Muslim Spain – History and Legacy
Channel: Adnan Rashid
File Size: 47.50MB
salatu salam ala rasulillah
Omar sanaka illa Matalan, Allah me
alayhi salatu salam ala yahama. You are my brothers and sisters in Islam.
I thank you all for attending this talk, which is on the history of an underdose Islamic Spain or Muslim Spain
or Muslim Iberia
and under this is a very important episode in Muslim history. This particular period when Muslims governed much of Spain
for almost seven centuries, or just over seven centuries, this period has a lot of lessons for Muslims living today. If we were to study the history of Orlando's or Muslim Spain carefully, we will we will learn many many important lessons today in the world. Firstly, why is history important? History teaches you lessons. This is why I Lost Planet Allah in the Quran repeatedly gives us histories of the previous nations, the purpose of repeating the stories of born in Israel and the people of doubt and people of Solomon and people have no and people of other profits for that matter is to teach you lessons. These stories are told for a reason. And the reason is to get
people to contemplate, to ponder upon the errors and the mistakes of the previous nations so that we don't repeat them.
And also at the same time, we repeat what they did, right? If there is something right, we must repeat it. All the virtuous acts, all the
good deeds, all the achievements that were positive, we must repeat them. That's why history is a very powerful argument for Allah subhanaw taala. So we must learn from the errors and the virtues of the past nations. This is why knowing your history, as Muslims,
in particular, and as humans in general is absolutely crucial. You cannot ignore history, or people who forget the history are condemned to relive it. If you don't learn from your history. If you don't take lessons from what happened before you, you will fall victim to same problems, same diseases, same errors, same social disruptions that occurred in the past. So to avoid the disasters and the catastrophes and the mistakes and the errors of the past, you must study history very very carefully. Otherwise, they will repeat they keep repeating themselves. This is why reputation or reminders about history are so important and under this was a very, very important
aspect of Islamic civilization.
Firstly, how did it happen? Islam emerged with the advent of Rasool Allah prophet muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam in the seventh century. The Prophet was born in the sixth century. And in the seventh century.
He passed away.
In 632, cd 11 hijiri, the Islamic year, the prophet passed away, having preached for almost 23 years, and the message he preached was a message of justice, compassion and love. The purpose of his Advent was mercy.
Allah subhanaw taala stated in the Quran in chapter 21 surah MBR verse 107. Are all do we live in a tiny regime? wa salam ala Rahmatullah Robin. This is what Allah told the Prophet and his companions, and the following you Muslim generations, posterity, that the purpose of the advent of the Prophet of Islam was nothing but mercy.
And this was the message that was to be taken around the world. And to a large extent, Muslims did succeed in delivering this mercy and justice to the best of the abilities respectively, in different places around the world. A lumber loose was one of those places, but why did the Muslims end up in underoos in Spain in the first place?
What were they doing
1000s of miles away from Arabia, where the prophet of Islam was born, what were the Muslims doing outside in the first place? This was primarily to deliver the justice of Islam to those who
didn't have it.
Like the Prophet commanded, salatu salam that take the message of Islam to those who are absent.
So the Sahaba to this effect, confronted the Persians,
the Byzantines, the Romans, and this was foretold by the prophet sallallahu Sallam this was a prophecy made by the prophet sallallahu Sallam that the believers, my followers, primarily the Sahaba, and therefore, always will
clash with the Persians, the assassinated Persian Empire, and the Byzantine Roman Empire
and they will be victorious. And when you have victory, remember, established justice. We just
so despite all the Islamophobia and all the misconceptions deliberately spread about Islamic civilization and how Muslims behaved,
there is a lot of evidence we need to study to see how the Muslims actually behaved towards the masses of these lands. In fact, speaking about London, in particular, when Muslims arrived in London, in 711, c 90 to 80 in the reign of Abdul Malik bin Marwan Abdur Malik bin Marwan sorry in the rain of lead bin Abdul Malik wheelie bin Abdul Malik was the son of Abdul Malik bin barwon animated KDF and rallied came to power in 86
and remained in power till 95 or 96 h v.
And then came to power so they might have been Abdulmalik. So, it was during the reign of Walid bin Abdul Malik when Barack bin Zayed landed
in London, us,
Barack was sent by a general called Mousavi
Mousavi NSA was working under
the leadership of the supervision of the governor of Tehran. Tehran
was effectively Tunisia today. Nowadays, the land of Tunisia was actually at that time was called a free tier. The reason why the continent of Africa is called Africa is because Muslims named the territory of current day to New Zealand in Tunisia, as offered a peer. So when you find
a year and a basket coins, minted in a free area, that is actually Tunisia
and later on the entire continent was given the name Africa because of a free tier. Okay, so erawan was the place where the governor was governing on behalf of the Obama years and he sent us a window sale and
then sent his return and called for a bizarre parmesan landed in Spain in 711. This was actually prophesized by the province the likes of a prophet.
And the Quran made this prophecy in chapter 24 verse 55, I will be live in a chatango regime is under him, y de la la Lena mahnomen Kumar mela Sala heart and Stephen normanville, Arab karma stuff lafonda Lena in public him, it is a promise of Allah to those who believe among you, and do write his deeds that Allah will give you succession in the land, you will overpower the land you will defeat the current empires in the world. And this expansion, what we call the early Islamic conquests. Early Islamic expansion was so rapid that to this day historians are baffled they don't know how it happened so fast. How early Muslims able, within two generations, were able to take all
this land and then keep it sustain the government for centuries to come. This was a phenomenon many modern historians of Islam in the West have, you know, contemplated this question
and they still don't know how this actually happened practically speaking.
To us it is easy we can easily claim as believers that the Quran made a prophecy in this regard, which was fulfilled to the latter. Prophet Mohammed Salah Salah metaphor told that this religion this faith will reach every single corner of this planet.
So Muslims had conquered all of North
Africa throughout the sixth century, and in the early sorry, throughout the seventh century.
During the Umayyad period, these conquests continued. And then came a time when occupy benefit one of the Muslim generals reached the Atlantic Ocean,
the Atlantic Ocean, when you reach there,
he said, I wish I knew if there is land on the other side, and if there was I would go there as well. So he had to stop because there was no more land left, as if Allah wanted to keep that side for later for someone else, as we will see.
in the year 92, Eg 711 C,
there was a Civil War Within Spain.
What we know today as Spain, there was a civil war between the Visigoths who were governing Spain at the time, Visigoths were by now Catholic Christians, while previously they had followed a different version of Christianity, which was Unitarian. They were vandals, they were initially called vandals. And this is why a lot of people think the word underdose actually originates from the word vandals, people who who were living in Spain at the time. vandals were later on known as Visigoths, who actually governed the land of Spain. And when the Muslims arrived in Spain at the time visigothic kingdom, Roderick, who claimed sovereignty over the land of Spain was fighting his rivals. So there
was a civil war going on. And some of the people invited the Muslims to attack Spanish territory and take it take, militarily take it.
there were many people persecuted in the land of Spain, such as the Jews, the Jewish people were under heavy persecution in the land of Spain at the time.
For example, in the year 633, seeeeee, exactly a year after the prophet of Islam passed away Salallahu alaihe salam,
and inhuman Ecumenical Council was held in the city of Toledo in Spain. ecumenical councils were church councils, where the Christian bishops would convene, and they would come and they will decide on the matters of the country, you know, they will they will, they will deal with different questions people would be facing or different problems people would be facing, when they would bring the problems up, the catholic church or the clergy, churchmen will decide as to what must be done. So one of the questions that came
in this council was the question of the Jewish people in Spain, in Spain at the time, who were living under the domain of Catholic Church, Christianity. So it was decided by the bishops, that the Jewish people, the children ought to be taken away from them by force. The children are to be taken away from them by force, and they are to be raised as Catholics as Christians by force. Right. So this was heavy persecution against the Jewish people who were facing extinction at the hands of the Catholic Church at the time in Spain before the Muslims even thought of coming to Spain. But when Muslims came, about eight years later, in 711, see,
then the Jewish people were supporting the Muslim cause they came forward and they said, Come and liberate us please from this oppression and from this tyranny of the Catholic Church.
And this is clearly confirmed by Jewish historians. One of them is called Zion is or who is an American Jewish historian. He wrote a history recently titled A History of the Sephardic and Mitsui jewelry. on page eight and nine He states that when Muslims landed a Gibraltar led by Tarik means there are the Jewish inhabitants of Spain welcomed them as liberators, amazingly.
So when Muslims arrived in Spain, cut the long story short, if I start talking about the political history of Spain, it will take me 10 hours literally will lie and the history is so painful, it is so painful to go through not because of the length of the content, it is also because of what we have to cover, the details, the painful details of negligence,
self selfish behavior, greed, treachery, all sorts of things,
all sorts of things. It is very, very painful. We cannot possibly cover the political history of Spain.
in such a short lecture, but what what I would like to highlight very quickly is a brief summary inshallah. So 711 Muslims landed in Spain, and they found Visigoths divided. So Muslims, one after another took many towns in Spain, although at that time some people made claims that Muslims are massacring and burning towns and they were torching villages and all that there is a chronicle, written in 1754, an anonymous Christian Chronicle lit written by a Christian church man. One of the gentlemen he was a clergy he wrote, this Chronicle is called a chronicle of 754. It is an anonymous Chronicle. It claims that the Muslims when they conquered Spain, they were committing atrocities,
such as burning villages and buildings and all that later on scholars. When they studied
the evidence, they realized that this was a lie. This was actually a misrepresentation of facts, because after Muslims took these cities, archaeologically,
it is clear that these cities flourished under the domain of Islam for centuries. So, in fact, it was before the Muslims came to Spain. A lot of these cities were declining economically, socially, there was a decline in Spain. And so sharp was declined. The conquest of Spain was made so easy for the Muslims within seven years, Muslims have conquered 90% of Iberian off the Iberian Peninsula. So after Tarik desert landed in Spain in 711,
musavat nosair, the leader of Tarik bizarre, also joined him. And then both of them together, conquered the rest of Spain, and some parts of northern Spain, north Northwestern Spain, or left untouched, and some of the Visigoths took refuge in the mountains of Northwestern Spain. And later on this particular patch, which was left by the Muslims became a problem for them, because
a government was established there by Christian renegades runaways, people who would escape from mainland Spain and they would go and join forces, and then they would start they started attacking Muslims later on, which is another story altogether. So now, after Spain had been conquered, was something to say was established. The greatest struggle Muslims faced later on after this conquest was to consolidate this power. Some Muslims offered terms to the Spanish people, those who were fighting or hostile Of course, the Muslims had to fight them, but those who surrendered Muslims gave them terms. So one of the treaties which can be found in recent texts, for example, Olivia Randall
has compiled a history of Spain. And she has in her book put down the actual treaty between the son of Mozambique no Sarah was Abdul Aziz Abdul Aziz bin Mousavi no say who became the leader of Spain for some short time, and he had married a local Spanish woman. Now who was a Christian, he had married her, he gave terms to seven cities. So it was it was a coalition of seven cities governed by one man called theobromine
or gab, douche I think he's never he was he was governing the this coalition of seven cities. So the terms go as follows.
The land governed by gab bush is under the protection of align His Messenger they are free to practice their religion as they deem fit.
As long as they pay jizya, which is one dinar per head, one gold coin, which is four grams of gold, a dinar was approximately four grams of gold, which is in current day value, about 120 pounds, something like that, possibly 150 pounds. Okay, so every able working person would have to pay one gold coin per year. That's the tax, okay, for the well being of the society, so long as the seven cities did not rebel and did not shelter the enemy of the Muslims. They were to remain in peace. So this treaty is there it is in the sources and it can be found in the book of Olivia rennell, who has compiled all the treaties together. So this is how the Muslims gave terms. And they lived in peace
with Christian states or Christian city states in the Iberian Peninsula, not every single city.
Not every single territory was annexed or conquered completely rather, Christian rulers were left to rule the territory so long as they were not hostile. So Muslims established his order, slowly and steadily. But what happened then later was bickering among Muslims. The Berbers and the Arabs had friction between them, because when initially thought wizard landed in Spain, his army consisted of the Arabs 5000 Arabs and 7000 Berbers, 12,000 Muslims. They're confronted an army of 100,000 men led by King Roderick in the Battle of Guadalupe
also known as wandile Kabir in the Arabic language and Guadalupe is actually corruption of the word. Wali, Allah Kabir. Okay, so there was a battle that took place between Tarik bin Zayed 12,000 Muslims and 100,000 Visigoths led by King Roderick. He Roderick lost the battle and Muslims are victorious and city after city felt to the Muslims.
So now these Berbers Unfortunately, they started to rebel against the Arab authority to cut the long story short and this bickering between the Muslims caused some of the Northern Christian Coalition's to gain confidence and they started to attack territory after territory and that took some land and Muslims before all of this chaos was put to rest by the arrival of a new mermaid Prince called under a man of dolphin. Okay, he was an Amelia prince who was a fugitive on the bass. It's not Don't forget, I want you to remember what's happening in the Muslim lands in the Middle East. The Umayyad Caliphate was based in Damascus, and it lasted until 130 200. It lasted until 132 Hijri. So Spain
was conquered or the conquest of Spain started in 92. So between 90 201 132 imagery, how long is it? 40 years, 40 years. So between within this for these 40 years, there were a lot of chaos. In Spain. After the conquest, the Berbers and the Arabs were fighting each other and then the Arabs themselves were fighting each other. The and in this chaos, the theory clan of the Arabs came to power the descendants of Aqua nafion, one of the
initial conquerors of North Africa, his descendants had come to power and they were trying to consolidate their power but they couldn't do it. So the people of Spain the the burden, they were looking up to someone else to come and take power from the ferry
And who came to
who, who came to take power up the dam da Han, who was a runaway Prince, who was escaping with his life from the ambassador. Now in 132. Our Muslim Karani and a Basset
sympathizer had launched a rebellion against the years from current depression. And the basket leader of the revolution was called a Safar. He was the first ambassador, who governed from 130 to 200 736. He was called a Safar because of his cruelty was very, very cruel. He carried out a massacre against all my friends, or my royal families and the family of the caves were systematically wiped out killed off, some of them escaped. And one of them was Abdurrahman adopted. In fact, there's a there is a story about a black man of darker, historically narrated that he was escaping from his enemies, baskets. And there was a river in front of him. It was him and his
brother. And they started a swim.
To get to the other side to escape the ambassador's from the other side, they started to call them back that come back, you are brothers, we will not kill you, we will not harm you. Mr. Duffy did not believe that. And he continued to tell his brother, keep swimming, keep swimming, go to the other side. Go to the other side do not believe these people. But he believed them after a man's brother believed them and he turned around and he went to the ambassador to surrender of the man kept swimming and he went to the other side. And when he looked back in front of his eyes, the baskets or the ambassador contingent that was actually pursuing them, killed him in cold blood his brother
killed a Dutch man's brother in front of his eyes up there man turned around, and he made his way to Spain, where he found some sympathy cut the long story short, he arrived in Spain.
As a young man in his early 20s, and the Spanish Muslims found
this a great opportunity to put all the chaos to rest. So the United upon him and they said, because he is an immediate Prince, he has more right than the theories to govern Spain. So he United for the next 30 years, he created a very powerful entity, a very powerful government for himself, the Muslims, the barbers and the Arabs, united under the leadership of the schmatta darken the first omega Amir of Spain. And then this,
a new ship continued for another two centuries, until
z. So for two centuries are made after Amir came to govern Spain. And this was a this was a golden age. Of course, there was a lot of political chaos, there were many rebellions, the barbarism, the era of the friction continued, it didn't it never died down, unfortunately. And there's a lesson in this. The lesson in this is that Muslims a lot of the times, due to a number of reasons. When they are together in a place, they find reasons to disagree with each other. And sometimes these disagreements caused them to become violent, and this violence causes the Muslims to lose what they have. It is as simple as that. And we have failed to learn from our history repeatedly. We ignore
our history. Okay, there is a spirit of rebellion in Muslims. Unfortunately, generally speaking, I'm not saying all Muslims are like that, of course, rebellion is utterly Haram in Islam. So long as your ruler is a believer, and he observes Islam there is it is haram to rebel against your rulers. The Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam made it very, very clear, there are important Sahih Muslim, right? That you obey the ruler, even if he is oppressing some of you, even if he is oppressive, okay you obey Him for the greater good. For the this is a pragmatic position with the professor also taught the Muslims for the greater good, because you may be oppressed as an individual by this
ruler, but the impact of his governorship around the country is keeping things in harmony. He's keeping things together, you remove the ruler and his establishment, all hell breaks loose. All hell break break what happens then? bandits, Roberts, killers, murderers, rapists, they go on loose and they start causing chaos. Right? This was the pragmatic position to sort of Lhasa Salam was teaching the believers, but unfortunately in many places the Muslims take these teachings seriously. And they ended up causing catastrophe. So the Berber and the Arab divide in Spain caused a major damage. Maybe it was the problem was on both sides. The Arabs. They had the NACA, they are severe. They look
down upon the Berbers, the borough's reason Muslims so the verbals don't deserve any powerful positions, the burgers are always given difficult positions will defend and they had to God or garrison places that were difficult to defend. The Arabs always had easy privileged, you know, status. So this caused problems. So, these problems they they escalated to an extent where it started to affect Muslim unity. But
it started to affect Muslim unity and this disunity affected the very existence of Muslims in Spain.
And even the Muslims of Spain within Spain did not learn from these
incidents that took place in the early history of Islamic Spain when the Berbers and the Arabs bicker with each other.
Then came some powerful rulers who were able to unite for example, after after Amanda dark and had come to Spain
In 715, when he had come to Spain,
for two centuries, almost two centuries, there was relative peace.
My amuse the descendants of man an hour of demand the first they kept peace for almost two centuries.
government of Spain declared itself to be a caliphate led by a man the third man the third was the most powerful monarch in Western Europe.
In Western Europe,
he became so powerful that he declared himself B itself to be the rightful Caleb of the Muslim world. So there were three cases in the Muslim world at the time the basket case live in Baghdad, the fatimid Calif in Egypt and the Amalia Calif, in Spain, who was very, very powerful. He was so powerful that the European powers in the north or the Northwest, they were paying homage to him. Cordova became the largest city in the world.
It had a population of a million people.
Larger than Constantinople, it became the largest city in the world. It was the most cosmopolitan, most multicultural place in the world. You had northern Europeans coming to Cordova. You had Muslims coming from Baghdad, Damascus to learn in the universities in the educational institutions of Cordova, Cordova became a magnet for scholars for researchers, for people who wanted to go to the best institutions, to the best scholars to the best teachers in the world.
So by the mid 10th, century
the third was governing, the land has been one of the descendants of Darfur, Spain was a power.
A European power, if not a global power, had a huge influence, for a number of reasons. It was wealthy, some of the largest libraries in the world were in quarterback. There was quantum events here, the Jews, the Muslims and the Christians coexisted. In fact, one of the prime ministers for this particular case was a Jewish man has the image improved. He was a Jewish
intellectual, he was a physician. And he was appointed as the Vizier as the Prime Minister. And he will also taking care of the finances. So this was a period known as the golden age for the Jews, the Jewish people flourished. They produced some of the best scholars in the history during this period.
So when a lot of the islamophobes today talk about Islam, and ISIS, they link Islam to ISIS, what they do is they jump from the Messenger of Allah sallallahu Sallam straight to ISIS.
This is a very clever game islamophobes play with the Muslims to put the Muslims on backfoot to put the Muslims in an apologetic position that the Muslims must now start to apologize for Islam for believing in Islam for looking like Muslims. hijabi women, they have to apologize for the hijab, bearded men, they have to apologize for the base, Muslims who want to practice Islam to the letter, they have to be apologetic. They have to be ashamed of Islam, why ISIS? Look what you have done, look you Muslims, what you have done, you have produced ISIS, we tell them hold on, hold on, hold on. Let's talk sense. Let's talk with information.
And take the bigger picture into into consideration. We didn't get to ISIS like that from the province of allies for them, between the prophet and where we ended up today. Politically, speaking of what's happening in the Middle East, there is what we call the Muslim civilization for over 1000 years. What happened in Spain?
What are you going to do with the scholars, the philosophers, the scientists, the theologians, the behind the scene, the points, the intellectuals of randomness, if we were not to take the intellectuals from Damascus, Baghdad, and Rwanda, and fahara and some of Canon bahara into consideration, if we were not to take them into consideration because they're also part of the Muslim civilization. The Muslim civilization dominated the world for over 1000 years in all these fields I mentioned philosophy,
book production, architecture, art, intellectual activity, science, you name it, the Muslims dominated the world for over 1000 years. Will you not put that achievement into the basket of Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam? This is the question I asked these people who jump straight from the prophet to ISIS.
What are you going to do with this?
We have over 1000 years, our libraries are hospitals, there is no Western civilization without the Muslim contribution, which I will highlight very quickly before I finish. There is no Western civilization without the Muslim contribution.
So these people who jumped on the puppet to ISIS, they are either completely ignorant of our history of our achievements in the past, or they are malicious liars. Or they are completely malicious liars, who are deliberately pumping hate against Islam and Muslims. Okay. By the way, these extremist groups, and what they're doing is a product of geopolitics. What's been happening in the Middle East foreign policies of certain countries, they have been, they have been conducting mass murder, in the name of democracy and in the name of other
ideologies. So how is that a problem of Muslims? Did we cause it?
Did we produce these people? Are they are they a reaction to Islam, or other reacting to something barbaric they have they have been facing. So extremism breeds extremism.
When you have extreme actions, you have extreme reactions, right? So extremists are brothers of each other, they cause each other to do to come about.
It is extremism that gives birth to extremism.
It has nothing to do with Muslims, we are proud of our civilization. We will always believe in Islam, we will always be proud of the legacy of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam will always hold on to it, we will always be proud of each other.
So Spain is a point to be noted anonymous, Islamic Spain.
They were European scholars during this period, traveling to Muslim lands in Spain, to learn from the Muslim scholars.
The knowledge of science philosophy
came directly from Spain, to the Europeans, the Europeans, because of the focus on Christian theological literature, had completely lost touch with the works of the Greeks and the Romans and the others. So the Muslims took that beneficial knowledge.
And they worked on it, they were teaching it so for example, in the libraries of Cordova, in the Arabic language for taba
in the institutions in the Academies of cassava, they were Muslim scholars with turbans, metabolism and beads. They were teaching Europeans, Jews, Arabs, barbers, people coming from the Middle East.
People from the whole world were flocking, they were coming to an underload to Spain to learn from the Muslim scholars to learn the theology they will have seen in Spain.
Spain, Islamic Spain produced some of the major scholars in Islamic history, Mr. Magoo, Tommy, his name is of course Tommy from cassava from Cordoba. He is one of the greatest
Mufasa is one of the greatest mufa serene in Muslim history, someone who wrote a giant commentary on the Quran. So, two of the best commentaries of the Quran are what the most prominent, the most popular and the most famous ones, who is going to name them
one is debris, and the other one is forthcoming.
All scholars of Islam, when they write a commentary on the Quran, they have to refer back to these two sources they have to they have no choice. They have to look at the Tafseer of Imam imagery recovery, and embalm alchemy. Without these two fields. They feel as if they haven't done justice to the country of the Koran, then we have ever had them. And we'll have him was an intellectual, appoint a theologian, a philosopher, like we have, we have people like him neurosis, also known as Eros. In the European Alliance at the time, he was known as heroes. And he was a theologian, a Muslim theologian, a Muslim, a mom of four key of the Maliki thick. He
He was actually the audio of consommer. And he had written commentaries on the works of Aristotle, although that caused him problems later on because he drifted away slightly from some of the mainstream Islamic opinions. But that doesn't take away the fact that he was a product of the Muslim civilization. Even some people point at me leucaena that he was a metalhead. He was a heretic, islamically speaking Islamic theologians, they had declared him to be a heretic, an outcast, basically he completely broke away from the Islamic tradition. That's fine. That may be true. Major scholars of Islam actually made some of them made the photo of me and they said he was actually he
was not even a Muslim, because of the things he wrote. But that doesn't take away the fact that he was a product of the Islamic civilization.
His good achievements, and his errors are with him. They cannot be taken away from him. But you cannot take his good achievements. You cannot, you cannot divorce his his good achievement. You know, he's booked out kanoon. The Canon was taught in Europe for almost five centuries as the major texts on medicine.
As late as the 16th century alkatone was being printed in Europe in the Arabic language as well as Latin, Latin translation evolution has outgrown.
Are you going to say this is now without Islam? Of course not. That's a positive achievement of the CETA. And it was a product of the Western civilization. So Spain is absolutely crucial if you want to understand what happened in Europe, in the 20th century and beyond. When it comes to advanced advancement of knowledge, literature, technology, intellectual activity, you have to look at Islamic Spain. There are scholars who have written extensively on this topic. For example, one of them is called George Saliba. George Oliver has written a book titled The Arabic origins of the European Renaissance. By the way, George Saliba is a is a is a Lebanese Christian. He's not a Muslim, right?
So he hasn't been paid by the Saudis to write this book.
Okay, he has written this book to show how the European renaissance of the 15th and the 16th century was directly inspired by the Arabs,
the Muslims in Spain, specifically in particular, and other places like Sicily and the Middle East. Then there are books like
the Arabic role in
European literature. This book is written by a scholar called Maria Rosa Malakal. she's a she's a Spanish arabist. And she has written extensively on Spain and the history of Spanish she actually called she actually actually wrote a book titled the ornament of the world, describing the peaceful coexistence between the Muslims of Spain and other faiths during the Islamic period. This is what we look up to. This is this is what we sell to the world as our example. It was not perfect. It was never perfect, no doubt. But what it produced cannot be taken away from us. You cannot say that this is not an achievement of Islam, what the Muslim received in Spain, anything positive in any field
cannot be taken away from the Koran because Koran is the seed.
And the Muslim civilization is the fruit
or the tree or the branches. Every tree has branches. The root is the Quran. There is no Islam without the Quran. And there is no Muslim civilization without Islam. You cannot separate them. You cannot separate them. So a lot of those
progressed until 1031. In 1031,
the immediate Caliphate was dismantled. Unfortunately, in the early 11th century, there were some rebellions against the American authority. And there were divisions within the Muslim scholarship. Israel has an ally who was alive at the time and all of this chaos was taking place. He was a loyalist. In other words, he was a supporter of the caliphate in and you know, the word Caliphate has become very controversial nowadays, again, because of ISIS, the tarnish the word, the tarnished the word, okay, when you look at the Umayyad Caliphate, in Spain, where Jews, Christians and Muslims coexisted together, working together for the common good of humanity, studying in the same
institutions without any persecution or any discrimination
Caliphate, where Europeans are flocking to learn in Muslim universities. So when it is positive, when it looks positive, you don't want to talk about it. But when something barbaric happens, you want to call it caliphate. This is wrong. This is what we call injustice, historic injustice, right? So we have to be very careful when we talk about contracts.
So in 1031, the Umayyad Caliphate was dismantled. And then what followed was
Alma, Luke, a wife, okay? The Muslim states, they all split into different groups. And what happened was Spain was divided into
tons of different petty states all over Spain. We are different kings claiming to be Caleb's. And they were all claiming to be qualities
of the rightful rulers of Spain, and they all split into different tiny states when this happened.
Now, think about this, what this unity does to the Muslims, what it has done historically to us this unity, when you dis unite over petty things over selfish gains, because all of these rules they have died.
Every single ruler who govern one of these petty states in Spain is got finished dead and buried graves. We don't know where they are.
When they were alive, they thought they are the ameerul momineen.
I am the rightful ruler, I have a military I'm an army.
But they were very short sighted. When the Umayyad Caliphate was dismantled in 1031, CD, having governed effectively for almost three centuries, having kept the Muslim civilization in Spain united, having benefited humanity, on that scale I have already discussed where Europeans, middle people from the Middle East, people from Africa, were flocking to Spain to learn from Muslim scholars, you know, you cannot produce a civilization without peace and tranquility.
Without justice, and a sense of security. Even we'll do it one of the American philosophers. He was writing in the 70s, he wrote a history of civilization on the first page of the first volume of his book, and the first volume is titled our oriental heritage. He writes a civilization a civilization consists of four elements. It consists of war elements, economic provisions, political stability, pursuit of knowledge and arts and modern traditions. I will repeat, economic provisions, political stability, pursuit of knowledge and arts, and moral traditions. These four elements make civilization, a civilizations, or a civilization. And all of these four elements rests upon one
pillar. And that pillar is sense of security and justice, you remove justice, all of these four elements will collapse, you will have no economic provisions, your economies will fail. If there's no justice,
you're your morality will be lost. They will be no political stability. And because of that, there will be no pursuit of knowledge. And that's the reason why under this Islamic space, such a magnificent produce such a magnificent civilization was because of the sense of security and justice
offered and sustained by the Omega armies of Al Andalus. For nearly three centuries, when that unity was broken when the Umayyad Caliphate collapsed, or when it crumbled. Within 50 years,
the Catholics from the north started to take land, one after another.
So much so that 1066 was the first loss. Muslims last Barcelona, the last Baba Castro, there was a city in the north called webasto. In 1066. That city was lost, then,
a center of Muslim learning.
The city of Palais de la, in the Arabic language and in the English language or in the Latin language to lead up to le de
Toledo was lost in 1085. To King Afonso coming from the north, because the Muslim now had split into different groups in small petty states. Valencia, one state versus another state, then we have
so many different states within the Iberian Peninsula.
Okay, so now the outcome because they were all split, and they were fighting each other for territory for influence. They lost the Unity when they lost the unity. The Catholics on the north, they took advantage, and then began Reconquista what we know in the history of Spain as Reconquista, they started to conquer one after another. And when things became so severe that some of the Muslims realized, hold on, if we don't have outside intervention, we will lose all of Spain.
So in 1080s, one of the Muslim rulers of a petty state, one of the top five,
he contacted us of April tashfeen, who was the ruler of Morocco, or much of North Africa at the time. On morava tune, he was the ruler of Al Morabito. He got in touch with him, cut the long story short, asked him to rescue the Muslims. Some people said to him in Spain, the same Spain was shockingly civilized. Spain, Islamic Spain along the loose was the most civilized piece of land in the world at the time. Right. Spain was
New York, London, Paris, Sydney plus,
by the standards of the 11th. And the 12th century, centuries, Spain was all of these cities, plus, at the time in all the cities of Spain, the very, very civilized, so a lot of it Some people said, Why are you inviting these desert, you know, savages to come and defend Spain. So this Muslim ruler made a very famous statement, which is historically documented, that I would rather be a shepherd for camels than be a shepherd for pigs.
In other words, you were saying, when the Catholics will come down, ruling, or conquering the land of Spain, they will bring pigs with them because pigs were a very common
combo, you know, what do you call it delicacy. Among the Christians of the North at the time, it still is in many countries to this day, right?
So he was referring to being a shepherd or a farmer of pigs, then, so he or either he had two choices, either be a farmer for pigs, or be a shepherd for camels, he's our rather be a shepherd for camels. So then, the Morabito on our Morabito, they came to Spain, and they checked Reconquista or the Catholic taking off an under laws for another two centuries. Effectively, they stopped the advance of the Catholic Church and the Catholic Kings coming from the north, that by the Catholic Church, of course, because they call it a crusade, it was a crusade against the Muslims of Spain. Right. So this advanced was checked by the intervention of almoravid tunes or Morabito govern for
almost another century.
And then came on murghab. Alma, why don't why don't what a very strict
almost an extremist group of Muslims who came in and they forced many of the principles on the people of London loose, and then they lost a very, very important battle against the Catholics coming from the north in the year 1212. This battle caused the loss of almost all of Spain except Grenada, except the state of Grenada. So after the the move, I don't although I hadn't
heard in the English language, they are known as almoravids, after they lost the battle, which took place in 2012, against the calculix of the North, the city of Valencia, Cordoba, Seville, all of these city states, they fell to the Catholics on the north. And what remained was Grenada ornata in the south, and this state of Karnataka lasted for another
two centuries, because the Christians having taken so much land from the Muslim started to fight each other. So because the Christians were divided, or the Catholics from the north they were divided between each other, the state of Karnataka survived, and it became a tributary to the state of Castiel which was in the north. I mean, I cannot give you all the details in such a short time our time is up chef mon Latif is here to deliver his talk his lecture in Charlotte Allah, which you must listen to.
Because it's a different topic, and also very inspirational. Insha Allah, so the cut Long Story Short.
For two centuries, Muslims arrived in Grenada and they continued the glimmer of hope or
As we say, you know, a glimmer of civilization in those lands. So, when the Christians came from the north, the Catholics, they actually adopted a lot of the Islamic culture, they became very Islamic. In fact, when you look at some of the buildings in Spain to this day, you will see,
you know, our direct impact of Islamic architecture in Islamic art, even on the Catholic architecture from the time when the Christians are taken, not only that, the Catholic monarch some of them, they adopted the tolerance of the Muslim kings, when the Muslims are governing, they tolerated the Jewish in the Christian populations and they,
they encouraged them to to coexist, and this was the attitude adopted by some of the earlier Catholic Kings who came to power it was later on, but with the rise of the state of Castile and Aragon, when the king of Kashi sorry the king of Aragon, and the queen of Castillo married each other Ferdinand of Aragon and is a bit of Castillo, they got married, they united, much of Spain, and then they decided to get rid of the last stronghold of the Muslims in Al Andalus, which was nada, nada fell in 1492. And my brothers and sisters, this episode, the fall of Karnataka is very, very painful. First, an edict was signed between the Muslims of Karnataka and the northern Catholic
powers, in this case, coalition of Castile and Aragon, because the king and the queen had married, and by the way, their daughter was one of the wives of King Henry the Eighth. Her name was what?
Sorry, sister Gorgon
Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Aragon, one of the wives of King Henry the Eighth was a daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, people who took their mother from the nurseries or the Muslims in Spain, so an edict was signed, that the Muslims will keep the faith and they will continue to remain in status quo, nothing will be changed, just surrender. So once the Muslim surrender, what happened all the edicts were broken, all the agreements were broken, Muslims are forced, forced brutally into Catholicism, they were forcefully baptized, okay. And Muslim books were systematically burnt hundreds of 1000s of volumes of rare works written by Muslim scholars throughout Spanish history
were put to put to fire close to a million books were burned after the conquest of Granada. And the Catholic Monarchs were even contemplating destroying the last standing symbol of Muslim civilization in London was the Alhambra palace. They wanted to demolish a destroyed, but when they saw it, they could not come to destroy it. It was so beautiful, it was so striking the art on it was so so so so fascinating, that it could not come to destroy it. And and one of the results was of this Reconquista was that muscle of course of ours the largest mosque in the world for many centuries. The Cordoba mosque was one of the largest mosques in the world for many centuries.
Later on, during the time of Charles the fifth in the 16th century, a cathedral was resurrected and Catholic Cathedral was resurrected in the middle of the mosque, which stands to this day. And when Charles the fifth saw the cathedral, he said that you have destroyed the structure. You have destroyed the mosque. The mosque is so beautiful. You have to go and see these places even today. The machete Cordoba still stands to this day, horseshoe arches are still there, you will still see them a hub. Okay with all the calligraphy and the artwork from the from the from from 1000 years ago, from the 10th century you will see the artwork to this day, you will still see or Hamra Paris.
If you go to Karnataka, it is standing to this day. It is actually one of the wonders of the world because the artwork on it is so beautiful. It is so amazing that to this day people are just just in amazement. So cut the long story short, this decline of this part of the Muslim did not only impact the Muslims of Spain, it had a global impact. Remember, it wasn't 1492 after this conquest when Christopher Columbus landed in Hispaniola, okay, in the Americas, currently Haiti, okay. And this is when the destruction of the Native Americans started. So the decline of the Muslims in Spain
impacted the world for the coming centuries. This is when colonial
Isn't started this is when the European powers felt brave and because Muslims lost control of the Mediterranean, so long as the Muslims are in Grenada in Grenada, the Mediterranean Sea was controlled by either the Spanish Muslims or by the Ottomans. And one of the reasons why the Catholic Monarchs wanted to destroy the last stronghold of the Muslims in Spain was to do away with the threat of the Ottomans because the Ottomans remember in 1453, led by Sultan Mohammed Al Fidesz have already taken the city of Constantinople that sent that sent down shivers, you know, that sends shivers down the spines of some of the clergy in Europe at the time and they started screaming, we
have to do something. And then there were reports of the Muslims are communicating with the Ottomans, to do something about those Muslims who were suffering within the Christian states of the North because they were being forced into Christianity. So what happened with these Muslims who were in the hundreds of 1000s, and these are native Spanish Muslims.
People think that these Muslims are Berber or the Arabs know, the majority of the Muslims in Spain in the 15th century, were native Spanish Muslims, there was barriers. There were either Portuguese, or Basques or Spaniards. They were actual Spaniards, ethnically, they were European. And they had embraced Islam. Throughout the history of Islamic Spain, they ran into hundreds of 1000s, one of the largest population of Muslims was in Seville. So what do you do you force them to Christianity to accept. So what happened they started to force the Muslims in to Catholicism, forced baptism draws upon droves were brought to this fountain with the cat, by the way, the Catholic clergy and they
were baptizing Muslims, for sure if you die, or you convert, so Muslims, they were forced into it, but they never abandoned Islam. And this caused a rebellion in 1499. And Muslims took refuge in the alpujarras mountain, where they fought many battles against these Catholic Kings, to protect their faith to protect the Islam. And many hundreds of 1000s of killed over 100,000 were killed. 200,000 are exiled, and 200,000 remained in Spain, in some shape or form, to basically pretend as Christians. But it didn't stop there. Throughout the 16th century, the Muslims of Spain was seen as the fifth column, they were seen as a threat from within because the Ottomans are getting very, very
strong. The Ottomans are very, very powerful within the Mediterranean region. So the Spanish kinzel, very, very worried about the Muslims of Spain. So they wanted to now either convert them conclusively or drive them out. So eventually, in 16, or nine, Philip the third, the king of Spain, he issued a decree that you either die or you leave within three days and you leave with what you can carry. You cannot take your possessions you take with you what you can carry, and hundreds of 1000s of Muslims
perished. The Jews also perish with the Muslims.
The decline of the Muslims meant the decline of the Jewish people. Okay, the Jewish people also suffered, right. So some people were able to make it to North Africa, others perished within
you know, when they were on their way to the course. Some were successfully transported, others were killed off. Some people die there were massacres will lie that history The details are so painful as to what happened to the Muslims under the domain of the Catholics in Spain.
Before the conquest of Granada and after the conquest of Granada, it is unbelievable cruelty and barbarity in history, which is completely unknown to Muslims. I strongly recommend a book you must look into actually few books, right. There is a book called Muslims pain is two volumes. Okay. It has been edited by Salma hundra do you see? Okay, it's two volumes. Then there is another book called Muslims pain by unworked China. Then there is another book
compiled or authored by Richard Fletcher is also a Muslim Spain. Then there's another book or you can also see the works of SM Mr. Modine sm. Mr. Modine was a Bengali historian, a scholar of Muslim Spain he has written amazing books on the history of landless Islamic Spain. Then we have another book written by
forgotten He's my suit.
viser Subhan Allah, my teacher, who Kennedy,
Muslim, Spain and Portugal does another book. So lb Javi has written on all the books are mentioning are, by the way academic sources, you will get a lot of history and one blog in particular short articles on the history of Spain is called Bella Andalus belanda, loose ba Ma and da l us, Bella andalus.com or.org, or something like that. This blog, you have to study it. There's a lot of history of Spain on this blog, you will see a lot about the expansion of the Muslims and the Reconquista and what came with it. So, to summarize my talk to finish it right now, to conclude,
the fall of the Muslims has been to reiterate that not only affect the Muslims of Spain it affect it affected the Muslims of the world. And not only the Muslim world, but innocent, non Muslims of the world as well. Because the rise of the Europe European colonialism was one of the worst
occurrences in human history, the Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch, and the East India Company. It all happened after the fall of the Muslim Spain after the fall of Granada, think about it. Okay. Christopher Columbus ended up in Americas and the outcome was absolute devastation of the people of those lands. Christopher Columbus has been now completely disarmed and rejected by Native Americans, or even Central American and South Americans. They do not see him as the hero. They are they have actually removed the statues because they have come to learn the history. He single handedly caused the deaths of millions of people and later on Spanish, Spanish and Portuguese
settlers when they came in and then the British settlers or European settlers in general, when they took these lands, they conducted cold blooded massacres against the native population of these land and not only that, Portuguese ended up in India, they ended up colonizing much of Africa, India was completely colonized by the East India Company and the aftermath. You have to see what happened. In India, in particular read Shashi Thoreau's book, The Dark Empire. Shashi Tharoor is an Indian author from India is an Indian politician, also a historian, he has written his book The dark Empire, see what happened. As a result of the Fall Fall of Granada Why am I lifting later European colonialism
with the fall of Granada because that's the tipping point. That's when all hell broke loose, because the law the influence of the the Ottomans will last
as far as the Mediterranean Sea was concerned, then came the monster called colonialism. Okay, so brothers sisters, I can talk a lot about what Muslim Spain achieved for the world when there was a golden age in Spain. That's a very very vast topic. But I would recommend one book in particular, on that very topic, so that you can you can look into it is called the title of the book is hidden debt to Islamic civilization. Hidden debt to Islamic civilization is written by a historian called alexza Erie you can find the book online hidden debt of
a hidden debt to Islamic civilization is a book which is an encyclopedia of information which will give you a lot of information on what Islamic Spain in particular did for the world. Thank you so much for listening. bahara Davina, and it handled in layerable alameen salam