Imam alBukharis alAdab alMufrad – An Introduction
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Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.
hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salatu salam O Allah Nabil Karim. So welcome to this week's lesson on addable mu frog. The book of manners by Imam was boccardi. This is a follow up session to our previous halacha where we discuss the biography of Muhammad Buhari and some of his major works. And this week, I want us to focus on just one of his books, write a book that I believe is quite underrated. It's about Alfred,
his book of manners. So it's his second compilation of Hadith. So most of us are familiar with you know, Biharis primary compilation of Hadith sahih al Bukhari, but he wrote a second book of Hadith that is not as popular and I want to popularize it and that is otherwise muffled. I believe there is a lot of practical benefits in this book that can really help our community in solving some of our contemporary problems. So just a brief recap of our previous session, where we look at the life of Imam Al Bukhari, we learned that he is the greatest scholar of Hadees of his generation and perhaps any generation, right and that came from two ways. On one on one side, he was extremely pious and
studied a lot. On the other hand, he also was gifted with a perfect memory and deep understanding of the religion. So he had both the gifts needed for scholarship, right. His memory was on a different level, as was his intelligence. And we know he started studying and writing at a very young age you mama Buhari.
By the age of 11, or 12, we had already memorize 1000s of releases, with a full change of narrators and his teenage years he wrote his first books on the biographies of Hadith scholars. We also said that he wrote many books, he wrote books on fake. So we mentioned for example, the book on whether you should recite Surah Fatiha behind the Imam or the book on raising their hands before and after Rocco. He wrote the book on Aqeedah. too, he said when when he was slandered of being what does he like? He wrote the book of Aqeedah clarifying his his position, right? And
most popularly, he wrote books on Hadith. And his most famous book of course, is Hadith compilation compilation his masterpiece Ajam Musa Musa, known in layman's terms as Sahil Bukhari so he said he named his book Al Jami Asahi or Musa al Jami means a comprehensive work, right a comprehensive work, meaning it covers everything.
The Germany covers Aqeedah it covers strict it covers seerah it covers the seal everything right. Asahi, meaning all of the Hadees chosen for it are authentic according to the standards of Imam Al Bukhari, and mustard meaning every Hadees is mentioned with the full chain of narrators. But we also said in our previous session that he wrote a second book of Hadees that is much shorter and more specialized in a specific topic. So while the Jami covers every field of Islamic sciences, other one move rod is focused on just one field of Islamic science and then other wall o'clock manners and character. Right. And this is his other book of Hadees.
So, just a little bit of background about this book, Imam Al Bukhari, we mentioned that he had a very literal way of naming his books. So this they got us out Jami Asahiyama snotty is a very literal name. Likewise, other move rod means the other book of manners, the other book of manners, because one of the sections of sahih al Bukhari is kita will add the book of hands. So he has the book of manners in his Sahai, which is a
which is a compilation of Hadith and manage that meet meet the highest level of authenticity. And then he has a separate book of manners, that is,
that is this one over here. And perhaps the reason why he wrote a separate book of manners is because he wanted people to focus on this topic, he wanted this topic to be more accessible, because his jam you saw he was written on a scholarly level. It was meant to be read by Obama and studied by Obama and is meant to be a scholarly work, while the other move rods meant to be more of a book for everybody. Right? And the topic is something that everybody needs to know. So he wrote a separate book of manners from history so Imam Al Bukhari actually has two book of manners. One is the section in the Sahai called kitab. The other and the other is other move road. And of course, the core team
and focus of this book is other boys o'clock, manners and character to have
These were Arthur. Right? What is Arthur?
Yes, Arthur are the generations of the sahaba. So this book is made up of generations of the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasalam and the ratio of the sahaba. And that's one thing I find actually very beneficial about this book is it gives us insight into the way the Sahaba understood manners and character. And the advice they give to the students the advice they gave to their,
to their children, or how they taught managing characters to their children. So it's not just made up of Hadith, but it's made up also of narrations from the Sahaba as well. So we said that Sahil Buhari has between 6000 to 9000 Hadees, right, depending whether you count repetitions or not, because somehow these are repeated throughout the Saheeh. So if you count the repetition is around 9000. If you count only the first time we mentioned the Hadith, it's around 6000. This book has 1322 narrations, but out of those 1322 generations, 383 artha, and the ratio of the sahaba. So it technically has around 960 Hadees. So it's not a long book right now 160 IDs, that's a book that you
can read on your own that's a book you can study with your family, compared to a book of 6000 Hadees, a book of 900 Hadith, it's it's much more approachable, and much, much more easier to study and to, to read on your own. So you can see from the size to its you know, the sale Bacardi is like multiple volumes, but other move rod is a single volume and a small one. By the way, this book is available in many different translations, right? There's at least five translations of say of other movies aren't available
on the market. And there's also a commentary on this book available as well. I
cannot remember the author's name of the commentary, but there is one commentary available as well in English. So there are many different translations you can get hold off for this book. I prefer this one because it it distinguishes between the Hadith and artha. So the Hadith and Asad and they are numbered separately. So you know when it's a quotation from the prophet Elijah brings a quotation from the sahaba. And also the translation itself is excellent. Now one of the features that distinguishes this book from the Sir He is an imam Buhari used less strict conditions for this book compared to the Shaheed so he said so here Buhari is 99% So he, right and so yeah, buhari is
99%. So he, there's that 1% or half a percent of Hadith in there, where there's difference of opinion. So out of the 9000 Hadith inside Buhari is between 20 to 40 Hadith that some scholars considered weak. Right. What other move around we will say the book is around 90%. So
about 10% of the Hadith in this book,
either weak or disputed. So
a question for you. Why do you think Obama Buhari was less strict on the authenticity of a hadith when it came to this topic?
Because fundamental fundamentals of God is one. That's one reason it's not one of the fundamentals.
It is promoting good.
used to develop
Yeah, so the documentary is very important point there, right. Most of the early Muslim scholars were not so strict on a hadith being Sahai if it was on on secondary matters, the things like virtues, manners, character, history, in all these areas, even tafsir. There wasn't as strict conditions that the Hadees must be the only areas where there was like a strictness on the Hadith being said he is if it's to do with our Aqeedah and if it's to do with establishing ethical ruling, so for example, if you readings or double move fraud, and you come across an operation like
Abdullah ibn Omar said that to make your parents cry is a major sin.
If that hadith that narration is weak, does it change the religion anyway? It doesn't wear the Abdullah ibn Omen rarely say that or not. It's still part of our religion, that making your parents cry is a major sin. Right? That's already established in the Quran. It's already established in the Hadith. So if you bring a weak Hadith as a secondary evidence for something already established, then there is no problem with it. Right? Also a lot of people nowadays they have a misunderstanding of what we had this Yes. You confuse the category of weaker this word for
fabricated Hadith? What would be the difference between a weak Hadith and a fabricated Hadith?
What do you think's the difference? It's a major difference.
The other one is false. Yes. Right. So
if I want to, so is it that the one doesn't have a strong change on the rails, but other one is clearly false. So
yeah, that is that is not the strain on the reader. So for example, a fabricated hadith is when you're looking at the isnaad. And you'll notice a name in there that you know that name is somebody who makes up Hadith somebody who lies about Hadees. So that hadith is categorized as a lie, something being weak and something being a lie is not the same thing. A weak Hadith means that it is possible the Prophet said, it is possible he did not say it. So Allah will leave us alone. We had this means we're not sure if he said it or not. So there is a possibility that is authentic. So for example, if there is a Hadith, right, and every narrator is a pious scholar of Islam, but one of
those narrators developed a weak memory when he got old or even senile when he got old. And we don't know whether he raised his hands when he was young or when he was old. That had needs to be categorized as weak, meaning it's possible the prophets Allah ism said it, but it's also possible he did not say it. So we had this is not the same as fabricated. This is a recent movement that popped up in the past 50 years. Try to conflate weaken fabricator Hadees, and like the Yes, or more quoting a weak Hadees they treat them like they are quoting a fabricated Hadith. But that's never been the approach of ultra novel Jamaat throughout history, whether you read in the books of Imam Al Bukhari,
or even Cassia, or Imam Al Ghazali, they didn't have any problem quoting week Hadees.
With a few conditions, you read the stablishing, something from Akita Orphic. And the weakness was due to a secondary math, it wasn't due to there being Elia in the chain. Right. So they had these conditions, but in general, weak hadith is not problematic as secondary evidence. So one of the key differences between this book and this he is that this is more accessible and practical. So he said it's very difficult to read the heal Buhari without a teacher. Because there's so much going on in that book, that if you don't have a Hadees teacher, a lot of it is lost. Because Mr. Buhari has his explanation in the chapter headings. He's refuting the more tequila he's refuting the handpiece,
he's explaining his Aqeedah. He's bringing certain Hadith as a secondary evidence, certain hadith is quoting without chains of narrators on purpose because he doesn't go to the authentic and you are not going to pick up on all of this unless you actually have a Hadees teacher. Otherwise, move around is a much simpler book. Out of the 900 had ECM, maybe about 50 of them really require a scholarly explanation, the majority of them or at least you can pick it up, read it, you understand what it means on your own. Right? The hadith for example, the second Hadith in this book is where men ask the prophets was him who deserves my respect and kindness the most, and the Prophet said,
your mother. And then he asked who after that, and he said, your mother and then he asked who after the instead, your mother and the fourth time he said, your father. So this is Hadith number three, and Hadith number five, in this book, in the chapter of the rights of the mother and the chapter of the rights of the Father, this Hadees really need scholarly explanation. I mean, you can give a scholarly explanation, you can go deeper into the Hadith and unlock more gems. But the average Muslim can pick up this hadith, read it, understand it and live by it even without scholarly explanation. So this is why I feel this is an important book for the average Muslim to have in the
home library. Because most of these Hadees in this book, you can pick it up, you can read it, and it's very practical. It's a very practical book as we are going to see.
So the next question is why did Imam Al Bukhari choose other words o'clock as the topic of one of his most important books, and this field of other Bella flock is, is much neglected in our times, right? Unfortunately, in most of our Islamic Studies curriculum, the focus is on fake only. We don't have much focus on history, we don't have much focus on Aqeedah. We don't have much focus on other words, o'clock. So we find that people coming out of that system, they just think of Islam as a series of laws. This is halal, this is haram. This is wajib. Everything's just laws. But a lot of our religion is not about laws. So for example, one of the main reasons that I see today why there's
problems in marriage is that everyone's looking at marriage in terms of Lords. Everyone should know what's my, what's my duty, what's my responsibility? So for example, you have men saying, Is it part of VIP that I buy for my wife jewelry? Is it anywhere in the Quran? Hadith that I have to do that? And you say, No, I'm not going to do it. Right. The Quran doesn't say you have to do
Read, I'm not going to do it. Likewise, the wives will say, does the Quran and Hadees say I have to cook for my husband or cook for my family? It doesn't okay, I'm not going to do it. So it all comes down to we do what to our job and we don't do what's haram. And everything in between, we just don't do it. And when people that have this kind of approach to relationships, what happens? The relationships gonna fail. Because marriage in Islam is not built upon Fick, to fix that to prevent abuse. Marriage is built upon other Wordclock being kind and loving and nice to your spouse. You don't just do what's compulsory you do what creates love you do what strengthens once you do what,
what is basically acts of kindness and compassion. That's what relationships are built on. And you see the same thing with people's treatment of their parents. Now people will ask like, is it my obligation obligatory upon me to look after my parents, or my brother, you know, and you want to push the parents on to the other sibling. While in a true Islamic culture. If you go to many Muslim countries, you'll see the opposite. You'll see brothers going to court fighting over I want to look after my parents and he wants to go to the parents decided between us, right, the opposite is happening, because they have the other one o'clock as part of their culture. So in other words,
o'clock makes up a quarter of our religion.
The four fundamental fields of our religion and every Muslim should learn is our Aqeedah, our beliefs, our Fick our laws, purification of the soul, and manners and character. These are the four fundamentals of our religion, everything else like Hadees, and tafsir. And history is to extract these four things. Right, we studied of C, or D. So history, to learn our Aqeedah, our fic, our other world clock and our purification of the soul. But these are the four comprehensive areas of what it means to be a practicing Islam, that you have the right beliefs, you follow the law, you have the manners and character of a good Muslim, and you've spent your life purifying your soul.
This is the fourth, the fourth things that we need to do. And unfortunately, too often, our curriculum only focuses on fake right, and there's no real focus on the purification of the soul, or on the manners and character.
And in many Hadith, the prophets will allow you some had mentioned the importance of good character, these Hadees are in the book. So for example, he said that the deed that is heaviest on our scale on the Day of Judgment is good character. The ski the deed that is heaviest on your scale on the Day of Judgment is good character. And there are many Hadith where the prophets are somehow given somebody a glad tidings of Jannah when people tried to figure out why it was usually just matters of good character, you know, they treated people nice, they forgave people, they overlook people's faults, just it was just a character. And the prophets also even when he summarized his mission, what was
His mission, He said, well is to limit the methodical o'clock I was sent to perfect good character. Now the wording of this hadith is interesting. He said, I was sent to perfect good character character not to teach good character. Because technically good character is something that humans know by nature. We know by nature, don't lie. Don't steal, be just be kind to your family. What Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam told us through the Quran, and through the Hadith, and through his example, is the perfection of that, how to be the best husband, how to be the best father, how to be the best son, how to be the best neighbor, perfection in every aspect of character and manners. So
that was the Prophetic Mission. And obviously, you're going to get that from the Hadith, because the Hadith show us what he taught us about character and manners, and also how he practice the and how his companions practice it. And we know Rasulullah sallallahu sallam was the model of perfect character. When Aisha Raji Alana was asked about the character of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, what does she look like?
What does her reply
he's coloca who Quran. His character was the Quran. He was the working example of the Quran. Everything he said and did was based on the Quran. So if you want to understand what the Quran teaches about good character, you studied the Sunnah, the life of the prophet Sallallahu Sallam he was the embodiment of the Quranic principles are of good character.
Furthermore, without good character and manage we cannot fulfill vocal about the rights of other people.
I gave the example of marriage, you can't really have a loving and strong marriage if you don't have good character. And this is why the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, when he when he gave advice to woman or the fathers of women on choosing a husband, he emphasized two things. He said, A man of a man and a man of good character. Two things make sure you marry someone who has faith and someone who has good character. Because if a man doesn't have good character, then he's going to mistreat his wife, even if he thinks he has. No he doesn't know how to be loving. He doesn't know how to be kind. He doesn't know how to be generous, and that's going to affect the marriage. And so the profit
slice of he was very strict on that.
A man of good character. And sometimes he would openly advise against certain people, you know, one lady came to him and she said that she got proposals from two different Sahaba. Which of them should, should she marry? And the Prophet said, Don't marry this man because he hits his wives. And don't marry that man, because he's a miser, again, masters of character, right, looking at the character of the man and advising woman don't matter to him because he has some bad character him.
And that's the thing, are we raising our children with good character, you know what we like in the modern world, we raise our kids for school and for the workplace, but we don't raise them to be husbands or wives or mothers and fathers. And then we wonder why they can't get married or why their marriages fail. Because we don't teach them anything. We don't teach them how to parent, we don't teach them how to treat the husband how to treat the wife how to make a relationship work, right, we often just, we assume it's going to come naturally. But Islamically we supposed to be teaching this at the high school level, that this should be part of our high school curriculum. And when kids are
around the age of puberty, we shouldn't be teaching them about marriage, we shouldn't be teaching them about parenting, we should be teaching them about relationships in general, about the character and manners of people. Because if we fix our character manners, we fix society. There'll be less divorced, there'll be happier marriages, children will grow up in a better environment, communities will be better because people will care about their neighbors, people will care about the orphans. So a lot of our problems are fixed simply through character and malice. So the main thing I want to do today is for us to do a brief overview of all the core themes. In other words, Alfred.
And I might move a bit faster this section because
according to this, this translation, they are 643 chapters. So I'm not going to go through all 643 chapters, what I did is I, I summarized all of these chapters into sub headings. So for example, the first 10 chapters is the rights of parents. So we can say the first theme of this book is the rights of parents. Now, in our book, it breaks it down, chapter one, the being kind to your parents, chapter two, the rights of the mother, chapter three, the rights of the Father, chapter, another chapter, the rights of your parents, if they're not Muslim, another chapter, you know, when can you disobey your parents chapter on looking after your parents in old age of the dua of the parents. So
all of these chapters together, we can see it's about parents. And so the book begins with the rights of the parents.
In fact, in general, the book begins with the rights of family,
because the first 24 chapters are on the rights of the parents. And then the next 10 chapters are on maintaining family ties. And then the next 10 chapters are on the rights of your children. And then on the rights of your sisters and your daughters. So the whole first 1/3 of this book, or the 116 of this book, is just family. Why does the book on manners start with family, it goes back to what I mentioned earlier, you cannot have a functioning Muslim family without good character. So Mama Buhari begins with the most important thing.
If you don't have good manners with your parents, didn't your manager everybody else is, is useless. If someone is abusing their parents and mistreating their parents, and neglecting their parents, being kind in public or acting kinda in public is not going to save them.
Because that's a major sin. From all that matters of o'clock or adab. The biggest sin you can commit is mistreatment of your parents. And the second biggest would be the breaking of family ties. And so we see the first 24 chapters is the rights of the parents. And then the next 10 chapters is the importance of family ties. These days, they all the year in terms of priority, that other boo o'clock starts with your parents, and then your family, your parents, and then your family. And then what's the next few chapters about your community. As soon as it's done with family, the next few chapters, your neighbors, the rights of the neighbors, being kind to your neighbors, not
inconveniencing the neighbors, making sure your neighbors are not going hungry.
And in modern society where we are so caught up in hyper individualism, some of us don't even know our neighbors, leave around having this kind of relationship with them. But community is not restricted to neighbors after neighbors. What do you think's the next few chapters about the rights of orphans? The rights of orphans, orphans are part of our community, they have rights upon us. They are chapter zero on the reward of looking after an orphan the reward of raising an orphan. And then this is followed by the chapter of the rights of widows,
the rights of widows taking care of the widows in our community.
So you can see that the book is it takes people on a journey in any order. You start off learning about your parents, right, so for you, and then the rest of your family and then your neighbors and then the rest of the community.
And then interestingly under the section that I would call the rights of the community, they are at least
20 chapters on the rights of slaves.
This is fascinating, you know, when you compare Islam
version of slavery that existed to what existed in the rest of the world, it's like two completely different concepts you have like 20 chapters on the rights of slaves, like not allowed to hit them not allowed to abuse them, don't love to overwork them, to feed them from what you eat, to clothe them from what you wear, to treat them with kindness, to give them ways to earn the freedom, not to use demeaning names and terms for them. So very comprehensive system of giving even slaves a sense of respect in society.
And so we see that the community comes next, that's followed by a reminder about the importance of respecting our elders and being kind to children, respecting elders and kindness to children. This is in general, early in the book is respect for your parents, and kindness to your children. This is respect for anyone older than you, of being merciful to anybody younger than you. This is more encompassing than anyone younger than you, you need to go easy with if they don't have the same level of experience or wisdom as you. So you need to treat them a bit more kindly, and anyone older than you. They've experienced more of life than you and just for that alone, they deserve your
respect. And so the issue of respecting our elders and being kind to the youngsters comes next. This is followed by chapters on
kindness to animals. How do you treat birds? How do you treat cats? How do you treat dogs look at the comprehensive nature of other work in Islam, that Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam taught us how to treat animals. And when you traveled to Muslim lands, you see this is still part of their culture. If you've traveled to Muslim countries, in many Muslim countries, you'll see the utmost level of kindness even to a stray cat or a stray dog, that they won't leave an animal to go hungry, or to even look sad. They will take care of animals, even if those animals are not their own.
So we have an entire section here, on the kindness to animals with many different sub headings, many different topics, then we have the rights of sick and the rights of the travelers, visiting the sick, even a chapter you're on visiting the sick, if there are children, where the profits law is on when a three year old was sick, he went to visit him. How many of us would even think that somebody else is three year old son is sick, let's go and visit him. It's becoming a lost art in our times are lost practice no time to visit the sick. And then travelers, you know, Islamically travelers have rights over us. Before hotels were invented, a traveler had the right to stay in your home for
up to three days. Right? Nowadays, the hotels have kind of taken that away from us. But Islamically we you know, being generous to a traveler is a very important part of our religion that again, is it's often lost on us that this is these are all from our fundamental teachings of Islam.
Then will I categorize the next 100 chapters as basically kind treatment of people. God, he talks about being generous and being, being just and being fair and being kind and being merciful and being forgiving. And it's all of these various subheadings and Stories of the Prophets and story that it's a harbor on these topics. And then this is followed by a variety of chapters on making dua for others, all the different people the profits are made to alpha and the and the wordings of the DUA he made for others. How many of us think of this when we think about manners and character they form the rights of others upon us is that we make dua for them. How many of us take time to actually
make dua for others, you know, the common
is a common thing in our community. When someone says make dua for me, and we all say, Sure Inshallah, but how many of us actually make dua for that person? How many of us actually, when we are sitting and making dua, we remember that person and we make dua for them by name. But we see in this book many many times Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam did exactly that. You're the most famous one being when Mr. Lim asked the Prophet so the law is a make dua for my son. And the Prophet sallallahu, Isa made the dua to Allah bless him in his life and his family and his children and his wealth. And his son, honestly, well, Malik lived for 105 years and had over 100 descendants, and was
the wealthiest man in Medina. And all of these dollars came through how many of us helped people to make towards life our children, you will know who you are, will be answered.
Then there's the chapters on generosity, many, many chapters with different types of generosity with a wealth with our time, how we treat people.
Generosity is a fundamental part of Islamic character. In fact, the scholars of the past used to say that generosity is the essence of masculinity of manliness. Why? Because in Islam, a man supposed to provide for his family. For man's not generous, what kind of life would you provide for his family?
So people who are miserly receiving the other Hadith the prophecy don't marry the man because he's miserly.
So it is considered very negative thing for a man to be miserly. Because not only then does the community not benefit from his wealth, but he don't family doesn't benefit from his wealth. But if a man is generous, his family will live the most luxuries of life based within, you know, whatever they can afford, and the community also benefits from his wealth. And so in the past, there was a strong emphasis on raising generous voice men, that you raise your voice from a young age to be generous. And that was something that woman would look for in a husband, and men who look for in the future husbands of their of their daughters, that they are generous people, because a generous
person is going to spoil your daughter, right? Well, the miserly person is just, you know, they're gonna ask us questions like led, someone asked her, do you have to buy shampoo for my wife,
looking for something Do I have to take out on the weekends, anything like that, looking for loopholes to save you. And so they give the wife the bare minimum. And really, if you're going with the bare minimum, the Sharia just says, Give your wife a house food and clothing, and we get some guy to leave. So that's what I'm gonna give my wife, if that's what they actually ask, that's what I'm gonna give, again, no sense of generosity even to the person who you're supposed to be closest to.
And then we have chapters on good and bad speech. And what I find interesting about this section is that there's like just 20 chapters on naming people,
that even the names required people by this is considered good speech or bad speech, that we don't give people, our children bad names. But we also don't give our friends bad nicknames. And there's a whole section on naming people and other types of speech about lying about speaking the truth, about being straightforward. And speaking to people all of this is covered here, then we have the ethics of greetings, and how many of us have actually studied etiquettes of greetings like the Hadees, that those who are standing should greet those who are sitting, right, or the youngsters should greet the elders, those who are passing by those who are who are who are not passing by those who are, you
know, in a gathering these their advocates are greeting people that we often don't study enough the etiquettes of visiting others.
What are the laws of visiting others, we went over this actually, in a recent chutzpah when we did shoe renewal.
We said that the laws of visiting people are so important in Islam, that Allah mentions them in Surah Noor, he mentioned that you can visit your friends. But it also mentioned in both the Quran and Hadith that don't overstay your welcome. And you should know when it's time to go home. And that was revealed because the Prophet saw your southern people will come to visit him and they wouldn't want to leave. And he would want to be alone with his wives or spend time with his children to just go to sleep. And people are just sitting there too late at night. So there's etiquettes of visiting people in Islam. How long do you stay at somebody's house for? Where do you sit? How much do you eat
your dinner? This is your like, if people are eating and you enter the house, you know, do you join them or not? Yet these kinds of things are discussed over here. Then there's one of my favorite topics which I feel we don't discuss enough these days, privacy laws. And again, I mentioned this in our goodbyes to Rahul, privacy laws are mentioned in the Quran in Surah Noor to such an extent that Allah says in surah Nuro, that when your children reach puberty, they should not enter their parents room without permission. How many of us actually teach this to our children? How many of us actually have these kinds of discussions with them, that even in your home, you have the right to privacy
from the rest of the family? You know, how many of us understand the privacy laws of Islam you, you can't spy on people. You can't look into other people's homes. You can't look through other people's phones or emails or messages. People have the right to privacy in Islam and privacy must be respected to such an extent that if somebody's committing a sin in private, it's nobody else's business between them and Allah, you don't go looking for other people's private sense. And this is part of our other Wallclock part of our other bits, we don't look for other people secret says, We give people the full right to privacy.
Then this basic, basic social etiquette, how do we talk to people? You know, talking in in a moderate voice, not screaming and shouting, about you know, making jokes, when is it appropriate? When is it appropriate, these topics are covered. And then we have the etiquette of sleeping, the other of sleeping, sleeping on your right side. You know what time with the proper sleep? What time would you wake up? What time would you have his afternoon nap. All of this is covered. In the next few chapters. I listed them as the chapters on the fitrah. Because we talked here about circumcision, about nail clipping, about shaving the unwanted hairs. And all of this, the prophets
lie some categorize them together as the natural way the fitrah that this is part of the natural way that Allah wants us to be that we clip our nails and we stay clean and we stay hygienic and we will shave our heads in certain places so that we maintain hygiene. So all of this is put together at the end of the book. And then we have the general prohibitions, general prohibitions. The last few chapters are on things like jealousy, suspicion, whispering in presence of others being two faced and the last chapter is on losing your temper, right. So these are the general prey
visions. Now, what I noticed with the topic headings in this book is that they go from most severe to least the view most severe is harming your parents or mistreating your parents and then breaking family ties and then mistreating your children at least the via is you know not clipping your nails, right loving somebody too much as the second last chapter, if you loving someone too much
or not sleeping in the in a certain position, right not sleeping in a certain position. This is these the chapter the headings towards the end are like not as serious as, as the topics in the beginning. So what this means is, if someone studies the beginning of the book, they will learn what is wajib and what is haram. And then as you progress through the book, you learn what is Musa and what is macro. And so you get a comprehensive idea of everything to do with the managing character of a believer. So what I want to do for the remainder of today's session, I just want to go through the opening Hadith and the closing Hadith to give you an idea of how the book works, and to do some
basic commentary on these Hadith because they are very important. So chapter one is entitled, The chapter of Allah's words, We have enjoined mankind to be kind to his parents. So Mr. Bahari, in the chapter heading, he mentioned a verse of the Quran. Right? So the book begins with a verse of the Quran Surah angebote, verse number eight, we have commanded mankind to be kind to his parents will be the wildly Daini Asana. What does your son mean? What What's the general meaning of
excellence or perfection, treating your parents in the best possible way? Allah didn't say Be good to your parents. He didn't say blindly obey your parents either. He just did what Bill while leading SAP Asana, treat your parents in the best possible way. I know some people in our community have misinterpreted this to mean like blind obedience to your parents, to a level where like, for man is 35 years old and value for 15 years and his father tells him to divorce his wife, he feels like he's obligated to divorce his wife because you have to obey your parents. That's not how it works. Once you pass the age of puberty, and you live in your own life, you treat your parents well, you don't
have to obey them in every single issue. Your parents tell you to shut down your business, you don't have to shut down your business if it's allowed. Right. Your parents tell you to divorce your wife, you don't have to divorce your wife if if you feel that marriage is good for you, right? It's a this is a misunderstanding of what it means what will validate Asana, Asana to your parents mean, you treat your parents in the kindness and the most nice and the best possible way, and you have the best manners with them. But you can disagree with them politely. You can disagree with them politely. Right? So we be careful that we don't go to the other extreme, where we have some parents
these days who control every aspect of their children's lives. And they never ever give them any chance to actually live life that a man can be 40 years old and his father still controls every aspect of his life. This is this is not Islamic. The Sahaba wants the children became adults, they left them to live their own lives after it was a matter of maintaining family ties and be kind to each other. There wasn't this dominating control over how their children lived their adult lives. So be very careful of going to that extreme.
So the opening Hadith of the book is
awaited. Abdullah ibn Massoud said that I heard the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam say or they asked the Prophet sallallahu Sallam what Hadees or rather what action is best to Allah? What action does Allah Allah pass so Abdullah ibn Massoud asked the Prophet sallallahu somewhat action that Allah loves best, and he said Salah on its proper time. So I asked him what next? And he said kindness to parents. And I asked him what next and he said Jihad visa vie de la.
And he said that asked him more, he will given me more. Right but out of Adam for the Prophet sallallaahu Salam, he stopped there. So in this Hadees we learn multiple lessons of our religion and of other Firstly, we learn that the most important good deed is Salah on time, praying five times a day on time, this is the most important thing for every Muslim to do. The second pillar of Islam. But when it comes to other boo o'clock, what is the most important thing to do? Kindness to parents, when it comes to our manners and character, the most important thing you can do is kindness to parents if we are not kind to our parents, every other aspect of other will o'clock is often just
being two faced. And if we must treat our own parents, but we can't do everybody else, then this is like being two faced when it comes to other worklog.
And then when it came to politics, the best good deed was Jihad feasability love fighting for the defense and protection and expansion of this religion. And then we see a lesson in other br Where even Massoud said that if I had asked him what he would have told me more. So the other lesson we take from this is that Abdullah even Massoud out of respect for the prophets of Allah Islam he didn't ask
Too many questions. You asked three and he left it as that not wanting to inconvenience the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So Abdullah bin Massoud is one of the most important readers of Hadith. He was one of the first eight people to convert to Islam, one of the first eight people to convert to Islam. And he was present throughout this era, to such an extent that he said I know of every verse was revealed for specific occasion exactly when it was revealed, and about whom it was revealed. Because he was there from the beginning to every reason for revelation he is present. And he became the great hadith of scholar effect and choose and the Greek scholar fiction Hadees, who
the Hanafi tradition goes back through. So Abdullah bin Massoud is a very important scholar. And what's interesting is the second narration in this book is not a hadith, but it's an author
to the first author in this, in this book is the second generation which is Abdullah, even Omar said that the pleasure of Allah lies in the patient, the pleasure of the parents, and the anger of Allah lies in the anger of the parents. Now, it's important to know this is not a hadith. This is a quotation from Abdullah ibn Omar, who was Abdullah ibn Omar.
Tell me three things about him. Besides he was a Sahaba.
son of Omar right so this is Omar Abdul Khattab son, right, Omar the middle of adapts and what else can you tell me about him?
He was one of the one of the most famous scholars of Hadith.
He and he also was the strictest of all the Sahaba in following the Sunnah. From all of the Sahaba he went the strictest in following the Sunnah, right? So the Sahaba they had different understandings of what is so now most of them did not consider eating what the prophet ate or waiting what he wants to be sooner. But Abdullah, even Omar, if you knew the Prophet ate something, he would eat it. He knew the Prophet didn't like something he wouldn't eat it. Like he would dress the way the Prophet dressed, he would shape his beard the way the proper shade is beard. It stated that if there was a space where the property used to walk and there were the three branches we used
to bend it to go past it, even after the tree was cut down, Abdullah only will be in that spot just to imitate the Prophet completely. So the man who was strictest on the Sunnah is telling us that the pleasure of Allah Allah is the pleasure of the parents and the anger of Allah Elijah the anger of the parents, we can assume and understand that this is what he learned from the Prophet sallallahu Sallam himself. Right, even though he didn't say the prophets always have said this. But this is your understanding of the message of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Chapter Two of the book is the rights of the mother, being kind to your mother, and then chapter three is being kind to your
father. So again, even in the chapter headings, this lessons, being kind to your mother is mentioned before being kind to your father. And both chapters begin with the exact same Hadith. The one you mentioned earlier with the Prophet sallallahu sallam said, I was asked who should I be? who deserved my kindness the most? And he said your mother. And then you asked again and he said, your mother and he was asked to get He said your mother. And then he was asked again. And then you said, your father and then your closest relatives, and then your closest relatives, you often forget that part of the Hadith your closest relatives, right? So this hadith is mentioned in both chapters as Hadith number
three and Hadith number five, and from two different narrators showing the multiple Sahaba Narrator this, and this teaches us that kindness to parents is the most important part of manners, but between your mother and father, there is a higher level of kindness that our religion expects towards our mothers.
Now the question will be why?
Why did the Hadith emphasize three times kindness to your mother over kindness to your father?
Or what what do you think's the reasons for this?
There's multiple reasons caller's mentioned right? One reason being that the mother is the one who spent more time with the children. And Islamically the bulk of the parenting tends to fall on the mother. Dad's away at work moms at home, is that that's the traditional and nowadays it's different for many families. But that's the traditionally right that moms at home and dads at work. So a lot of the sacrifice folds and the mother and it's not just a lot of the sacrifice, but Islam takes into account the pregnancy itself, the labor itself, how do you make up to your mother for that pain? How do you make up do with your mother for what you went through? Right. And another psychological level
that some scholars mentioned as to why the mother is repeated so many times over the father is that in general, children will try to get away with what they want around the mother because they know their mother is softer, but they won't take a chance with their father because the father stricter. So a lot of people need more reminds us to be good to their mother than to be good to their father, because they are people who will take advantage of their mother. Most people wouldn't take advantage of their father right because this is a fork of our history.
how men tend to be very scary, right and in some level of debt in Islam, that a man is supposed to maintain some level of debt, especially with his children, right? So there is various levels of as to why the mother has a higher status than the father in Islam. And this is something that's unique to our religion, that mothers are given a very, very high position in society. That, you know, sometimes in modern society, we look at the idea that the Quran says the men must provide and protect the home woman's raise their children, and in modern society, we look at this as like backwards, or we think like, you know, why don't you just be equal. But what what Islam is really
doing is they want to free up the mother's time, so she can give the children her full attention, and have full love and a full support, and not miss out any moments of their life. And so the full responsibility of everything else falls on the map. Right? It's not done in a way to, to disadvantage woman that's actually a result of modern society, it's done in a way to, to make life easier for women. Now, the problem is our modern societies, we don't have that overall infrastructure there to protect the woman right, because in an Islamic country, especially during the time of the caliphate, a woman wouldn't need to worry about money ever in her life. She has a
husband, she has a father, she has a son, and the government would force the son to provide for their foster brother to provide for it, there's no living relative, the government will provide virtual various coffin and endowments, right, so a woman wouldn't have to worry about money. Now what happened is we moved to the modern society, we moved to the west. And we don't have anyone here who like if a woman's husband passes away, and her brothers or father do want to provide for her, we don't have any way of forcing them to do so. And so now suddenly, we're seeing that woman who are divorced or widowed in poverty, and we feel like Islam was unjust. It wasn't Islam is unjust in
modern society, if you take a fully Islamic system, there's never a point where a woman is going to be in poverty. Well, we don't have a full Islamic system. Yes, we have to find other ways to ensure that our women are always provided for and whether that means that they work or they have a side business, or the husband gives them an allowance, or they have some investments or whatever it is. But we have to make sure we find ways to ensure our women are provided for, especially if you want to keep the Islamic tradition alive. If a woman wants to stay home and raise her children, then may the men need to find ways to ensure that their wives are provided for even after they pass away.
Right, this is something that we need to revive in our communities.
I just want to mention two more innovations from this from this chapter that I find fascinating, right? Absolutely fascinating generations about the rights of others.
So it is narrated, Abdullah, even Omar was making Tawaf and he saw a Yemeni man making the waffle and carrying his elderly mother on his back. So the man woke up to Abdullah Abdullah ibn Omar, this hadith number 11. And he said, over and over, by calling my mother and making Tawaf have I repaid her for what she has done for me.
And Abdullah, even Omar replied, You have not even paid her back for a single pane of labor.
This tawaf doesn't even make up for one day for pain.
Again, you see the level of,
of respect from others that the Sahaba had, that Abdullah, even almost understanding what even if you spend the rest of your life being good to your mother, you cannot, you cannot make up for the labor pains. You cannot make up for that stage of the parenting. Maybe you could make up what came after. But how do you make up for that for what you put your mother through when you when she was giving birth to you?
And then another narration here that I find fascinating, is that this is in chapter two, the second author of Hadith number four, a man came to Abdullah even Abbas, right. This is a strange story, but he has a very fascinating lesson, a very strange story. A man comes from given Abdullah ibn Abbas and said, I wanted to marry a woman, but she refused to marry me. So another man proposal and he married her. So I got jealous, and I killed her. What can I do to make up for myself?
So Abdullah, even Abbas it is your mother alive? And he said, No. Subdue labor of acid. I don't know. Just go and make Toba just ask Allah to forgive you. So the man left and attack one of the students Abdullah bin Abbas. He said to us, Abdullah ibn Abbas, why did you ask him if his mother is alive in this country as to murder? You asked him if his mother is alive. And Abdullah ibn Abbas said, I cannot think of any good deed that could make up for murder, except taking care of your mother in old age.
So in Islam, we have the system that follow up your sins with good deeds, right? You commit a sin you have to do a good deed of equal or higher value to make up for it. We know that comes from the Elise where a man kissed a woman and he asked the Prophet somehow to make up for it and he told me to pray to Rakata
Allah. So making up for the sin of kissing a woman would be praying to the gods salah. But if you go higher higher the level of sins, how do you make up for murder?
Abdullah ibn ambassador, only good deeds you could think of were like murder is like the second greatest major sin. What's the second greatest good deed? You know? How do you make up for that. And he said the only thing that popped up in my mind is if he takes care of his mother in old age, maybe that would be a means of forgiveness of murdering someone. Because we know of the other Hadith that a person who takes care of his mother in old age is guaranteed gender. So it's a means of forgiveness for all their sins. So Abdullah, when I was putting all of this together, he came up with this idea that the only good deed he could think of that could be a means of atonement for
murder is taking care of your mother in old age. This is not in any way meant to lower how evil murder is, but to show us how important taking care of your mother in all ages. That if murder is the second greatest major sin after shirk, then taking care of your money and old age the second great is good deed after to eat.
And so you can see that this book is full of some absolutely fascinating aerations from the Sahaba that we never thought about and that we would wouldn't come across anywhere else. And this is why I feel it's so important that we study this book and that we take benefits from it and we spend time looking at it with our families. Now we said the book begins with the most important thing right your parents and it ends with general advice on things where if you don't do it, you can still be a good Muslim but if you do it, you reach higher levels of demand. Things of Musa have a macro. So the last two generations about artha they're not from the Prophets last Sunday from the Saba
and they are about loving people too much and hating people too much. So technically, if you love someone too much, it's not a sin. If you hate someone a lot, it's not technically a sin. But to reach a higher level of o'clock you need to be moderate in how you love people and how you hate people. Right You have to be moderate over there. And the second last narration is very fascinating is from Ali ibn Abi Talib. It's the Arabic is very poetic. You know, when you study the books of Bulaga you actually study this narration, it's within a very poetic way. But I don't have the Arabic in front of me. So the English is, Ali Ibn Abu Talib said that the people of the past used to say so
is referring to this is a
this is a quotation from early people
cannot remember the Arabic Arabic is beautiful and poetic. But he says that love people in moderation, because they might become your enemy one day, and be moderate in your enmity towards your enemies, because they may become your friends one day. So he's teaching us moderation in love and hate. You know, we have situations these days with someone love someone so much. And then when that person betrays them, or if it's a marriage, and that person divorces them, it takes them to court. They can't recover from it, like their heart is just broken. Because that love was so extreme, that they never prepare themselves for the possibility that this person could become an
enemy one day. And the reality of this world is we do not know anybody's ending. We do not know who is going to die upon piety, who is going to become evil later in life. Sometimes the people we love the most hurt us the most. And so alumina we totally want people that even in love, be moderate. Love your husband, love your wife, love your children, love your friends, love your neighbors, love your colleagues. But be moderate in that love. Don't be so loving, that they if they had to betray you, you can't recover from it. Right? You need to be able to move forward with life if somebody had to betray you. And you seem to the opposite. Don't hate somebody so much that you can never ever
imagine. You can never accept good from them.
And we seen this with the current generation right? Now I should mention names but like when certain non Muslim influencers converted to Islam, we had Muslims saying we don't want you in our religion. Right? We had Muslim saying if you convert to Islam, I'm leaving Islam. They hate the person so much that they cannot imagine that person ever becoming righteous.
And our attitude towards people shouldn't be such okay, we hate what this person is saying. But we hope they want the they will change.
Right? We hope that one day they will learn righteousness, we hope they want you to learn good character. We hope that one day they will become better Muslims. And if that happens, we will love them. You cannot have this blind hatred you know, in modern society has this cancel culture. And the way canceled culture works is somebody said something wrong 10 years ago for the rest of your life. You must hate that person. There's like no way to repent. There's no way to come back. There's no way to turn your life around. You're like canceled for life. For one tweet 10 years ago. This is not Islam. Islam the doors of repentance are always open, not just with Allah but with community as
well. That the community should always be willing to forgive people for their past and not hold a grudge against somebody for life. And so the book ends
With integration, again the author answer from honorable Hatha Raja Anhu where he says
Do not let your love be total infatuation and do not let your anger be destructive. So Aslam asked him. What do you mean by this? How can you how can love be total infatuation? How can our anger be destructive? He said, do not love someone so much that you become like a child. You know what, I don't know if you've seen this, but you see this with young people right? Where they fall so blindly in love that they become stupid.
And they will do anything the other person says
O'Meara Jehan is one one year against this level of love. You maintain your dignity, you maintain your boundaries. You don't love someone so much that they can tell you to do anything and you will do it. Whether it's haram, whether it's destructive. You know, we've seen people fall so much in love that someone tells them the person they love tells them to stop talking to their parents, they'll stop talking to the parents, right? This is an extreme in love is the person who loves who they love tells him to stop wearing hijab, wearing hijab. This is extreme in love. Don't go to extremes in love, that you become submissive to that person instead of Allah. Rather, Allah should
always come first. And the same for hatred. It is human to hate people. Again, sometimes we don't realize it's human to hate people. If someone slandered you, if somebody robbed you, somebody betrayed you to feel hatred for the person is human. But you reach a level of hatred where you want that person to die. You want the person to suffer, you want revenge on that person, you plotting to murder that person is now extremely hatred, to feel the emotion is fine. But to let the emotion make you destructive to make you dangerous to make you a force of evil, this is where it becomes extreme. So there's nothing wrong with experiencing love. There's nothing wrong with experiencing hate. These
are human emotions that everybody goes through at different points in their life, with different people in your lives. And sometimes the same person at different points in life, right? Let's face it, the days where you love your spouse in the days where you hate your spouse. But you don't need your level of love, where
you will disobey Allah for them, and you don't reach a level of hatred, you end up hurting your spouse, right? It's moderate. So be moderate with your emotions. This is what the end of the book so you see, the ending of the book is not something where it's talking about major sins are the most important good deeds. For this general life advice. If we practice it, our lives will be better, and our image will be stronger, and our relationships will be better. And everything in between these narrations, you know is of a similar nature. And this is why I find this book so beautiful. And such an amazing compilation of narrations that is truly truly underrated. So end up very quickly, what
what my advice on how to use this book number one, everyone buy a copy and keep it in your home library. And everyone should have a home library right? For you, for your spouse for your children. And you should be pushing your children to read Islamic books. Make sure that they build this habit from a young age. Number two, take time to read and reflect on the Hadith. So just open the book read one or two generations think about it, how it affects your life, how you can practice it how you can bring this into your home. If you find the Hadith you don't understand ask the Allah ma for explanation. Right? So you will find some directions to understand instead of losing your mind
trying to interpret it yourself. Let's call up a scholar and ask him to explain it to you right. Number four, teach this book to your families. If you're having family holocausts, if you're homeschooling, if you teach your children Islamic studies yourself, let us be part of your curriculum. Let it be something that's that your home life is built upon. Right?
Number five, most important, practice it let us revive this other boy o'clock in our communities, kindness to our wives kindness to our husbands kindness to our children, kindness to our neighbors, to orphans, to widows, to to the poor to animals, let us revive everything that this book teaches in our communities. Because this is an aspect of our religion that is majorly lacking in our times. And finally,
if we could choose one textbook to focus on for our Friday night Halaqaat is what I would choose that we just go through a few chapters every every Friday night. And step by step we learned our religion. We spent one Friday on the rights of parents one Friday on the rights of of children one Friday on orphans and one on on on neighbors and that way, we comprehensively learn what our religion teaches us our being part of a community and how we treat people should this book of Hadith.
So whether we come to the end of today's presentation, I hope you all found it beneficial. I hope you're able to take some practical lessons from this and how to treat our families and our communities.
With that we can take some questions for about five or 10 minutes and then we will end up I'm pretty sure any questions or anything covered you
In Egypt, in Egypt,
it is a hard simply means that it's narrated with one chain of narrators. Right. So that's, that's a different categorization or the so one categorization of hadith is into authentic good week reality authentic acceptable week of applicated. That's based on the strength of the narrator's. Then there's another categorization based on how many people are narrating it. And there you have four levels, right you have the water, which means so many people narrated a hadith, you can count it mature, which means three or more people narrated the Hadees Aziz, which means two people narrated a hadith and Aha, which means one person directed Hadees, or had to hurry the other word for it will
be hurried, right, which means that one person only one Sahaba, only in the regular Hadees. So that's a separate categorization. It doesn't affect whether the Hadith authentic or not, it's just a matter of it's very just a technical way of deciding of knowing how many people narrated it, right, but it doesn't affect the authenticity or the usage of the Hadees. Anyway.
So we went over this in the previous session, I did do a slide on it, where we mentioned about eight books that he wrote, right? So he said he wrote three books on actually he wrote four books on the biographies of Hadees narrators. So that's what he went through the biographies all the different Hadees narrators, which ones are authentic, which ones are weak and why he actually wrote five books on the topic. Today on the authentic narrators. No, those are not translated. Yeah, those are not translated right. And it really I don't think there's much benefit in translating it because people who study chain of the reader should know Arabic, right? So those five books are in Arabic and they
are all on the biographies of the of the Hadees narrators right. Then we know two books of Hadith he wrote, one was the Sahara and the other was other one more flood. Then we mentioned one book of Akita, he wrote, so he said towards the end of his life, he was slandered and people called him on what does the light and people start boycotting his lectures and they so he wrote a book explaining his Aqeedah and explaining what his actual positions with the issue showing that he's not done. What does he like he's following Sunni Islam right. And then we mentioned two books are fake. He wrote the two books of Vicki road which translated into English by the Salafis, because they basically
reputations of Hanafi fiqh. So one was on the importance of raising your hands before and after Rocco, right. So whenever I go to India, the authorities give me a translation of that book, because they like that's the main thing they push that you must raise your hands before and after roku. So he has a whole book on that topic. And the other one is on reciting Surah partea behind the Imam so in his lifetime Buhari and the 100 Viola has a lot of arguments with each other. So he wrote books and a lot of chapters of the Hebrew cottage distributing honeybees right. So those books are available in English and Urdu because there's the other Hadees translated them since they basically
they followed him avocado interest issues and so following the Hanafi madhhab so those books are available in English as well
Arabic and English it there should be some available there is a website that has it so if you go to the website sunnah.com sunnah.com has every Hadees from all the major books in Arabic and English and divided into the books so you go to salon.com Audible material is there any Hadees you click there to have the Arabic and English I'm not sure if there's a published book version report there might be
every translation I've seen was just English, but it might be yeah it will probably be double the size at least
Yes, each one got a commentary on this Yes.
I don't think it has the Arabic I think that's just English as well.
Okay, any other questions or comments or additions?
Depends what you want to do.
If you want we can take themes from this book for future Holika so you can have a halacha about the rights of parents
teenagers does a great job with this as well. But this is meant to be a family holiday. Yeah, I would also suggest we need to go back to 14 now we I don't have every
is good but it's like auditing categories. Beautiful. It's not the fourth of February, the mother the father sweetens very well and did those chapters especially our our children need to learn this because our youth are growing up in the age of hyper individualism. And with hyper individual we're hearing them say stuff like no you tell a child that you Your mother gave birth to you and everything you let go but you had to do that. I don't know.
anything you hear Muslim kid saying that these things is
a huge plus for us as well. What I was thinking of doing?
Huge session here. If we can combine both into one for this
program we're going to use what
suggestion over to you,
I think should be separate because we want you to be able to engage into the speaker without any
different levels also. So in the same content, you have to sort of to repackage it for the youth and their level.
Kids, they won't ask as much questions or indeed after
that that's a good idea. We could do this.
It publicly if we do that, we should actually be using this thing. That extreme Stickney, you
know, I, you know, this is against
some beautiful programs, it must have some way to deal with others because it's another lesson on exactly. The sort of topic is not so complex that we voted on. It's quite straightforward to be answering another question as we put that, you know, it's going to be dealing with controversial topics. So
these things we don't have. We don't we don't we don't abandon the program. Carry on with that.