Channel: Bilal Philips
Series: Bilal Philips - Uloom Al-Hadeeth
Shaykh Bilal Philips, Uloom Al-Hadeeth recording on 12-05-2001, Episode 03
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salatu salam ala rasulillah Karim, Allah Allah he was having women in STEM medicine Nigeria
operates due to a law millas Peace and blessings beyond the last prophet muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and allow those who follow the path of righteousness until the last day.
The topic for this evening's first lecture is on the transmission of happiness.
The transmission of headaches in our previous two sessions, we looked first at the definitions concerning hobbies.
What it was in the language and how it was used in the crime and in the
statements of problems or sell them according to its linguistic meaning. Then we looked at what the meaning had become. And we compared it to the Sunnah. And we looked at the importance of Hades in Islam
as a vehicle for conveying the sadhana to us referred to as the storehouse of the Sunnah. And also with the fact that the Sunnah itself
played a particular role in terms of explaining the grant. It was a second source of Revelation and into the farmhouse Isola himself was the moral example to the oma, etc, etc. Then, we looked at
what was the second thing that we looked at after that?
I'm supposed to be testing you anyway.
Yeah, the compilation of the headache, right, we began the time of problems are seldom what took place during his lifetime. What he conveyed, we looked at certain issues where people have taken the concept that nothing of the Sunnah was written down. The thing of the heads were written down during the lifetime of the problems are seldom because of the fact that there is an authentic hadith found in Sahih Muslim from Abu Sayyaf and kundry in which he said that the prophets of Solomon said that you should not write anything besides the Koran. And if anyone writes anything besides beforehand, it should be erased.
And we dealt with that issue, that this was actually in reference to writing things along with the plan, not besides the crime in the sense of anything else other than the plan, but along with the Quranic texts will be more involved in recording the Quranic text to avoid interpolation or the addition of some of the statements of farmers or sell them to the Quranic text themselves.
And from there, we looked at a variety of different narrations in which problems are seldom did instruct his companions to record material where people requested it and he okayed it. You know, write books to the Ibiza you know, like for a Boucher who requested him to write the sermon which he had given
after the conquest of Mecca, and so on and so forth a number of different holidays, we looked at where the companions were involved in writing, you know, some said they used to write down everything from us or some of us to say, and, and also someone gave a seal of approval to their actions. And we spoke about the fact that the majority of the leading companions, who narrated
Hades, large numbers of Hades, the majority of them
broke their heads down. And the majority of the leading narrators from the Sahaba their students in turn, the majority of them also rode down heavy, so that the second generation of known as the Tabby own, they were also known to have written down Hadees and their students the tabular tabular in
the students of the successors, they were all known well to record the edits. In fact, they gave us even the major compilation of the Hadees took place in their time, we said this was when amadablam disease the fifth righteous Calif, he instructed as zaharie and other scholars of his time
To compile the, the Hadees, which are already being written, they were being written by a number of scholars, he instructed that they be compiled into text. And in fact, he gave special
mention to zorig, a special mention to him to collect the hadith of Amara,
who was the female who was the main narrator of the Hadith from Alisha.
And, you know, she, of course, has played a major role in the development of Islamic law that we know today. And we said that the, the writing of the Hadith did go through different phases, the first one being the Sahaba phase, then it went into the Muslim, the Muslim ad, and finally the Sahara, and we discussed the different levels in which they pass through. But the main point that we stressed from all of that was that, in fact, the Sunnah they had they were written,
the vast majority of the Hadith apartments or Salah were written down in his own lifetime,
which is contrary to the commonly understood view that most of the writing took place in the time of slavery, which was in the second century. Right. And we pointed out in any case, even if it was that the writing didn't begin in the time of zoning, which, in fact, it didn't, the time lapse between the depth of problems or seldom and the writing of his hobbies was still a very short period, because those who are doing the writing, were already contemporaries, of the students of the Sahaba. You know, so there was only a step, a very short step to the Sahaba to farmers or sell them through which they recorded the headings. Anyway, in this session, we'll be looking at
the methods which developed amongst those who are involved in teaching and learning the hadith of Mohammed salah and the general heading which is given to this process of, of learning holidays is called the hub model and the hub model,
which means literally carrying knowledge or they're referring to really are the methods by which the knowledge was conveyed.
a certain terminology developed, you know, as in any field any specialization, the people were involved in it develop certain terminology to describe the different processes which are taking place in that particular field. And in the field of Hadid, compilation etc, there was a variety of terms which evolved, which though there are Arabic terms having their own meaning in the language, in today's context, they took on special meanings. Now, the first of these terms is known as sama,
sama. And sama
in this context, it means listening. Actually, sama means listening. But in this context, the specialized context it meant the reading of a teacher, the reading of a teacher, one who taught Hadith, that he read the Hadith meaning that the narrator of the Hadith, either he recited it from his memory, right, which was in common use in the first century, but by the second century, the middle of the second century, this method of teaching declined
because the process of writing hobbies, you know, became far more widespread, the techniques people learning is etc, you know, more than us So, as writing increased, then narration from memory decreased. However, this method still continued, you know, as a part of training for scholars in the memorization of headache, this tradition of memorizing is still a part of the tradition of heavy study. So for example, in the University of Medina today, if you join the College of Hades, right, you study all of the various fields related to the science of Hades, you will learn fifth at least among other things,
along with it
At the same time each student is required
to memorize each year 250 Hadees means that by the time they graduate, they should have memorized 1000 headings and this is with the chain of narrators. This is not just saying, you know, Abu Bakar said
it is with the complete chain. And I mean, of course, this is all in books now. So, technically speaking, one could ask why bother, but the point is that this is part of the tradition have added studies and is learning that students were required to memorize the main Hadees this was part of their training, because when you are involved in the process of teaching hobbies or research yourself by having a body of the key and the main headings, which are used already memorize, This facilitates the process of learning as well as teaching.
Now, the second understanding or second method, which which was practice, under the same heading of summer, was reading from books, still called Some are, some are listening or hearing, who was listening and hearing here, the students, the students are listening, or hearing from the teacher, the teacher may narrate directly from his memory, which we just spoke about. or he may narrate from books, his own books where he has recorded ideas from his teacher, right? Or teachers, many teachers, whatever, he would write them up in the books, and he would read from his own books.
Right, and this was the preferred method. You know, by the middle of the second century onwards, this was the favorite method of teaching. Right.
And the reading that he did
that book, which he said was his own book, it might be literally the book which he wrote himself.
Or it might be a student's book, which had been copied from his own book, right,
either containing the Complete Book of his his his own compilation, manuscripts, or selections from his manuscripts.
The third method, which also comes under some app is called question and answers, question and answers. That is, actually this was a method used for testing the teachers, you know, and what what would happen is that the students would recite a part of the Hadith, and the teacher would complete the remainder.
Right. It was a mid mod which was used to test some of the scholars some of the leading scholars of Hadith test their abilities, the memories etc.
The fourth method, which also comes under Samar is the dictation method dictation. That is
where actually the standard of dictation
began with the Sahaba. One of the companions by the name of wiped it out even up slop.
He was the first lap to the whole classes for the dictation of headaches.
In the early generation and the generation Sahaba.
This was not so much encouraged, because it was seen as a very easy way for people to pick up huge amounts of knowledge in a very short space of time. And they felt the scholars early scholars felt that, you know, unless there was an effort on the part of the students, then they would treat that knowledge very lightly. You know, and this is
a common experience that when things come easy, you know, people don't give it the same value is when they have to struggle in disguise to get it. So you find that the early scholars amongst the Sahaba didn't like to use this method in terms of teaching. Now, later on, however, by the middle of the second century, this became a popular method. As zubiri was the same one was asked by Khalid Omar Abdulaziz to begin the process of compiling the books had this
he started to use this method and continues to do so for the rest of his life. And the dictation
was either from memory or from books. Both
ways, what would happen is that a fast writer from amongst the students would do the writing.
And another student or other students would observe his writing to make sure I didn't make any mistakes. And they would Barri borrow his copy after the lesson and then make their own copies. And now, what? One major question, what's the difference between this and the teacher reading from his, his own books, isn't this not the same thing? Well, the difference is that, in this case, the reading was a continuous reading. And the other case, when they were reading from the book dictation different I mean, from when you say something, you're explaining each aspect of it, you explain the hobbies, explaining things concerning the hobbies and arrangers and you know, the full presentation,
whereas dictation is just reading from a text.
The second method of transmission was known as our
an art comes from the Arabic word Allah, which means to expose or to show.
And what this refers to is the technical language of the scholars was the reading of the students.
Instead of the meaning of the teacher, we now have the reading of the students, the students will read the teacher's book to him, while other students compared the holidays that they were reading to what they had in their own collections. And from the middle of really, from the beginning of the second century, this became one of the most popular methods of learning, and you find it in practice even till today, if you go in certain areas, when they still use the traditional methods of the circles of learning. If you go to the
masjid in Medina, in Mecca, you know, some of the old masters in Egypt and elsewhere, you will find, you know, a leading scholar will be there, and the students will be reading from a book to stop the students give explanations, added explanations, et cetera, et cetera. But then, you know, the student will continue, he is the one who does the reading.
The books that they are reading from, of course, were the books of the teacher, either the teacher provided copies, because many of the teachers would have scribes along with the more personal students who say and make copies of his books.
Or there were copies made by the students from the original copy of the teacher. And whenever they made a copy, what they will do is at the end of each ID, for example, their hobbies and your hobbies, which begins, for example, had done enough.
And they go on to the end.
at the end of the day, what they will do is they will write on make a circle, about the end of the headache. And every time they read the headache back to the teacher, they would make a mark in here, you know, what we would normally put the tick, they would make some kind of mark inside of that circle, and that it would not be permissible for them
to narrate Hadees from this book, until it at least have gone through one reading to the teacher, when he has approved all of the headings.
Of course, these books were oftentimes read many more than one time and each time the students would read it, they would go and put another mark in that circle. Now, this was in the case of the copy books of the student themselves because the teacher his own book, I mean, this was not necessary, but wherever copies were made, this was necessary and
basically, a student who got a hold of coffees even have his own teacher, right, but didn't go through this process. And he began to narrate from those he was classified as saddle heavy, or a heavy thief you know, they would label him as they have been faced with this.
And this is sort of equivalent to you know, modern day copyright laws. You know, where, you know, a person may buy as many
Any copies of a book as they want, but to produce your own book, you cannot without permission of the author himself, and or the company that handles the book for him.
So these were the most popular two methods of transmission, some are and
the third called ijazah. This was a permit to transmit
a permission given to students to transmit the information which they had received the Hadees. And this was given obviously, by the teacher to the students, after the student has had read the book back to the teacher, then the teacher would give him permission. Now, this permission in later centuries became just a permission to read,
they read through the Hadees
many times the Hadees would not have all of the packets for them and these kind of things. So it meant they have to have knowledge of the language, knowledge of the words etc, to be able to read it back accurately. So that permit was a permit of reading. In earlier times, that permit was a permit of reading with understanding, being able to give
an explanation of the strange words in the Hadith, there may be some unusual words use, you know what you're not in common usage at that time that the teacher would have explained the students would also have to be able to do that having done that they would get their ijazah
right. And this ijazah Actually, this tradition continued down for a number of centuries to the
Masjid in North Africa,
known as the Catalan Masjid. There, they used to write when they gave the students the ijazah right, they would right at the bottom of it, Bill Huck are rewire meaning
you have the right to narrate, talk meaning right rewire means narration or transmission. So Bill Huck, a rewire this was the phrase placed at the bottom of these ijazah certificates. And when Muslims, you know, of course, Muslims also ruled Spain, and this tradition was practiced, they're also carried into Spain. And this was the,
the way in which the certificates were signed, the hochkar, rewire, eventually became corrupted into baccalaureate, and from baccalaureate, it became bachelors. So, what we now know as the bachelor's degree Ba, and comes from this phrase bellhawk rewire, which was placed on the bottom of the ijazah certificates.
the use of this basically, was to protect
texts from alteration, you know, this issue of getting permission to transmit this was to protect the texts from additions or subtractions, which are taking place, which may, you know, students may have made their own notes in a given text from the teacher, the teacher would only give a permit if he read back to the text as it was, and they would sign it and then would indicate there that nothing else could be added to it. So, this was a way of preserving texts from alteration.
The fourth method is known as
na na comes from a term which means to take or to pick up. And what is refers to is the granting of books. That is a teacher may grant or give
a student of his his book
with the authority to transmit it as one of the copies which were made by scribes, right, he would grant that to the students. And the student was given permission to transmit it, you know, and may have been one of the students that had been with him from the beginning. And so he didn't need to have him read it back to him and then verify his reading. He was known that was just simply the act of giving him that book and giving him the permits to transmit
And there weren't fathers like Azoulay, for example, who practice this, he gave several manuscripts on his collection to some of the leading scholars of his time at Sony, and azari. and obey the law and Omar, you know, they had received copies. When this was done by a few scholars, it wasn't really a widespread practice. The next method
the fourth fifth method is called key Java. And in modern terms, we may refer to it as correspondence. This is where a teacher would write down her deeds, and send them to a student, who was then given permission to narrate these hobbies. And it is something like what we may call, you know, learning by correspondence today, or distance learning. This is a similar method. And this existed actually from the first century, because when the caliphs like Omar, Abdullah Han, who sent out letters to the governors and
rulers in different provinces, these letters would be filled with headaches instructing them to do this and the other, whatever is instructing them in one dimension, some have been the problem was also not supported. And these letters were, then in turn, read back, people learn that had this and they thought it rather than so of course, it is, the latter would have this sample the signature a lot more on it, which is what validated it right. And this, as I said, more than learning and transmission existed, right from the very first century.
The sixth method is known as a lamb.
Lamb. And I lemma means to announce, and what is
meant here is when a teacher would inform students, he has a goat that he is going to narrate from when it's not his own book. Right. It's not his own compilation, he has a compilation, which is a compilation of another teacher, and he informs his students, that he already has permission from that teacher that the author of the original book, which is reading from yet permission to transmit it, is just informing them confirming that he has that permission, but for them, for them, the students to be able to narrate. They could not merely write down whatever they heard from him and narrated, they would have to go back and get an original copy, which had
the permissions given by the original author mentioning their teacher's name in it, you know, before they had to see that with their own eyes, before they were permitted to narrate.
And just the statements of the teacher was not enough, if he's narrating his own material, that's one thing that is writing somebody else's material, he informs them, but before they can record, before they can narrate what they have recorded, they must confirm with their own eyes that the permit was given.
The seventh method called what
basically was on the deathbed of a teacher, he would request are between his books to one of his leading students.
And what he does what he does, so, I mean, and this was a practice of all the most of the leading scholars whenever the time came for him to die, then they will turn the books over either to their sons or daughters who have themselves risen in the ranks and have become leading scholars or to their leading students.
And of course, in doing so, they gave them permits to narrate from these books.
The last method is known as what Giada and what Jada is basically basically means discovery discovery of books, meaning that somebody for example, a student of a teacher,
after the teacher dies and something like this or he goes to another land, and he finds a book, which contains directions from his teacher, for example.
This occurred, because books travelled to different lands, etc. But it was not considered a valid way of learning in the days of the transmission of happiness,
mean today, that's what we do all the time, we go to a store and we buy a book. That's just like finding it.
We didn't learn it from the person who wrote the book. You know, this is a common message today. But in those days, they did not accept this as a legitimate means of learning to say I just found a book, I learned that these I'm going to go and teach it No, you have to have had that good these narrations confirmed from a teacher who recited it before me confirm their authentic you knew what it meant, and then you can narrate.
So these represent the main eight methods of narration and transmission of having one and two were the most common.
this is the summer and either the teacher is narrating and dictating, or the students is reading from the books of the teacher. Now, in terms of the terminology, which was used in the process of narration,
the scholars as they develop technical language, to describe the modes by which they learned, they also developed technical language or technical terms in their
to indicate the conveyance of the information.
And it's important to understand the technical meanings of these terms, because in the misunderstanding of the technical meanings, we find a misunderstanding concerning the actual transmission of Eddie's law. Now, the first term
most commonly used and the first two, first term is called had definite, it's like this one, which I wrote here had,
right, had definite which literally means,
he said to us have done an hour he told us, he related to us have done that.
Commonly when they're writing it, because it's a big word had definitely involved 12345 letters. And when you're writing IDs, you want to write it as quickly as possible, and this is just a connecting term. So they developed a shorthand version and they would just write Santa, just this new Alice Santa, which meant had done or they would write instead just now,
this is like shorthand, they would write now.
Now, this term had definite was used basically to indicate the first method of transmission that is either from memory or the more popular method, reading from the teacher reading from his books, as a teacher reading from or reciting or orally be taken from his memory or his reading from his books and reading from the books as I said, became the most popular method by the second century onwards. So had data though literally, it means he said to us,
what it actually meant is,
he said to us, or he read to us,
and most commonly it may be read to us.
The second term use is borrowed
from cover cover means information about Allah, He informed us
a number of scholars used had denona and barella interchangeably. But the majority of scholars are these scholars, they use a burner to refer to the second method of teaching that is where students read the books are copies of the books of the teachers.
bad enough was no literally meant. He informed us it
technically meant the students read it from the hobbies of the teacher and he confirmed it
be what a
teacher the teacher had done, and he
informants, meaning our teacher informed us.
The third is Bana
means, again, to inform Sora. Another news write comes from the same Arabic word that comes from the same root number.
And by no means the informant, but actually, this
term was used specifically to indicate the third and fourth methods ijazah and manava law.
Whenever, you know, books were given with a permission to direct
this, when the scholars or students who narrated it, they would say, I'm Bana, and it was understood among the scholars, or the students that it meant, they received the book, which they had heard and had permission to transmit it. So, they were still reading from books.
The fourth method is semi
semi as the verb to hear it here, and they will say for example, Samir,
from so and so, and this was strictly used for the first method, then students in describing hearing himself not reading himself, but hearing from the teacher directly. So, these four methods and particularly had definite balance among these indicate direct
transmission of information.
And they were the strongest terms actually had done a banana and semia.
The fifth method, known as an, which meant from
this conjunction was used or preposition was used to refer to all of the previous methods. And when I had a uses, and, and you find it throughout the text, and it's sort of vague, you didn't know whether it was reading, reading of the teacher reading all the students, whether they received it by hand granted to them whatever it was just on.
This was a phrase which was used in the text written, and it was considered to be an inferior mode. In fact, when we look at the classification, later, we'll see that it was the cause of
making our labeling heavy as
being weak, the use of this space, but not in all cases, in specific cases.
So what we're saying here, that all of the eight methods of
narration or transmission, seven out of the eight, were specifically reading from texts, the one number one meant either reading from a text or reciting from memory. So in other words, the majority of methods by which the Hadees were narrated among the fathers was through reading from writings,
may come as a surprise to many, you know, who were familiar with the phrases have done enough thinking and Baradar that it was all oral narration and those who were trying to argue this point, they do bring this forward. They use this as evidence that in fact, these were narrated orally.
But in fact, we said evidence proves otherwise.
Now, in terms of those who attended the heavy circles,
what happened was the scholars and they would have sort of main students who are around them, who would write for them or read for them at the end of each session,
record of attendance was kept,
they will write the names of those who attended.
They also used to write the ages of those who attended.
And they were used to write whether the people attended the full reading of the text, or whether they intended only a partial reading of the text means meaning that
is the reading of the text is going to take some time it may not be at the end of each session, right? individual students may have made their marks, but at the end at the completion of the reading of a book, right, then all of this information will be gathered. At the end of each session, mainly, the students of the teacher may make also these locations. So
a body of biographical information was now being transmitted along with the hedis information about those people who are attending, studying, writing, narrating.
If a student was under the age of five,
there was mention his name, but there was just right hubbub, he attempted
it he was over the age of five, they would write the G was a student, declassified after the age of five, as being a student, younger than the age of five, they will just classify them as just an identity. I don't like auditing, of course, right? auditing.
The certificate that we mentioned, in the end, where a book add on is all of the people who attended all this kind of information. This was, I said, included a statement that nothing else should be added to the text, you know, indicating nothing else will be added. And it will be in the handwriting on that particular feature. This was called t bow.
This stipulation which they would put at the end is called t bar. And they would put this, you know, as I said, at the end of the reading of any of the major texts Now, during the era of the tabular room for the students of the Sahaba, right.
Those who are going to study heavy, they would first memorize the whole plan as soon as the known first one memorize the old one. And there was one study Islamic law Sharia under some
teachers, and they would want to study Arabic grammar.
And after that, they were joined the circles of Heidi, usually the average age was around 20. And they will join the study of heavy however, there were some who learned earlier as Aubrey, I've mentioned a bit earlier now, who was 15 years old at the time to have been the youngest students he had seen in circles. But there have been we began the study of a headache when he was himself 16 years old.
Now, later on, when the texts were fixed,
right, standard checks and color compilation, like a lockdown and the Munson apartments also had become standardized, then they would accept
even much younger people, young kids, you know, somebody's going to study might even bring his son or whatever, along with him or daughter along with them. And and this is where you found people down to the age of five, and they will make record of these people. And the basic position that they scholars took is that they are youngest age was the age at which the child could discriminate between a cow and a donkey. You know, this is how they put it rather than if you pointed to a donkey and they would know this was a donkey and this was Macau there is a certain age kids will mix up the powers and don't do that when you reach the point where they really knew what a cow was and what he
was is that okay, this is the time that they could now start officially learning hobbies.
So we find for example, at Devery, who transmitted the masana from abdulrazaq.
After he died, he was only seven years old, you know, and he was the main transmitter of
Now, what you found
Generation, the numbers of teachers and students increased exponentially.
In the title of the top heroes, scholars like a salary number botica, Missouri
made reference to hundreds of their own teachers, they studied under hundreds of teachers. And as zody itself has over 50 recorded students. Now, many others who sat in his classes were not on record as having been is among his main students, but he had over 50 students will be classified as main students who directly look from him.
And of course, their students had similar type of numbers and even bigger. So, what you find is that with each generation, the numbers of transmissions of the heavies became many. So I single hobbies for example, which was narrated by a Sahabi
to a group of hobbies.
And then written narrated this to a an even larger group, each one of them to even larger group of tabular tabbies.
That single hubby's, what began as a single happy by the time it's reached the target that is wondering, maybe up to 100 different narrations of that same ad.
By the time it reached the time it started, and it was the practice of the scholars at that time, to refer to every channel of narration as a hobby. And this is why I remember I mentioned to you that it is commonly said that, I recorded that the number of hobbies which were narrated by Abu huraira was some 5700 plus hobbies.
Whereas when you check the actual number of hobbies, which he narrated, it's really only 1200. And something so
it dropped down drastically,
from one to 3%, really of the actual number, which is attributed to why that was because they refer to every channel in which they had they came from Abu huraira as being a heavy from Abu huraira. This is where you got that big number. And this is why people sort of raised out there usually when people tried to attack it, usually head straight from Pereira, because he was the most prolific narrator. And he was really only with farmers are valid for three years.
You know, he was only with him for three years, and he was sent as a government, right? We spent three years with the problems or something. So the question How in the world, but he's spending three years is also gonna be narrating 5000.
The point is that actual numbers will 1000 Plus, Furthermore,
the he, as he explained what everybody else was, you know, busy with work, you know, where their farms or whatever, and their businesses, etc. He said, I used to just sit and memorize that thesis.
And on one occasion, I complained to problems on some level that, you know, I'm having trouble remembering some of the hobbies, and he put his clothes over me, just put it on. And from then on, he said he didn't forget.
So when we deal with the fact that we talk about only 1000
plus a day for 1000s 500 600, hobbies, you know, this in the terms in terms of living with a person for three years, right, and he stuck very close to them
to find 1600 things that you could describe about this person or what they said.
as an example of the proliferation of is that
there is a handy very famous study
where in the process I send them, I said in my journal a Ma'am, will you gentlemen.
Indeed, the amount was appointed to be followed. So when he says a long walk by, say all of you alone,
and don't say it until he ascended, when he bows, all of you should bow but do not bow until he bows. When he says me Allah will even Hamza
That is a lot hear those and praise Him. Then say Allahu Akbar, Allah, Allah can hum.
Our Lord altar is yours. And when he frustrates do so but don't do so before he does. And if he prays standing, then do so. And if we pray, sitting, you all should pray city.
thing I think a lot of people don't know, in the amount for whatever reason is ill
crippled or whatever the brain is sitting, then everybody behind him is supposed to pray sitting also.
And they get the reward of praying standing. And two problems, as I said, the prayer sitting is worth half the prayer standing, the prayer line is worth half the prayer sitting. So in order for a person to pray, Nabila Sydney, is to chop off half the reward of their prayer straightaway.
And this is a practice common in the Hanafi School of the law field, if you want some of the nuances they've recently, but in fact, they are just throwing away half the rewards of their prayer. The problems are selling clearly says that. They say, Well, no, we're following the sun. Now the problem was another what's the southerner when he was too sick to stand? He could no longer stand. So he prays to think that the sooner you're following? No, you're not. You're not following it because you're not sick. Right? If you are sick and you pray sitting, then you're following it. So now, but if you are perfectly healthy, and you're praying, sitting, when he prays to me when he was sick,
then you're not following this oneness.
That's the reality. Anyway, this heavy.
When you look at the duration of this study,
what you'll find is that it was transmitted from the process alone by 10 companions, living in three different locations, software and backup, somewhere in Syria, and somewhere in Iran, right, of the 10 companions who narrated this handy.
One of them Abu huraira, had seven students who transmitted they have been farming
for that lead in Medina to Egypt and one in Yemen.
These seven students intern, transmitted to 12 other students, five in Medina, two in backup, one each in Syria, Cooper, five, Egypt and Yemen.
Right. And the total number of those who narrated third generation authorities who report to the Saudis collected the Hadees. They were some 26 inserted in the bunker, some of it ended up being collected by 26 different directors in 10 different locations in Medina, Mecca, Egypt,
Yemen, Kufa, Syria was eaten by so what you can see is
that these narrations
spread over the Muslim world, this is the dissemination of knowledge now. And when you go back and you look at the various channels through which the data was transmitted, you'll find that they were transmitted in virtually the same wording everywhere that it was
Just to complete this section, there is going to take a pause after that, to complete this section. There is one other point
Oh, can you slow down a bit so we can write this down? Well,
these details Don't worry too much about these details rights, what you can catch with shorthand do catch what you can't, as I said, I am preparing the notes. No, by tomorrow in sha Allah, or Tuesday at the latest.
I will have it in your head. The important point is I mean, you hear and understand basically what I'm presenting here the ideas you have in your hand when you do revision because inshallah we'll have the examination on Saturday, right? So you'll have to revise with over the weekend.
Anyway, the final point which has to do with the transmission of hobbies, which I'd like to address now is the system of Islam.
This these different challenge channels of narration. This is repeated
To add a slide of the heavy eye, the chain of narration of the body is mad. Now
some people mistakenly think that it is unique to Muslims,
but it doesn't exist anywhere else. In fact, it is.
It didn't exist elsewhere,
orientalist, you know, because the fact that is not to call it very, very important points position in Islam so much so that it was elevated to be a part of the religion.
It has robotic appliances the Lada had said,
and he was one of the scholars from the second century, he had said, and he was one of the teachers of the mamanuca economy. And Mr. McCarthy is one of the teachers he said, This land is from the religion. Were it not for the slide, anyone could say anything he wished.
This lad is from the religious point of the religion. We're not really is that anyone could say anything you wish about the military, you could add, subtract anything you want.
And by the end of the first century, is not science was fully developed. Even serien, who was one of the people who died at the end of the first century. He had said in the beginning, they will not ask about that all the time. They were not particular about the snap. However, once the fitna
took place, turmoil spread, then they began to demand it. The fitna is understood to refer to this the struggle between Ali and Manuel and to some degree during the time of man, and this turmoil was developed doctorates
from that period means from the loss of Sahaba that the Sahaba they started to question and whenever people were bringing information, they started to demand they would say name you are meant to us, maybe our narrators gloss. And if the narrator's mentioned were from Allah. So now we accepted and if there are some analysts, we rejected
and because during the time of turmoil, you know, people tried to introduce statements or concepts into support their various deviations to certain deviations in place. Anyway, as I said, the it's not has a critical role with regards to Islam. So naturally, the orientalist
tried to downplay the importance of is that orientalist mean, scholars,
Western scholars, non Muslims, who have spent a great deal of time to learn Arabic, and to study Arabic texts and this type of thing, some of them become specialists in these texts. But their sole goal I want to ask it is the pride of being, you know, an Arabic scholar.
And on the other hand, it is and it began as a means of finding the weak points amongst Muslims to facilitate the attack, the intellectual attack on Islam. And this developed out of centers of learning for the, for the missionaries, actually, some of the big universities like McGill University in Canada and others, they were centers for Ori aboard missionaries, where they would learn Arabic, they prepare themselves study the weakness in the Muslim concepts where they perceived weaknesses, and they would use this as a means to attack anyway, one of the Jewish professors George Horovitz,
he brought evidence from the Mishnah and other books on ancient Jews, to show that, in fact, they did have a system that existed about the Jews before the Arabs.
he went on to try to trace it back to the mosaic period of time of Moses. And in the taboos,
you find huge chains of narrations and relating all the way back to the mosaic period. However, his arguments of trying to trace it back to the mosaic period is doubtful, you know, because there's no way of proving that these were not later interpolations, but that they did exist among the Jews and then the teacher before the time of Islam, there's no doubt about it. Furthermore,
it can be found in Indian literature. Even before this,
you can find it in some of the ancient Hindu texts, in Buddhist texts and in Jain literature, in one of the great epics known as Mahabharata, right about the Mahabharata. It states
Vice that composes getting served as a scribe, and the work was handed down to vaisampayana who come communicate it to the king, generally, Jaya, and southie, who was present at the time heard it, and I raised it to the assembly of sages, since we didn't understand
it, so they have no issue. However,
the fact that it originated elsewhere is not very important. What is important is that Muslims took this
and elevated develop this and evolved it to a point which was in comparable to Islam anywhere else.
They added to it.
chronological information, they assembled biographies about the narrator's transmittance and they established a science to determine the value of the contents as well as the authenticity of the channels of narration. This you cannot find anywhere else. The ancient Indian, Indian story in those they made no rigorous attempt