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Fiqh of Worship #3 – Introduction to the Hanbali School

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Hatem al-Haj

Channel: Hatem al-Haj

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Bismillah Alhamdulillah wa salatu salam ala Samia manana. So just, you know,

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I know that this is a class on Fifth and I know that we have had two sessions before this is the third session and we have not talked to any facts yet. We're just it's still the introduction. But, but this is further plotline is pertinent, because like we want to zoom in on fact, but before this, you want to have a little bit of awareness of the context that this book that we will be studying inshallah, for the next two years, not just this one, you know, this is one of the four volumes that we will be studying over the next few years This may take about eight or nine months from us to finish. But the entire book over long that was written by of nakodar, Moroccan Allah tala, there is

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there is a story behind it on the and it is very helpful to understand the story behind it on. And the story behind that on that is basically the story of Edna Kodama and the story of the confetti mother. And that is why we will spend a little bit more time today understanding the story of having a podium with him. We will zoom in on Abner Kodama. But in order for us to zoom in, on Kodama, we will have to also understand a little bit of the context and where he comes from. So we talked that we talked before about massage therapy, and while I'm in color and color, you know, we didn't talk about this yet, okay. So.

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So, in my mock met, he was pretty adamant not to have anything written, you know, not to have his own possessions kept for generations to come, because he felt that you know, everybody should take from the Sun is guided by the scholarly views, but again, he did not want the scholarly views to

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basically

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subvert the parameters in order to, to, to dominate

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over the poor and the certain that he did not want people to be going around saying that men said this woman said that and then someone else says, Sophia Norris hack or this or they said something different and then the whole discourse becomes about Hackman and Sophia and as half American have a Hanif and so on, he wanted to he wanted to be about the book of alliances and of His Prophet. Sometimes I've met that went to extremes and the three we know that the one who went to the greatest extreme in this regard was Sophia the most shredded everything and ordered everybody to burn everything that he had written or that they may come across that has his writings, but that also

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sometimes went to extremes in this regard. There is someone called

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sokoban mon Sol, for instance, who took you know, the Masada took many of the positions of LACMA. Then he went back to his hometown started to teach people about the positions of a Mama. Mama heard about it, he sent to them in that town that he never met recanted all of the positions that as hot as teaching you.

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Just the stuff is hot from doing this. So what is happening that is happening soon at Casa de Rahim Allah, what he did is he went back to the mama hermit, and he said to him, this is your handwriting? Did you recanted this position? Even then, even LACMA did not really care. So you know, who didn't know. And then it's hot words with you know, put a lion on it, that and then and he kept on doing this until he went through all of the positions, and at the point to just give up? I mean, and and he certainly will, you know, admire this half because this level of determination is just amazing. You know, so he, you know, like, basically embarrass them in front of his people. But he went back

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and he confirmed with the northmet No, these Asian and African this or this or that. But so what you may have said is that he recanted many of his positions, so don't listen to his heart because he recanted many of his positions. So it's hard went and went through the positions of awkward one by one, and then Mr. Mohammed laughter.

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And that is one of the earliest myself in emails that were written during his time. And, you know, his disciples started to teach during his very time, but he had many

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students like Mara was a

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Rosie, Rosie, and in May money of the comedian may muddy and horrible karmani and Ibrahim and Harvey, and Abdullah, his own son and sada, his own son and Hanban his, his cousin. And all of those are that that report from an email Muhammad and certainly last room, which which was a

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femicide effect on Hades and Astra was also

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an authority in authority on both bedtime hobbies. So they report from the documented and massaman Masada manakamana and they would report for him but there was no real effort at collecting the man hyperbole, mathematic as an entire must have from A to Z, you know, from the era to

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or acknowledgement or sad after the judicial matters from A to Z

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until a particular man came about

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called Abu Bakr on holiday in reference to how you guys know how to write vinegar. So he used to send vinegar and they used to they used to be involved in there is also of the students of Mr. faff from cloth

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and there, there are others and then

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they used to have their own different professions

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at the same time, so

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his name is Ahmed and Harun by the way he died in 310 after hedger This is the one who collected the Muslim in a book everybody READS ARABIC right.

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You know, just you

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know, if if someone does not read Arabic outright in English, if just one single person, okay, all right in English.

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So his name is Abu Salah, and this is the person who wrote and jam and Dharma

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which is basically the collection of

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all of the data comes from data from gathering. So this is the book that gathered all the positions of Mr. Mohammed, very, this is like a very important figure in the Hanbury method. Because without,

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you know, the fatwa of Allah subhanaw taala and then Abu Bakar they would have not been very much

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because all of the students that we talked about before they just gathered portions of the positions of any Mohamed in their books.

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You know, of the students of Iraq Alonso, who wrote the most famous Mossad where was written by a Buddhist such as daddy who has the author of certain habido and you know, development also of his students his body and Muslim. These were the students of the Mohamed Omar Buhari and Muslim did not report from his 50 positions because their main focus their main concern or focus was the collection of the son of the prophet SAW Selim. So they collected from not not very hobbies that he reported from the province of Southern but not his own therapy positions.

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So if if ama died in the year 240 after hijra

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and we said that we had all of the students, but one particular student was relevant to abubaker and Kellen Moore more than any other student and was was particularly relevant to the how many of his name is Abu Bakr also, and there is a lot of work to do by the way, it must have been the beginning Abu Bakr and Mark Rosie and Maru, they

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have a background so

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the maybe

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so this movie died in the year 275. After the hatred of the professor, it's very simple at 600 and you will be safe you will be in the neighborhood. You know it varies. But But if you add 600

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I can't really relate to the Islamic history.

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Well, you know, through the Gregorian calendar, so I have to use the Hijri calendar.

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But also if you cannot, if if you just have like a great disconnect with the history calendar had 600 and you will be on, you know, close

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in terms of the Gregorian calendar, so 241 out 600, and you will be in the ninth, ninth century common error, ninth century common area

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841, but it's not 141, it's 860 something.

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So, and then, so this student, student direct direct here, this line is not interrupted, it's direct. And then you will have another great figure, which is a therapy.

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Okay, because we will have two great figures coming down from this line here. One of them is alarming.

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disease which is alarming from them, who are felons boy,

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boy,

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disease and felons boy

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amarapura therapy and akima hula health therapy

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is the other student. And they were very significant, because each one of them took the book out about the background color because the worker of working in a lab was enormous, big, huge.

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People give up on enormous writing books, right? People don't have the appetite to read, you know, those huge collections. And unless you you abridge them, you will make them basically

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unapproachable by by people. There is there is a particular scholar of this of this time called the maxim scifi. They said that the writings of yahia are greater than the writings of any contemporary you know, all of the the writings on the different mazahub. But people gave up on them, because they were too lengthy. He was too detailed. There was he was just like he did not he was unable to summarize. You see, sometimes we branch off and go on tangents and stuff and lose time. That's what happens when people don't really keep it together and just try to summarize. So therapy end of collapse boy, he was called the collapse boy because he was like a collapse shadow. He was trying to

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learn from collapse. So he was like the shadow of that all was following and collapse so that people would call him a collapse, boy.

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And therapy, Rahim Allah bye died in the year 334 after her tuna and collapsable. He died in 363, after hedgerow, sometimes you find 336 after hitter, it's the 63 after hitter, so he lasted longer.

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That was very beneficial for the for the chain of the of the method that was very beneficial in therapy, wrote a book and a boy wrote a book in therapy, his book, The therapists book was more therapy or the summarized book of authority was basically the center of Hanbury attention and he was it was the most taken care of book in the handbook it must have 300 plus commentaries were written on this book shuru are commentaries of this book were written 300 Plus, the greatest of them is called Hal Mooney, which was written by Abner podem. And it is an encyclopedia that does not only have the Hanbury method, but also address mentioned the positions and the other certainly with a

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homebody flavor, he is somebody that does not deny it.

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But it mentions the other mother was currentness fairness and a great deal of impartiality.

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So So here and then from from from Apple bank,

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boy

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comes another figure, who is

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Mohammed, Eben habit.

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And this figure is also important in the method. particularly important when this even if you're not particularly specialists, then it is important to know how they, how these things, how the scholars transmitted knowledge, this is part of the history of Islam that is important for us to be familiar with.

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But Abraham he died, and 403 c versus 363 for all three. So it's all connected. So between Aftermath and Abraham, Ed, which Abraham it is the end of the first layer and the mother, which is Papa cotton Takata me in the first layer and the method ended with it.

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After Mohammed, and who died, and 403, who is the student of canals? Boy, by the way, one of the, you know,

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stories, one of the interesting stories about the fallas boys that collapse boy, sent in his, you know, family.

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You know, on a Wednesday, he said to his family, and in the contract, and tomorrow, I will be with you on Friday. And then

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the so so so prepare yourselves, like prepare, you know, prepare my journals and everything. Because I'm here until Friday. And then the second how can how could you tell? And he said, I will back them Hello, Friday, and he was 78 and aboubaker. And maruthi died on Friday, and he was 78. And the mama died on Friday, and he was 78. And I will die on Friday. And I'm 78

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so we actually live on Friday.

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Yeah,

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that is a holiday boy. So anyway, Edna Hamad was you know, this was the year 403 Muhammad, the student of Abu Bakar, this boy or girl, Ahmed Salah, died in 403, the first layer in the of the Hungarian

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Academy, and we're not saying that this is this is this is it, that there were so many but we're taking this particular line, because it is connected to Aqua Dharma at the end and this line is the lion. The most famous line

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in the Mazda 700 died in 403, who was the student of Edna Hamlet, a very famous hanbali which is a comedy abriola comedy means the judge

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party and we are gonna be because he was called the and the cornea, Brianna died

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and 458. After his retinal cardia Brianna was basically the beginning of the second layer which is pubblicato matassa t scope the middle layer or mythos of the beginning of the middle layer of the method. So he basically

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was the initiation of that period over that layer. And then after we are left have two students that were very significant, very famous as well. One of them is famous outside of the mouth hub. One of them is famous only inside the mouth of Abu Dhabi can lose and he is famous inside the method and I will cut up died in the year 410 510 candles na

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so Abu

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tan 510 he was a student of a viola we also had his son as a student and there was also a Pooja had an SME Rahim Allah one of the students of our we our main figure in the plaza but what we're trying to limit it so that we could get to know Kodama here.

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So and then the the other figure that was particularly important to have the students above we are Allah was ignited. Many of you heard about ethnography, because he, he was like, he was encyclopedic in his knowledge he wrote about everything he he was

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very, very frank scholar in the sense of

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having the extensive knowledge in all fields.

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in all disciplines

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of an arcade was encyclopedic have not been was not particularly his his, his writings, although he recanted his positions that were in disagreement with the MoMA but his writings on Arpita were not particularly consistent with in Obama's views, but in fact, he was just consistent with somebody.

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That's if not the

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he's the one who wrote the commentary on unfair diplomatic in

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any way if not invited in 513, after hedger

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then Edna and Apple hapa. They were both the teachers of

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confidence in me

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and in you know, triple Kataria, the Cadbury order of the day. It does not mean that all of them they really follow the teachings of the cardinal Gilani, by the way. But other Cardinal Gilani himself was was a great master of the past, and of the color of Jelani himself was a righteous can, you know, Sharia compliant scholar who has a strict Hanbury

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before of the parallel journey, the other master of the past that was strict and very, extremely strict and very isn't how do we sahab man as it is sorry, in the author of the book that we teach in the first session, man as it is serene who died in 481 after Hitler. So in order we would have died here.

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But all of those people were living in Baghdad, by the way, the army was not living in Baghdad, but the whole of this line. They weren't Baghdad is they were living in Baghdad.

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And remember, was was a bag that he was buried in Baghdad as well. And many of his students many of his disciples were buried next. So all of this is a back there the line after Catherine t van he also is Baghdadi

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safe harbor pilot, save up the car there.

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died in the year 561 561 a safe harbor the father died.

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Okay, so this is in.

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And along with the Shihab the father there were two main figures and the Hanbury method a little bit younger than him, but also in very important figures in the method also about daddy's imminent money Manet and epinal. Josie you guys heard of m&ms there was a lot of people heard of m&ms. I was. So m&ms I was 1005 97

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kibune Josie

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but

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what happened in 541?

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No, Kodama was born in 541. Anthony Fernando was born. So when I happen to have the father died of no cadaver was 20 years old. But he did catch a shake up the other four Kodama himolla

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car of the cottage already for 15 days before he died, he came along with his cousin, half of abdulghani makdessi, who is a great figure in hobbies because he's the one who collected all of the terrible biographies of the narrator's of the six books

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that he has known collected all of them

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together, and then people started to use his work to build on it and come after us manager. That is his book where he collected the biographies of the inheritors of the six books, Bukhari Muslim, widowed tirmidhi and say, Evan imagine

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he was the cousin of immuno Kodama and they went together to shake up the, you know, at the same time to visit the shock of the father before he died, so they arrived 50 days before he died and back then they arrived from where, from Damascus, they arrived from Damascus. Why are they called them makdessi we will come to this now. So

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so she know Kodama

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Okay, so let's say 541 This is when Abner padana was born. And 620 is when Abner Kodama died Rahim Allah. So this is, you know, I have no problem.

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So he learned from Chicago call that an aftershock of the quarter by and he stayed around in Baghdad him and half his off delivery and they went to New Jersey to learn from Revenant Josie and then in many to learn from him have an open ama ama know

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there are three teachers, three teachers of Edna Kodama

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that are unusual. Khadija marijuana, the official possessor and show that cassava. These were all women. And they were they were three Messiah. Kodama

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Baghdadi women that were the Messiah of Edna Kodama de Janeiro and a show that cassava and the FISA albas.

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So along with the old, they also went, you know, so you could imagine the amount of knowledge that they had, that they have no Kodama would, you know, take time out of his schedule to go and learn from Khadija around a caravan fee services. Anyway, so Edna putana, then

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went back home to the maskers, after four years of stay in Baghdad, Baghdad used to be the hub of the hub Belize, in the first layer, Han piano part of the second layer in the method, it was the hand belly hub.

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It did not last, you know, for too long, because the because of many things, but particularly because of the dominance of the car in that area. And you know how a combat is like to bring up you know, sort of

00:27:17--> 00:27:18

they they don't really

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keep it inside.

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They're always the oldest boys, they're their possessions.

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So the friction and the contention and so on the it made the honeyberries move out, West to SF, which is Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine, particularly Palestine became the hub of the baddies from, you know, early in the second layer to early in the third layer. So, almost an entire layer

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Sham, particularly Palestine and then the maskers was the hub of the Humbert ease

00:28:08--> 00:28:10

Okay, so

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so I'm gonna put Emma from 541 to 620

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What happened then 541 by the way out west, that would lead to more apathy and failed to develop more headin and that was the beginning of the loss of andalusi development neuropathy, which is the which is like a dynasty

00:28:36--> 00:28:51

of Muslim rulers that started in the middle of the fifth century was overcome by not the greatest dynasty not very good dynasty dynasty,

00:28:52--> 00:29:01

although their name is beautiful, but you know, they were not particularly, you know, as good as the team. So, that was that scene

00:29:03--> 00:29:37

was completely overcome and the 541 that went into more of the team was there was not only in, in Maghreb, Lara V, but was also in Andalusia had gotten control over have Volusia in the beginning of the sixth century. The loss of immortality and in 541 was a catalyst for the complete loss of an Volusia thereafter. So 541 was a very significant year in the history.

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Another significant year, you know, so when we talk about the honeyberry madhhab, and we talked about Abner podem. The other comparable shifted Nakayama in the method is a method

00:29:55--> 00:29:59

of the salami urbanity mayor in Manchester of the ceramic

00:30:00--> 00:30:13

They may I was the sort of the counterpart of Kodama And so, when they say when it matters that it morpha morphic is the name of an academic is the cornea of nakoda.

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So, when in meta then wafra agree

00:30:20--> 00:30:21

then there is no

00:30:23--> 00:31:02

it's not the cornea it is an epithet, it is whatever you call this they used to have is it just another name that they use in this period, everyone has a name and you know, so, Kodama was Abdullah and he was Abu Mohammed and he was more affected Dean somewhat Pepperdine, Ivana is another name that they would give him at birth his parents would give him at birth So, his name is Abdullah but more property so, Martina have to look like a Tamia the famous one that a deal happened to everybody get got like another name particularly

00:31:03--> 00:31:25

scholar of the families, they gave those names like the interminably His name is Mohit Dean. So everybody had this something in the in sala de ma he wanted to do something related to the protection of the dean the glory of the dean to this of the Dean of that of the knee.

00:31:26--> 00:31:55

Okay, so in max divinity Ma, which is the grandfather of the famous of Nathan Mayer was the other shave that was just equally important through a mock up a little bit less important than what happened and must have been harder by having a mayor is is is a record of importance in the matter of and when the to agree and match them with a man walk up. That's it. That's the method

00:31:57--> 00:32:04

at least for this middle layer, commanded and must commence the die then well in

00:32:06--> 00:32:11

advance the died in 650. And that was good for him.

00:32:12--> 00:32:13

That was good for him that

00:32:17--> 00:32:49

he died in 650. And Madam Mayor, the grandfather of the famous of anything mayor, died in 650. I was good for him because 655 Baghdad seccombe totters and that was a year of grief, sadness, shock, crisis, everything, you know, it was like, throughout the Muslim world, this was the cradle of the philosopher for how many years

00:32:50--> 00:33:01

or 42 to 655 make the math it's we're talking 500 years and then to succumb to foreign invasion.

00:33:09--> 00:33:12

So 655 was

00:33:13--> 00:33:17

a year of just like shell shock

00:33:19--> 00:33:22

to the to the Muslim to the Muslims throughout the Muslim world.

00:33:24--> 00:33:28

Then 661 ma Tamia

00:33:29--> 00:34:13

Rahim Allah was born, the famous of anything mayor, who is basically the Imam of the latter generations of the mouth. So all you know, all the people that you know all of the significant figures that throat in the mouth when they say you know Chef or Puppet Dean or when they say afterwards they say chef and Islam and so on. They refer to the positions are beneath me and they take the positions that have anything mayor, because in the Hanbury metal hub, it's the hub does not cease to exist. So they accepted that we'll do that every day Mayor Emanuel added to the method which is basically the various positions if anything, we added to the method, not all of them became

00:34:13--> 00:34:22

the memberhub but they they accepted the 30 of inventing mayor and many issues or the time he has

00:34:23--> 00:34:33

chosen position in many issues. So he was born in 661 and died in seven that is epitome of a famous one

00:34:40--> 00:34:45

and died in 728. After hedger

00:34:47--> 00:34:51

time was born in 691. On Biden 751.

00:34:54--> 00:34:59

You have a muffler which is another major figure in the Mazda Biden 760

00:35:00--> 00:35:55

And then there is another motor that belongs to the same family but his name is Ibrahim, the old one, the older one, not the old one is Mohammed Ibrahim a muffler is another one who died in about 870 70, some year, some years after header, and then came in metadata we who died in 85, after hedra in America, we is the initiation of the third phase. So when we talk about the third layer of the honeyberry method starts by Allah Dean in Mill Valley. He It was the beginning like abriola, the coming of Abu era was the initiation of the middle phase, the common government there was the initiation of the last phase which is the phase of and what actually are the latter generations

00:35:55--> 00:36:14

within the Mazda for them with a hearing within the mouth and sometimes fail within the mouth have some people say that the proper Dharma started that phase, but most of the people would say it's the murder we 85 died at 85 is the one who started that phase. This was you know, that, you know,

00:36:15--> 00:36:20

continued to be like the man have continued to be dominated by

00:36:22--> 00:36:31

the Mk II and the must be in the people from the masters and people from Jerusalem. And then

00:36:32--> 00:36:36

we had you know, people from Egypt started to take over to some extent

00:36:38--> 00:37:15

from you know, the time of eminence, and then booty, who was from Dhaka, Leah from Taiwan and Kylie Governorate in Egypt Masuda municipal Hootie hoo died in 1051 after Hydra, Murali carmy he was from Khartoum and next to Jerusalem. And then he went to Damascus and then he went to Cairo and then he became a part of LA and the Harry Caray left and he is also a main figure and must have Murakami, who authored the real authority and

00:37:17--> 00:37:21

color books methodical in not methodical in the Hawkeye Atlanta

00:37:23--> 00:37:48

in the method, so, basically, that's just like a chronological, chronological map. Where does it belong? He belongs the middle layer in the middle. What is the set chain of of nakoda medicine? It's a connected chain, to the mathema chef the father of knotty aviana Hebron, Hamlet,

00:37:50--> 00:37:50

Willamette.

00:37:51--> 00:38:13

Cullen's boy, Abu Bakr Al Salah, gobekli maruthi Reema Mohamad. So between him and the mama 123456 chef, the father is number seven.

00:38:14--> 00:38:19

So between a banana and an email, I have met seven people.

00:38:21--> 00:38:42

And you may think that because even though Kodama was born in 5065 61, died at 621, he died in 241. You may think it's but it's all connected. The it all today is just seven people. So he could he's connected with him through seven

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teachers for Messiah

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Avenue. Kodama was born here in JAMA in which is now called the gentleman in with a known is used to be called jam my

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jam.

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jam it was just next to Jerusalem, next to Jerusalem, but it was under the control of the friends under the control of the Crusaders. And then his father have met decided to move to Damascus because the ruler of the that area, the whose was was a French ruler and was particularly cruel to the rest of the Muslims but particularly to the family of webinar perdana you know that they were known as a scholar of the family and his father was a scholar as well. So he moved to the mosque is from Gemini to Damascus, that's when you know podemos called the Gemini lay in reference to Gemini is called and they say in reference to Jerusalem because Gemini it was just like this trinket of Jerusalem. He is

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called the dumbest pay in reference to demand

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Ask us. So he moved to the masters and

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continued to learn, he moved to the Masters when he was about, you know, seven or eight years old, he continued to learn in the masters, and then went to Baghdad when he was about 19 years old. And like I said, in Baghdad, the metal is check out the powder, he stayed at chef of the father's school, he has like a boarding school. He stayed at Chicago Public School for the 50 days and a couple of carbide went to Josie afterward that have been in many and so on. These were dedicated people listen, what you learn here is that these were dedicated people so he they were after knowledge, and they showed a great deal of dedication.

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And they spent their their four years in parallel. And you could imagine people like this, with very little means to be able to sponsor their trip to the or their journey to Baghdad and stay in that for four years.

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How they, how they survived

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very little, you know,

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three story resources.

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So the afterwards, they went back to Damascus,

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the reason why I put Cairo because it is not related to Katana, by the way it is, it's because the the madhhab afterwards started to shift westward to Egypt. And eventually from the middle of the 13th century, the metal have moved back eastward, but south east to nuts, and then there thereafter or subsequently hitters and became the dominant method or the main method in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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But this is the story of the method itself above that within a sham then Egypt but but it never came out from Santa Egypt completely. There was always influence of you know, there was always presence for the humbling method.

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But you know, people like mine sort of knew unison booty, the fact that Mariah Carey himself, left a sham, born into the you know, and left and died in Cairo, tells you that Hanbury started to move westward towards Egypt. And then finally they moved back to

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the peninsula.

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So even apart from 541, to 620, you know,

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look, Adama wrote four books, we talked about this a little bit. Okay, so he wrote four books, he wrote an order the book that we will be starting next week inshallah, because we're done with the introduction for starting next week. So he wrote a book called Allah has done.

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I'm not very good at transliteration. So forgive me as I tried to make up things. So.

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And he wrote a book called mock now.

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And he wrote a book called caffee.

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And he wrote a book called mogilny.

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This particular book in mokena, is of great importance and this is huge. This is basically the relay station for the month. This is the synaptic connection in the mouth hub. This is just huge.

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But we're teaching along that because that is the recommended book to teach for beginners it is simpler, it is more fluid, it is less complicated, is just a beautiful book. It's a piece of art, it's really a piece of art, but it more canal is more authoritative and the math hub and then everybody that came afterwards, everything that came afterwards has had something to do with them. You know benefited from a mock now was based on a mock narrow is a shot of a mock now was basically additions and corrections of a mock like a

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medallion, so on, like an insaaf itself. You know, but they everything came out of this book

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until we had two major books in the Mazda for the Moto three and for third layer.

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What's up now by hacia? We who died in 1968, after Hydra 968 can have dairy.

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And 972 is the year where shifter booty Masuda newness? Hello, booty,

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booty.

00:45:26--> 00:45:29

By then mind 72

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he wrote

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a book that they came, it's called metalia that and he wrote a book that is called the UK now, these two books became eight for the must have and when these two agree. Now we are the latter generations. When these two books agree that's an agreement at the moment. And when they disagree, then the fight starts. But if they agree, then that is that is good. That's a good thing.

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No, no, I'm sorry, along the other day.

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Hello out there is a commentary on an older

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hibino. Kodama did not write a lot about it didn't matter this, he is the one who wrote a commentary on along the cold, but it is a lambda and mokena and caffi alimony, those are the four books that have no Kodama road. So this is, this is mokena, who became the relay station, everything else was come came out of it somehow.

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This came from here.

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This came from here.

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Also.

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So money was a commentary on a therapy. But it mocked now relied on therapy to a great extent, I know is not a commentary on therapy, but relied on in therapy to order the book of therapy to a great extent.

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So in the last six minutes, the work that I have done in along the way some of these things are, you know, important to clarify. So why would I write in a commentary and along the way, I have a lot written by behind democracy, a legitimate authority and the method. And certainly I'm not for sure. So a bad democracy. rahima allows a legitimate authority in America, but he because because of various reasons, one of those reasons is what we mentioned before, that many people will not read more than one book. So if they don't come across various the various viewpoints, if they don't come across viewpoints from the other method, they will be rigid, they will be unforgiving, they will be

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intolerant. And that is not what we want nowadays. In addition to this, there are new things that you know, that we need to talk about, and we need to address that did not exist the during the time of democracy, Rahim Allah must be dynamic must address the new things that people will. So we talked about what like it is, you know, we talked about the different types of water and wastewater and ocean. But people also want to hear about dry cleaning, and whether dry cleaning would remove the fields or not remove the fields. And it does need to be dynamic. So if we translate an old book, we will not, we will not have that we will not have you know, we will not be able to engage the reality

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that we live in. So that's why I wrote the commentary. And that's why I had positions from the Hanafi medical and Jeffery Mazal have to supplement to add more things to and also to have the medica to have the basically the faculty of tasting, you will not be able to have it if it is a matter of indoctrination. Like you're just learning one position, to learn it and memorize it and so on, you need to learn one position that is for sure. And that is why we're using a book that is based in one hub. But also you need to have some exposure to have that taste and to have that tolerance, to have that faculty to have the ability to have that realization that this is not it in

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that Islam is not limited to this and also to be able to be more forgiving in and more tolerant of variant views.

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The there are certain things that are there's this is the symbol of consensus in the book, capital H means the prevalent or the dominant

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chord the authorized view in the canopy method, small h would mean the lesser view the in the Hanafi madhhab minus h means the Hanafi madhhab is in disagreement with the Hambali with a capital A for akhmat plus h means, the Hanafi madhhab is in agreement with Hammadi madhhab with a not the A

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my plus h means that it is an agreement with a which is the authorized viewer by the mouth of m

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and m minus m plus m the same but programmatic mF s, small s minus s plus s the same, but in the shafee mother. So, minus s means that, you know, the position in the minus s means that the position in the Chevrolet method is counter to a capital A which is the authorized view in the hand very small s is the lessor report on the Chevrolet method.

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capital S is the

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popular dominant authorized view in the sharper image of the Z is for the VA theories and the VA Harry's. They deserve to be mentioned, because they have a different approach. And their different approach does deserve to be mentioned. They were great scholars. They were very prime scholars. Edna has the book of urban housing is of great importance in fact that I set up this Sam said lampada nefs evenness. The fatwah had hustle of llenos Carmen kita and moving it up la Kodama, I did not feel comfortable as Sam is a breach of a scholar, you know, of the seventh century.

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Also, who died in the seventh century, you guys have not been set up by it around, you know, maybe 600 to 80, after ager. So as an outsider,

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who was also a contemporary of an imaginary another chef, a great chef, a scholar, and as a novelist, Sam ragamala.

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He died earlier than 680. I'm sorry. But in the seventh century, with the rise of non Sam said that I did not feel comfortable making fat work until I have a copy of a movie by an aqua man. He said that the two greatest books in the history of Islam are a movie by Evan Aqua Dharma and an mohalla by Evan Hanson. That is a one of the main figures in the shafa effect. He said that the two the two greatest books in the history of Islam are immobilized by Coco dharma. The very author of this book and the Honda that were that were

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of this Matt nilanga have the mohalla Bible has at the moment. vibia Rahim Allah said, and I would add to this soon, and I'll be happy. And it can heat by an app that Birdman therapy is another great chef, a scholar who was a student of the famous famous interview with a man who despite the difference in their math I have which tells you that the they were there was not really that division, you know, it's not like compartments that people did not cross, but they were students of one another.

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And so remember that he said, I went out to those two books in Mobile, Alabama has has them he'd buy them at the bar, and so on and he'll be happy.

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Certainly you could add something to those but it's very sad. If you have those four books. You are set for a pathway.

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But that is if you hear you have them, you know that we understand them

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today