Refining the Self – 7
Channel: Isam Rajab
File Size: 20.52MB
smarak mannerheim hamdulillah salatu salam ala rasulillah Juana la sagarmala Santa Monica de la barakato. Welcome to our class of Aflac. Today, inshallah we'll discuss the theories of morality,
we will have several theories of neurotic morality and the
the objective of these theories is to understand the meaning of the flock, not necessarily from an Islamic perspective, but rather from the other people's views. What do they think of morals, and then we will compare between what they have and what Islam
has provided mankind.
So we have before we move to the theories, we have the definition of a HELOC. Now, when we say, we're talking about the flag, what's the meaning of a clock?
What do we mean by a clock? We mentioned in the previous class that a clap is not only something you do with others, it's actually something even you do to yourself.
So here is a definition for their flock,
which, which says morality is assumed to be a quality of actions,
or dealings dealings with oneself, with others with animate beings and with inanimate objects. So morality includes all these things.
It deals with yourself, with others,
with animate beings and with inanimate objects. So basically, with everything around you, that's morality,
the quality of actions
with everything surrounding now, we will have three major types of ethical theory that aim at defining morality, each type has many variants. That does not mean these are the only theories, because there are many other theories, but these are the most famous ones. And you may ask why we are even discussing these theories if they are from non Muslims. The reason behind that to understand what people think of morality. And then we will compare between what they say and what Islam says about morality. It's not enough. Now, as I told you, the problem is we don't relate to the people, sometimes, we need to relate to them, to tell them that this is what you believe. But
that's what we have in Islam. If you don't know what they believe in, then you may not be able to help them to know the greatness of what Islam provided for mankind.
We will start with the first theory,
which is called consequentialism.
What do we mean by consequentialism?
It says the morality of an action is based on the consequences of the action. So in order for us
to judge the act, if it's moral or immoral, we need to see the consequences of this action.
And it's called utility terian ism.
And it's referred to the British philosopher, john Stuart Mill.
What does it say basically,
that's what it says an act is moral, or morally good, if and only if it maximizes the happiness for the largest number of people.
So as long as
this act pleases the maximum number of people, then it is accepted and this act is moral. Notice here that they are saying the largest number of people. So they are not talking about the individuals, they are talking about the group. They look for
the welfare of the group, not only individuals, so it sounds a good feel. So again, it says an act is moral or moral good if and only if it maximizes the happiness for the largest number of group.
utilitarianism. That's the name of this theory, the consequentialism.
This is the first theory. The second type or the second theory. It's called the deontic ethics.
And it says morality is based on principles. It's like the opposite of the first theory, the first theory it's
We wait until we see the consequences of the action. Here it says regardless of the consequences, even if there are no consequences, it's the principles.
It is the principles. So the morality is based on principles.
And they refer to the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant
is the famous one who founded this theory.
What does he say? He says an act is immoral, or morally bad if and only if it cannot be universalized as law of nature.
So here, it doesn't say the largest number of people, it's not enough. For the largest number, it has to be
For all people, not only the largest number of people,
you see the difference between the first one and the second one. The first one, as long as it maximizes the happiness for the largest number of people, then it is moral here, unless it's universalized. It's not moral.
It's not moral.
So that's the difference between the first and the second one, and we'll go back to them inshallah. Now we move to the third type, which is the virtue ethics
or the character ethic.
Here, what do we have? It says morality is based on the human character. morality is not based on the principles, nor the consequences, but rather, it's based on the human character.
And the founder for this theory, is Aristotle.
The Greek philosopher
who died in the year 322, before Christ.
What does he say? Aristotle, he says, an act is moral, or morally good if and only if it contributes to one's virtuous character.
If it contributes to your virtuous character, then this act is moral. But we have a problem here. Because what do we mean by the virtuous character?
Everybody thinks of himself that he has virtuous character, even the criminal to him, whatever helps him perfecting his crime is virtuous. So how do we define the virtue?
This theory explained what's meant by virtuous character. It says virtue is the mean, between two extremes, such as bravery and cowardice, and rashness.
We have bravery. bravery is the mean between cowardice and rationals.
And is best learned by following the example of a virtuous person. So it's not only to know the means, the mean between two things, but rather you need to follow also a virtuous person. Now who's the virtuous person, because to some people, devil is virtuous person they follow. He meant by virtuous person, a person sent by God, like a prophet.
again, this is the third and the last theory.
An act is moral, or morally good if and only if it contributes to the one's virtuous character. So we don't look to the principles, we don't look to the consequences. We look to the virtuous character, does it contribute? Is it good for your self?
does it increase? As we say in Islam? deskey does it do test here?
How do we know? It does or it doesn't? If it's the mean between two extremes, then it does.
How do you know or who do you follow? It says you follow the virtuous person.
Now, let's go back to the first theory.
We want to analyze this theory. What does it say? It says if it maximizes the happiness of the largest number of group,
it is accepted.
What do you think of this theory? Is it accepted by Islam or not?
Does it have grounds in Islam or not? No?
Yes or no?
What do you think?
Now in Islam? Can you do an act? If it benefits you, but it harms the others?
Because you have to look to the group as well. Right?
So doesn't it say this? The same thing here? Doesn't it say the same thing? and act is moral? If it maximizes the largest number, not the small number? Or do you think?
So do we do we care about the smaller the minority or we care only about the majority? The majority? So is it accepted or not?
What do you think? I'm asking?
I don't know what you're writing.
Are you still writing?
Yes, in detail.
So this is the question, What if the majority accepted at the expense of the minority?
So we don't care about the minority, only the majority.
And according to this,
people took advantage of this theory, they enslave other people.
They brought black people from Africa.
They enslaved them. Why? Because it makes larger number of people, please. So if we have 20 million country, 20 million people country and we have 2 million people country, it's okay. According to this theory, it is permissible for the largest country to enslave
the smaller country. Why? Because we don't look to the 2 million people what to look to the 20 million people. So again, can we accept this as
an ethical theory for morality? Know why?
Which is better, to look for the minority or majority?
Now in Islam, we have, we have room, if you have two evils, you take the lesser evil. How do you know the lesser evil if it affects few people, and the largest evil is the one that affects larger number of people? Just like if someone wanted to relieve himself, the prophet SAW, Selim said, No one is allowed to urinate in the way of people. Why? Because you will harm other people. Now here in this point, Islam did not look to you on benefits, because you will benefit yourself, you want to you want to answer the call of nature, if you did not do so what will happen, you may harm yourself. But you cannot do that at the expense of harming other people.
So don't you think this is similar? Or it's different here? What do we have here? In the first theory?
It says, it's okay. You please the largest number of people and you don't care about the smaller number of people?
Doesn't that what Islam says?
No. What does it say?
The majority are usually wrong. Exactly. So we don't always take it this way that as long as the majority is happy, as long as it pleases the majority, then it's correct. Sometimes the majority are wrong. So can we accept this as the theory of morality?
What about the second type? The deontic ethics? Okay, fine. We don't have to accept the majority. But as long as we can universalize this
act, as long as it pleases everybody, then it is accepted. What do you think of it?
How can you please everybody?
Well, it doesn't say you have to please everybody, but it's universalized
like law that everybody accepted, or agreed on.
So here it says, we look to the principle. We don't look to the consequences.
So what do you think of this theory?
Is it accepted or not?
You say no, you have to say
Why you say yes, also you have to say why? Or about the students online. What do they think of this theory?
Now in Islam, if you wanted to know,
something is wrong is wrong, right? Like stealing
profits are so let me use this analogy and then came to him and he told him on messenger of Allah, Allah for me to commit adultery. Prophet SAW Selim told him Do you accept it for your mother? The man said no.
Prophet Sasa massively accepted for your sister for your daughter. And the man always said no. So prophets I seldom said, and the same thing for people, they don't accept it for the relatives, so you should not do it.
So isn't this similar? What do you think?
What's the law of nature? That's a good question.
If everybody accepted that this is a law of nature.
The nature is what goes with the flow of people.
Exactly. That's the point here. Yes.
This is the problem. What if everybody accepted adultery?
Does that make it permissible?
Does that make it moral? No, even if everybody accepted it, that's the problem with this theory. Yes, you may think or it's better than the first one. But it's still it's not enough. It is not enough. Because what if everybody accepted to steal?
would this happen? Could it happen? Yes, it happens. And it already happened. At the time I flew to a salon.
What was the crime of local a salon? He purifies himself. That was his problem.
karate come in nomina, Sunita heroin, they cleanse themselves. We don't want clean people, we want everybody to be dirty with this sin.
So it could happen.
They tried to do it now. Well, there are many things already done. Whether everybody accepts it or you are out, that does not make it permissible.
So even this theory is not enough.
Although it may sounds good while everybody is doing it. Islam tells us even if everybody do do it, you have your own
You have your own laws that are ordained by Allah subhanaw taala. You follow?
So again, the second theory, it's not enough. What about the third theory? What do you think of it? It's based on the character. So as long as it adds to your virtuous character, then it is moral. Otherwise it's immoral.
You have to be
in the middle between the two extremes. What do you think of this?
Does it have grounds in Islam? Yes.
morals by what?
Yeah, by guidance, where do we get this guidance?
Now again, this is an attempt to understand how people look at morality.
Do we have something similar in Islam for this theory?
fit contributes to your character, your virtuous character, then it is moral. Allah subhanaw taala says in the Quran, mocha Delica Jana mutton, what's up?
What's up? What does it mean?
Between right the average the mean between two extremes? So don't we have similar thing in Islam?
Also, here it says that
it's best learned by
following which was person
so what do you think of it?
why we say closer? Why don't we say it's
compatible to Islam?
What do you think?
Might not be.
Exactly. Who determines what are the extremes?
Is it the virtuous person? Is it Allah subhanaw taala or the people according to people
This is extreme and this is extreme. While it may not be the case, that might not be the case.
So what do you think?
This theory is very close actually to Islam?
Because first in Islam, what makes something moral or immoral?
If it brings you closer to Allah subhanaw taala then it is moral. And anything brings you closer to Allah subhanaw taala it adds to your virtuous character.
Now, how do you know according to Islam, how do you know this is moral or immoral? By following the messengers or selling my ethical model Sula, photo manakamana photo. So again, in Islam, this this theory is very close, it is very close to what we believe.
So, if I asked you how to establish the Islamic theory, then
having this been said like these three theories, let's say we have
we don't want the consequentialism we don't want the deontic ethics we don't want the virtuous character. We want the Islamic theory What do you say?
People, let's say people they know only these three theories and you came to them and you told them I have additional theory?
Can we combine these three together to form
Islamic theory? Or we have to add something more? Or we take something out? What do you think?
Islamic theory is established by the Creator Himself.
So what do you see this theory?
Let's take a look. I will help you. Allah subhanaw taala reminded us in the Quran that righteousness is not to face east or west. Some people think that the more you add, or you increase your ADA, that's what you should do. And that's enough, between you and the last panel. But a lot reminded us that this is good, but it's not enough. Yes, you have to face the Qibla you have to pray. But Allah reminded us a little bit more and Tuvalu Giacomo Marbella, Kindleberger Rahman I'm gonna be like, you have to believe in Allah. They have judgment. You have to establish prayer gives aka
beautiful to the neighbors, the parents and all these things are required, they are necessary. It's not enough only righteousness is not to face east or west.
the divine narrative from Allah subhanaw taala. In Adam merito from Saudi, or son of Adam, I was sick, and you did not visit me.
The man would say, oh my lord,
how would I visit you? And you're the Lord of the creation? allowed say they didn't you know that my servants and so was sick? They didn't you know that if you visited him, you would have found the reward with me.
Do you find this
in any worldly law?
Now why people visit sick people?
They say it's
it's ethical, right? But in Islam, it is.
It's required. It's the right of
the Muslim upon the brother upon his brother, how can Muslim Muslim one of it is to visit the sick.
But you will not never find it in any
Another example, in Islam, he doesn't believe he who sleeps full while his neighbor is hungry, and he knows that he's hungry.
This is another thing.
Now, in our time, let's say you have 10 neighbors and you never talk to any one of them. You never talk to any one of them
for 10 years
with the police come or the FBI or any law enforcement come and force you to talk to your neighbors
Yes or no? No Why?
It's your free. Islam tells you know
it's your neighbor. So you have to establish some kind of relationship with
You don't even achieve perfect email.
If you are sleeping full while your neighbor is hungry, and you know that he is hungry
imagine knowing Rahim Allah, Muslim, he said this hadith does not pertain to Muslims. So even if your neighbor is not Muslim,
this hadith still apply.
See how Islam is great? Even with everything with even the animals
even with the animals
when you slaughter the animal, the prophet SAW Selim said the cattle come fast enough to get people nowadays, they don't even care. They all they care about is consumption. production. They want to produce more chicken, more cows. They don't care about the cows, even the milk just read online or go to any farm and see how they milk the cow. It's horrible. Because all they care about is the milk they don't care
about the health of the cow
the same thing for the meat for the chicken
so in Islam, that's not the case. You have to care about the animals prophet SAW Selim said well a cafe called Covidien what what in
any living creature you'll get reward for being good to it
with the bird actually the messengers I send them cursed the one who takes the living
animals as objects to
to exercise like you throw the stones on the birds just for fun. Or you kill them just for fun profits Assalam curse the one who does that
you type the word and you start
So forget about all these organizations about animal rights we have in Islam we have all these rights, guaranteed.
So that's what Islam tells us.
Also, another important thing in Islam What if everybody doing something wrong?
Is it justified to do it as long as everybody is doing it? No, Islam says they're gonna have to come in man. Do not be funky do not do like others doing just because they are doing it. Like I had to come in man. If people do good you do good if people do bad you do the same. No.
You have to do what you're supposed to do regardless of the people
so in the light of all these evidences Hadith, and I asked how can you establish a good theory of morality in Islam? What do you say? If you're asked to to talk for five minutes or you have five lines?
To establish theory of morality in Islam What do you say?
That will be your job?
I want this by the next week inshallah.
Right, in your own words, the theory of morality in Islam.
I want five lines. I don't want you to write essay or
long paper just only five lines.
You're asked this question always. Don't people ask you. You are a Muslim? What does Islam stand for? What does it what's all about?
So what do you say? What are the morals of Islam?
and Equestria question
with this inshallah, we will end it. I'd also love Solomon and ramadasa management