts and an interesting idea of the one who donated money for that just taking into account the psychological aspects of the treatment. It's just has anything to
do with this type of hospitals. But we only have a few moments left in this program. But I'd like to ask you about the questions of admission and the payment of hospital births and so on. Like, can you tell us about the situation with respect to information available, that shows that treatment was free for all in all of these hospitals, that includes even strangers, travelers passers by, you didn't have to have your MSI or lacrosse or anything, it was all Medicare, or Medicaid, everything was 100 years ago.
A person usually when he entered the hospital usually is examined in an outside home. If his case is simple, he's directed to the pharmacy where he can get some medicine and go home. Otherwise, he's admitted. And historians also say that even in this awkward Middle Ages,
a person's name was recorded. Then he goes through bathing first before he's admitted, and the his clothes, clothing are taking and locked up. And he's getting special hospital clothing which are clean, then he still gets the medicine, medical care, food.
People who look after washing his claws also his or her course depending on the person, if a person stopped getting over his disease is removed to another place especially designated for convalescent patient. And some historians said that the evidence or sign that he is cured, that you'll be able to eat a whole loaf of bread and hot chicken
that is in good shape. When the person was discharged from the hospital if he's poor, he needs to be given new clothes. And in some cases, even some amount of money until he recovers and is able to earn his living again. The person happened to bury then he's washed and the coffin is made and he's is prepared for for burial.
Another interesting feature also is that for those who prefer to have those treatment at home, they were allowed and medicine was sent to them. And if they were poor, even food was centered on homes.
In fact, one visitor came in the 12th century to the hospital in Baghdad and wanted to test the treatment and care. So he pretended to be sick. He admitted the doctor measured his house it was okay. And after some time, you know, they let him stay there getting all kinds of foods and foods and everything. And then after three days direct him I know that we host people only for three days, which is
the maximum so he understood that, you know, they knew that he was not sick but it was a clear indication of the kind of care and attention given to it to patients. It's very interesting. Personally, we've we don't have any more time left in today's program. I want to thank you for watching I invite you back next week we will continue our series Thank you for watching Assalamu alaikum peace be unto you