Foundations of the Prophetic Sunnah 11/13

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Isam Rajab

Channel: Isam Rajab

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Sir, I want to thank you for joining us and the sciences of the Hadith class. Today inshallah we will discuss algebra and a 30. improvement and validation.

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And this is in the book, page 80.

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We mentioned that, in order for the Hadith to become authentic, it has to have trustworthy narrators. How do we consider someone trustworthy? Or how do we consider someone weak and the Hadith terminology, that's what we will talk about inshallah, today.

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In order to consider someone reliable or not, we have to have two things.

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trustworthiness,

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which is,

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which includes three things, Islam, puberty and avoiding since

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how someone becomes trustworthy. First, it has to be a Muslim. That means Do we have any single narrator? In any case that is not Muslim?

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Do we have or we don't have?

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Not Muslim?

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No, we don't have why one of the conditions is that he has to be a Muslim. The narrator has to be a Muslim. puberty reaching the age of puberty.

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By the way, I don't believe that we discuss the definition of puberty. Neither in fact nor in Hadith. We have been using this term many times. What's the definition of puberty?

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When someone is considered,

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has reached the age of puberty?

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Could someone tell me that definition? Many people they don't know that definition.

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Now there are signs for sure there are signs for reaching the age of puberty,

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the voice change of the voice growing the beard for women having their menses all these are signs but what's the definition of puberty?

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Do we have answered?

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The age of understanding what's the age of understanding?

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How do we consider this one reach the age of understanding that one did not reach the age of understanding? Yes.

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understanding between right and wrong. Again, this is vague, this is not clear.

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Okay, because we don't have time to waste.

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Once you are able to produce the like have you, then you reach the age of puberty.

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That's what we mean by reaching the age of puberty. This could be when you are nine years old, or when you are 10 years old, or when you are 15 years old. Nowadays, it's very rare to have nine or 10 it could happen at their time at the time of the messenger sighs it was normal that someone became adult while he is nine or 10 years old. The time that you are able to reproduce, you are able to bring the light of you to life then you have reached the age of puberty.

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Okay. So we have Islam, we have puberty, and we have avoiding sins. If you fulfill these things, these three things then you are trustworthy

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in memorization, we have five things that you should avoid.

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So we have two things

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in order for you to become reliable and

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trustworthy.

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Three things concerning trustworthiness, five things trust concerning memorization. What are these five things?

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Remember what we mentioned about the reasons for rejecting the narrator due to his memorization? Miss memorization, excessive mistakes, lots of illusion.

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Okay, these are the five things they are already discussed. Is this clear?

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Okay, how to know the trustworthiness of a narrator.

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How do we know you are reading the

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from Sofia, Anna banana from azuri from the lab in case from so on. So how do you know this is trustworthy and that is not trustworthy. How do you know this? We have two ways. two methods.

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There are two methods to know the trustworthiness of a narrator first to become well known to everybody that is trustworthy.

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or what we call an Arabic Alice the Father.

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Is the father a sham means everybody knows that he's trustworthy. michu

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Imam Malik Rahim Allah

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does anyone could come and say, Oh, let me check on Malik an anus. Is he trustworthy? He maybe he is not. What do you tell that man?

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You tell him Mr. Malik Rahim, Allah is beyond checking. Why? Because it's known to everybody not because the man medical handle is divine. He may make mistakes he's a human being but it is well known to everybody that demand medical him Allah is above question you don't question about demand Malik.

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It's not Who are you to come and comment on a mathematical model, or Shafi or image or a number honey for those great scholars of Hadith? Fianna zuri Mr. Mr. Bukhari imagine someone came and said I'm not sure if Mohammed bin Ismail al Bukhari is trustworthy or not. What do you tell this man?

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Those collars, they are known. Everybody knew that they are sold this this is one way. The other way? What if we don't know?

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Not everybody is famous. Not everyone is famous.

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The other way to have two people who has knowledge and they witness that this man is trustworthy.

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Now I heard someone talking about one of you. And he said he's trustworthy. Then another man came and he said the same thing. He is trustworthy. What does that giving me?

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It's giving me confidence that you are trustworthy.

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Okay, so to have two people saying that he's trustworthy.

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What about on the other hand, when we say about someone in the Hadith, he is a liar. Is this permissible?

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Yes,

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it's permissible.

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Or to say someone is weak, he makes mistakes,

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is in this backbiting?

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When the prophet SAW Selim was asked, Do you know what is backbiting?

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To say something about people that they don't like? And the prophet SAW sir Moses, what if if they are really so? If it's true, he said, if it's true then it is backbiting

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fits not true then it is lying. slandering it is Mima?

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So

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no one do you like someone to tell you You are alive?

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Even if I lie, I don't want people to say you are lying.

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So how is it permissible?

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Is it Riba?

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What is no it's not labor, is it permissible or not?

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It is Riba so you cannot say about an arranger his life?

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What do you mean keep it to yourself?

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People want to know is this health authentic or not?

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So you cannot tell he is a liar?

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Well, actually, how when do we know that this hadith is authentic or not? All scholars agreed. In the terms of Hadith. It is permissible to say this one is liar. It's the Hadith of the messenger sallallahu wasallam. You want to protect the Sunnah of the prophet SAW Selim.

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All scholars agreed it is permissible.

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What if

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someone came to you,

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asking you about a person

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whom you know very well.

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That person proposed to your friend's sister

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and you know that person and we know that

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he made many mistakes and he will not be a good candidate.

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What do you tell your friend? I cannot say anything. It is labor.

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You tell him the truth isn't this labor?

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What if a woman came to the Imam or the judge? And she told him my wife? My husband is beating me up.

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Do you think that the husband would like people to know that he is beating his wife up?

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So isn't this Reba?

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We have exceptions. We have exceptions. They are known for scholars. Six things that are exceptions. Al padfolios ability but in physicality, the volume in maarif in Omaha

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while most hiring fisken, staffed in woman fallible IANA taffy is Allah Tim Curry. These are the six things we have six things it's not considered backbiting

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in a case of oppression,

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someone took your money

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they took what you have.

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You are oppressed?

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Do you say oh, I cannot say or I cannot tell people this is what happened to me. It is backbiting Of course not everybody said you can.

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Identification for purposes of identification. Like what

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do you know that man who came yesterday? Which man the man with the dark skin?

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Now maybe he doesn't like people to tell about him that his darks dark skin.

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But you did not want to put him down you just meant to clarify his name to to clarify his identity.

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When you tell tell your friend, the blind man.

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Now if someone is blind, he doesn't like people to tell him you're blind.

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But you did not mean

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to degrade him. You just wanted to identify him.

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So the for the purposes of identification, you're identifying that person, it is permissible.

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That's why we have some narrators in the Hadith they are called an average an Amish. What's the meaning of a large

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The one who has lived?

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And an Amish?

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The one who has difficulty in his eyesight.

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So it is permissible. Number three, the one who commits in openly

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fossick.

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Number four asking for fatwah.

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Again, if someone came and asked you to give him a photo

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if Sam came to you, and he told you my father gave my brother but he did not give me.

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You don't say this is ribeye. You are backbiting your father. He wants to know the ruling. Is this permissible or not?

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Number four, number five warning Muslims from the evil action.

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Someone did something wrong. And they want to warn the Muslims against that evil action.

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Someone lied in the Hadith of the messenger salami don't say oh, I cannot back by this man.

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And consequently, people who will accept the Hadith, because they did not tell them, you have to tell them.

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And number six forbidding the evil. If you are a man of authority, and people came to you, telling you that we saw people fornicating that place and you have to forbid the evil or we saw that man and his drunk, he has to be punished islamically we don't say this is backbiting. You want to forbid the evil.

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So these are the six things that

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it is permissible in this case to or it's not backbiting in these cases, we have six things.

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Now, we will start with validation.

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We have improvement and we have validation.

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What is validation?

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We have several levels. As we said if two scholars or two people have knowledge they came and they said this man is trustworthy, then he is trustworthy. What is the highest level of trustworthiness?

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Because remember, we said

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in the Hadith al Hassan, the Hadith which is narrated

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By trustworthiness but not strong in their memory, so it is authentic but it's less than this. So what's the highest of the side? What's the top?

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Yes.

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In all six books, what's the highest? Not the Hadith, the narrator we're talking about the narrator. We're not talking about the Hadith itself.

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The narrator

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in order to give credit to someone,

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and the credit score, if you have 100 800 or 790, your credit is excellent. How do we do the same thing with the words and they had this terminology.

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bobbitt, that's the highest

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Hong Kong.

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When we say accepted without question, or beyond question,

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that's the highest.

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Miss Lowe who lives alone. Or when you tell the man who asks you the likes of this man, you should not ask about them.

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Or when you say he is the most who are OFAC on us? It's really difficult to translate it in English I'm trying my best and you go back to the book and see the terms it's used. It will make it easy for you inshallah, page 80.

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Who are our kindness is the most reliable person that means that's it is the strong strongest person.

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Or when you say who a man or ameerul momineen fill Hadith

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This is the highest

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number two, when you say who are thicker and thicker.

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When you repeat thicker twice What's the meaning of FIFA? FIFA includes two things trustworthiness and memorization is excellent in memorization and he is trustworthy. When you say he has forgotten FIFA, his FIFA, FIFA one FIFA is enough right? But you repeated it twice. That means he's extra

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is beyond that. So this is the second level. Now what about those two levels? If the narrator's are from this level? This is what

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automatically it's without question.

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If all of them of course, number three

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is trustworthy and very tentative. Is the kahawa.

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What do we mean by FIFA?

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Again, he is acceptable. So his Hadith is what

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so high, it's authentic. It's accepted. Number four. So do

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what do you mean by Sato?

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truthful? saduak

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truthful when you look at it, it means truthful, that means is good. But actually he's in lower level than the second.

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The people from this level. That Hadith is called what

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hasn't exactly. And actually to some scholars, like amendement Bukhari Rahim, Allah He uses this word because he was very polite. He uses this word for the ones that are not that are weak. But he was polite.

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And he was

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flexible with them. But this Hadith, now this is the fourth level. Remember we have first level second level, third level and this is the fourth level. It's still accepted but it is not authentic. It is hassle. It is accepted, but it's not as good as this is.

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Number five sodoku with some delusion.

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Number five, he is lower than number four. So he's making mistakes.

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Now what about this hadith?

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of the narrator's from number five? Is it a high?

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Nope, it is not so high is it Hassan

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it's lower than Hassan it is weak, it needs just some endorsement

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or some scholars still accepted it. scholars who are flexible in the way they accepted. So these are the five levels of validation. Some scholars they added more some scholars they consider them four levels. But the regular one, most of the scholars give which word which level

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Most of the people are of which level?

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Three Exactly.

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That's the default. You could say that's the default.

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To be in number one.

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You have only a handful of people. That's it.

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Or you could list them like 10 people 15 people maximum. Those who are very well known in the Hadith that like Eman Bukhari Rahim Allah

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then the second level, it's also still difficult to reach that level. But the third level most of the people there

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and number four and number five also lots of people are like that, but when we talk about validation is enough. That's it.

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Number six, we have Maqbool,

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Maqbool, what do we mean by Maqbool?

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Just like as I wrote it, okay.

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When you are asked,

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Is this good? And you say, Okay, what do you mean by okay? Is it real? Okay? It's not

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it is not if it's okay, you will say it is good. So it's the same thing the same exact thing when they say okay, that means it is by he has weakness, he has weakness.

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So, again, number 123, they are accepted automatically. And it is site number four, it is Hassan. Number five it is it could be Hassan and it could be life number six, it is the life but it is the highest of the life it is it needs a little bit. You need to push it.

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Pull it a little bit higher and it will become handsome.

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Okay, again, there are some scholars they added more.

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Now, improvement, what are the words for Java?

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If you wanted to discredit an array

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what's the worst? Now we're starting from the worst? Not from the highest from the worst? What's the worst word? You would say?

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Liar Exactly. Is there any worse than liar?

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Some scholars said the most lying person but it's the same liar.

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He's a liar

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when you say he's a liar, that's it.

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The Hadith is what is rejected it's not the Hadith

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number two what do we have number two

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Hello.

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No

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accused of flying

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accused of flying

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with them on because

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now number three

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metrical Hadith. His Hadith is abandoned, or his very very weak

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is very weak, or his Hadith is abandoned. Now number one and two. What about them

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is rejected automatically. Number three, the same thing they have is rejected.

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And it cannot be elevated. But it's not like number one and two, but it's still weak.

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Forget about it. Number four, the Hadith is what

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weak is weak. Do you accept it or you reject it?

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you reject it, but could it be endorsed? Yes there is a possibility you could endorse it if you have another narration

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number five, he is not

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now number five and four they are still close but number five is very close when you say he is not secure. That means he has some kind of trustworthiness but not so him It means it needs endorsement.

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Some scholars considered the last one he's okay the same thing like here the last one he also is okay

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or is not.

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So, these are the levels of

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improvement and validation.

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So, according to the scholars of Hadith now you go to each name, this scholar this narrator he is the the second name he is thicker the third name he is weak. Then circa Benfica, what's the level of the Hadith

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week

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what if FIFA FIFA FIFA so do

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Hasson at least has some. Some scholars consider it sigh, but at least it hasn't. Okay, that's the advantage of knowing

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the validation and improvement.

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What if Now, here's the problem. What if someone has two descriptions? Two different

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words. Like what

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normal Buhari says about him his take on a man Mohammed said about the same man his wife, what do you do?

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could this happen? Yes, it happened.

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It even happens in everything. Some people like this device, others they don't like it. So, what do we do in the head if

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one bureau gives you 720 score the score is 720 other bureau gives you 690 or 650.

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What do you do?

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Well, first of all, you need to know who gave him this

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ruling who said about him he is thicker. We have some scholars, they are very strict.

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That means if they give by if that means most likely he is if even if his life is not that life, if another man give him that means you go with him he is strict.

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Okay. So it depends on the scholars like Mr. Mohammed Rahim Allah He was very fair amendment Ohara Rahim Allah He was very fair. While you have in mind, for instance, the friend of Mr. Mohammed he was strict.

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Man will have been if it had been in the matters of employment, he is very strict as well for any problem he says his life. So, first you need to know who said this word. In order to reconcile you need to reconcile. So, first of all, you see who said his wife and who said his

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we have two cases.

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In this scenario,

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one case there is no contradiction.

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Although that one said he is the wife and another one said he is the car there is still no contradiction how they may say he is the if he narrated from that person, but he is thicker if he narrated from other people.

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So in this case,

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it's okay there is no contradiction, we know what did they mean by the if and what did they mean by ficon? Just like nowadays, you may go and you ask for a loan and they tell you, we can give you an auto loan, but we cannot give you a mortgage loan.

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depends on your credit.

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They tell you, He is the car. If he narrated from this shape, because he was with him and he knew everything. But he is not fickle. If he narrated from that person.

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They reach that advanced level. In Hadith scholars of Hadith, they reached that level how, again, by extensive research, like they noticed once generated from this, Jeff, he was always with him. He knew everything about him. But the moment he left him, something changed, or he got old. So he started making mistakes. We compared his narrations to the narrations of other narrators from the same shape and he has mistakes. So they gave that to me. They were very, very accurate. So in this case, there is no contradiction.

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Whether they say he is the car from that shape, and he is not the car from other Archie. All they say he is the car if he narrated from that area from that specific area from a Hijazi from Egypt. Because in Egypt, he was focused after that, maybe he lost his books, or something wrong happened to him and his memory was not the same, or he is thicker until he reached 60 years old. The same thing. In this case, we have no contradiction, although we have two different words, but there is no contradiction.

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Okay, these are the scenarios. What if we have contradiction? Now? They say he is another one. He says his life. They don't make exceptions from this person from that city from this year.

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Here again, we need to see first who's the chef who said his taco And who is this chef who said his life

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in general. In general, we accept the one who said he is life. Why?

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Because the one who said his car is rolling according to what he saw.

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Just like if someone proposed to a lady

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And they want to ask people

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if they wanted to present what would they say? Like we see him in the masjid.

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Is this good or bad?

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Is this good or bad?

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Good. What Why you are not answering. This is good. They will tell you we see him in the masjid.

00:30:22--> 00:30:26

But you asked someone and he told you. I saw him in a bar.

00:30:28--> 00:30:29

could that happen?

00:30:31--> 00:30:32

Yes, it could happen which one you take?

00:30:34--> 00:30:39

Now the ones who told you if we saw them, we saw him in the masjid. They are right, because they saw him in the masjid.

00:30:40--> 00:30:45

Maybe they did not see him in the bar. But that one he is telling I saw him in the bar.

00:30:46--> 00:30:47

So which one you take?

00:30:48--> 00:31:10

Do you still say I will marry him? I will accept his proposal because he goes to the masjid. But again, remember, that's in general. But also there are exceptions. There are exceptions. Again, usually the one who says his life he saw something others did not see. That's why he said his life. But there are exceptions.

00:31:13--> 00:31:15

We cannot accept this.

00:31:16--> 00:31:21

If the improvement, the one who said his wife did not clarify it.

00:31:23--> 00:31:25

The ones who say he is thicker.

00:31:28--> 00:31:40

The new is thicker. But the one who said his wife why he said his wife. Just like the one he told, you know, don't take this man, as a husband, for your sister.

00:31:41--> 00:31:56

And you tell him why he tells you That's it. Now, there are people telling you, he went to the masjid. You don't know what this man is telling you. So most likely you will go with other people because you don't know what he's telling you. You need clarification. The same thing here.

00:31:57--> 00:31:59

The tournament has to be explained

00:32:00--> 00:32:06

why it has to be explained. Because you may consider something bife. While it is not.

00:32:08--> 00:32:10

Oh, I saw him doing this thing.

00:32:11--> 00:32:22

Well, maybe he had an excuse. Or maybe you saw it differently than what others saw. Or maybe you consider it by but the others don't consider it.

00:32:23--> 00:32:24

And the other exception

00:32:26--> 00:32:30

if you have bigotry against him, you don't like him?

00:32:32--> 00:32:34

We have these cases in Hadith. Yes, we have.

00:32:37--> 00:32:40

If you are contemporary to one famous scholar

00:32:41--> 00:32:44

and you notice people are going to him and they are not coming to you.

00:32:46--> 00:32:49

Why don't you try to bring people to you.

00:32:50--> 00:33:13

You will do that? How you will try to discredit that man. Do we accept this from you? We don't accept it. That's why they say in Arabic kalama Kron youth wah wah Yoruba the sayings of the contemporary people for each other, it should be formed, it should not be disclosed

00:33:15--> 00:33:25

because they are rivals, they are competing with each other. He did this I will do that and I will try to follow your mistakes to

00:33:28--> 00:33:39

to point them to people. So we don't accept improvement if it was not explained, it has to be explained because you may consider something wrong. While it's in reality, not wrong.

00:33:42--> 00:33:51

Now, that's the end of the issue of validation and improvement. Now we are moving to the fridge.

00:33:54--> 00:33:55

The fridge ahadith.

00:33:56--> 00:33:58

What do we mean by the fridge and

00:34:04--> 00:34:05

the fridge means to derive.

00:34:08--> 00:34:09

This is linguistically

00:34:10--> 00:34:27

it goes to the fridge means to derive but in Hades terminology to refer the Hadith to its place in the authentic resources with clarifying its degree whether it's authentic or not, when it's needed.

00:34:29--> 00:34:31

That's the definition of marriage and Hadith.

00:34:33--> 00:34:33

Again,

00:34:36--> 00:34:38

what do we mean by the courage and Hadith?

00:34:40--> 00:34:41

to relate the Hadith

00:34:43--> 00:34:47

to the one who narrated it from the authentic sources like what

00:34:50--> 00:34:54

I told you, the messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said

00:35:00--> 00:35:01

Letter biana

00:35:04--> 00:35:10

synonym and cannot have a convertible. You will follow the people before you

00:35:11--> 00:35:13

step by step.

00:35:15--> 00:35:19

You asked me who narrated this hadith? What do I tell you?

00:35:23--> 00:35:24

All Buhari?

00:35:25--> 00:35:30

When I tell you it's narrated in Al Bukhari, what do we call this process?

00:35:31--> 00:35:38

That rage? That's the meaning of the page when I tell you where to find this Hadith, or

00:35:39--> 00:35:41

when you ask about the Hadith

00:35:42--> 00:36:00

is this hadith authentic? Is it a hadith anyway or not? And I tell you, yes, it is a hadith it is narrated, it must not have a mama and it is authentic. What do we call this? The fridge. That's the meaning of the fridge. I am relating the hobbies to its source

00:36:02--> 00:36:33

to the book where it was narrated with giving with the rolling, whether its size or not if it's needed, now sometimes the fridge considered only when I tell you it's in sunan Abu Dawood, this is the courage I don't have to tell you it is I have not this is extra thing, but it's still considered also the courage. So this is the courage to refer the Hadith to its place in the authentic resources. What do we mean by authentic resources? Do not tell me this hadith is so Hi. And it is narrated in the book of psychology.

00:36:35--> 00:36:36

What has the psychology to do with

00:36:37--> 00:36:52

the authentic resources has to be the books of soon the books of scholars who compiled the Hadith like a madman, Mama Buddha would tell me the Suna Dara hophni sana, datamine nongeneral, kaviraj Bharani. These are the authentic resources.

00:36:55--> 00:36:56

Okay.

00:36:57--> 00:36:59

Do you understand what do we mean by the fridge?

00:37:00--> 00:37:00

Okay.

00:37:03--> 00:37:05

But before the fridge

00:37:06--> 00:37:15

before you do that average, you want to find it to find the hardest work to find it in which book, you want to look it up. Before you do that.

00:37:16--> 00:37:18

You need to look at one thing.

00:37:19--> 00:37:21

Is this hadith narrated by a companion?

00:37:22--> 00:37:23

Or

00:37:24--> 00:37:26

the companion is not mentioned?

00:37:27--> 00:37:30

Is this Hadeeth mentioned fully or not?

00:37:31--> 00:37:33

When I tell you in normal Albania,

00:37:34--> 00:37:36

did I mention the companion?

00:37:37--> 00:37:46

No. When I tell you Amara de la Han said the prophet SAW Selim said in Nirmala melbournian. Did I mention the companion? Yes, I mentioned the companion.

00:37:48--> 00:37:49

What's the difference?

00:37:50--> 00:37:51

When you have the companion?

00:37:53--> 00:38:00

You could look the Hadith through the companion. When you don't have the companion, it may be more difficult.

00:38:02--> 00:38:05

Is there? No it's not more sun.

00:38:07--> 00:38:14

Now the Hadith is connected, but you want to see what it is you don't know even if it's more subtle or not. You have portion of the Hadith.

00:38:15--> 00:38:18

Is there a distinctive word in the Hadith?

00:38:20--> 00:38:20

Like schufa.

00:38:26--> 00:38:32

Or there are many words that are very few used. But like

00:38:33--> 00:38:36

is the word odo distinctive or it's common.

00:38:40--> 00:38:41

The word will do.

00:38:43--> 00:38:49

It's used many times it's common. But when I mention a word that it's strange, we did not hear it before.

00:38:56--> 00:38:57

What's the meaning of xR?

00:39:01--> 00:39:05

No acmella completed xR to spill or to

00:39:07--> 00:39:07

to drop.

00:39:09--> 00:39:11

So this word is not used that much.

00:39:14--> 00:39:16

Does it talk about specific topic or not?

00:39:18--> 00:39:23

So in order for you to find the Hadith in the books, now again, that's very important.

00:39:25--> 00:39:27

Just like when I asked you

00:39:28--> 00:39:28

about an ayah

00:39:30--> 00:39:41

where is this ayah and you tell me what it is in the Quran. I don't want to look through the entire Qur'an 644 pages, I want to see in what page exactly what's the ayah

00:39:42--> 00:39:59

the same thing with Hadith. You told me the Prophet I said I'm set to answer Where did he say it? How can I verify it? Well in order for you to verify if it's a hadith or not, in order for you to find it in the books of Hadith. Before you do that, look at these things is the name of the companion mentioned.

00:40:00--> 00:40:05

Does it talk about a specific topic? So you could go to these topics and find the Hadith there?

00:40:07--> 00:40:10

Does it have a distinctive word or word or not?

00:40:11--> 00:40:17

That's what you do before you start with average. Now we have methods of the average

00:40:18--> 00:40:21

we have methods of the fridge.

00:40:23--> 00:40:30

We have five methods, five methods in which you can know the Hadith.

00:40:31--> 00:40:37

And there is one added to it nowadays, we have six method. It was just recently known

00:40:39--> 00:40:40

the fridge through Google.

00:40:42--> 00:40:47

You go to Google and you type the Hadith and you get it. Now this is the fridge because you are looking at

00:40:51--> 00:41:01

what are these methods? We will talk about them inshallah, in the next class, and with this we will conclude our session of Salam Salam Allah Mohammed Ah, savage man, Santa Monica tala.