History of Kashmir

Adnan Rashid


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heme hamdulillah salat wa salam ala rasulillah I'm about out of the light Samuel elimina shaytani r rajim Bismillahi Rahmani Raheem Omar alpha Naga Illa Allah Allah mean Allah for ye So allow earlier Salaam lai hadoken. Hakuna Hubba lay him and why did he roll over your nose gauge Marine, my respected brothers and sisters, today I have been invited by masjidul Palmyra in East London to address a very, very important pressing issue of the Muslim oma in this age. And that issue is the crisis of Kashmir. Kashmir is a territory which is found or situated

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in northwestern India.

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And it is a vast territory which touches borders of China. parts of it also touch Afghanistan, some parts touch northern India, and some parts, of course have borders with currently Pakistan. So it's a huge territory it only it It also touches borders of Tibet.

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So, why are we talking about Kashmir and why is history of Kashmir important? So, today I will be talking about the history of Kashmir. For details, you will have to look at the books written by historians academics, because details can simply not be given in a

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short lecture like this, but inshallah we will cover most important events that we need to know about Kashmir.

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Firstly, history is very important because history shows us what happened in the past. It helps us understand the present. And it also helps us predict or possibly do better for the future. That's why our last panel data continues to use history in the Quran. As an argument, the Quran talks about a number of different nations, prophets places so that these incidents or events of the past can be used as examples to teach humanity to fix the future, if not the present. So look into the future by magnifying the history. So when you magnify history, you are effectively looking into the future. As they say history repeats itself, or those who forget the history are condemned to relive it. So if

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you don't learn from your history, you will not be able to look forward to your future.

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So that's why history is very important and we are going to talk about the history of Kashmir, Kashmir and surrounding areas. Kashmir is a conflict that

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is current.

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right now as we speak. The people of Kashmir or the occupied Kashmir in India are under siege for the last two years or more. The people of Kashmir the Muslims of Kashmir in particular have been a severe lockdown. And I'm not talking about COVID related lockdown, I'm talking about economic,

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medical, educational, business, all sorts of lock downs are imposed upon the upon the Muslim population of Kashmir. And the reason is the historic background which we will be talking about, before we get to the crux of the matter what's happening today and how it happened or what caused the situation to be the way it is, we will go through the history of Kashmir very quickly. As to the ancient period.

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Kashmir has experienced many many different dynasty dynasties, it has been ruled by many different rulers and a detailed analysis of those dynasties and those rulers and the periods is not the purpose of this particular lecture, but I will mention them very quickly. So, initially,

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in the ancient period, let's say

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who was a Buddhist King or emperor who had taken large territories of India

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and Ashoka

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govern parts of northern India, southern India, western India and eastern India.

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it was only in his time for the first time, at least for the known history when India was near united under one government. India was near

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United not all of it. large parts of India were united under a Shaka. And this happened the second time under the rule of orange zevalin gear, the Mughal Emperor, who ruled almost 95% of India, orange,

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who was the most Islamic, or islamically, observant, I must say, Emperor of the Mughal Empire.

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Emperor came before him, and they came after him, but they were not as observant of Islam as he was. And for this reason, he is very much tarnished and hated and disliked by the right wing extremist Hindu element in India today.

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The current Indian Government

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is basically trying to wipe out that history of orange, orange they've had conquered large chunks of India. So Ashoka had introduced Buddhism in to Kashmir, because he had conquered Kashmir and he was a great conqueror. So he had introduced Buddhism. So Buddhism became established. later on. In the fifth, sixth and seventh century CE II, Hindus came and they started to wipe out the Buddhists, many Hindu King kings and dynasties came, and they started to simply

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wipe out Buddhist

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traces from the land of Kashmir. When I use the term Kashmir By the way, I'm using it loosely because the borders of Kashmir are disputed to this day.

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No government, no political entity, has yet agreed as to what exactly

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is Kashmir or How big? How big is it?

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And where are the exact borders? Because parts of Kashmir are claimed by at least three countries, at least three countries. China claims parts of Kashmir, for example, the territory of Ladakh, China claimed that territory and there's a dispute between China and India, Pakistan claims Kashmir as its own because the majority population of Kashmir is Muslim and by that virtue, Kashmir should have come to Pakistan after the partition of 1947 when the British left India,

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then India,

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which is an occupying force, today, Kashmir is the largest

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militarized area in the world. There are there are close to a million soldiers

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in Kashmir in occupied Kashmir. why we call it occupied Kashmir is because this is exactly what the Muslims of Kashmir the majority population of Kashmir calls it it is occupied territory, just like Palestine. It is occupied territory, right. So, just like Palestine, Kashmir is another issue. So,

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these Hindu kings in the seventh in the sixth and the eighth century, they're completely wiped out traces of Buddhism. Buddhists were simply driven northwards into Tibet, China, and Mongolia. And actually Buddhism was established in these lands later on in Tibet, China and Mongolia, through Kashmir.

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It was Kashmiri missionaries, who came from Kashmir, who preached Buddhism in these lands. And then Buddhism became more established in Far East or let's say Southeast Asia

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and Central Asia, then,

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the territory was born in Buddha was born in northern India current day, let's say in Nepal, or parts of the borders of Nepal and India, right. And Buddha was Indian and Kashmir, adopted Buddhism as a religion, but then the Indian sorry the Hindus, they came and they wiped out Buddhism from the territory of Kashmir and by the way, this happened all over India, during the reign of Ashoka, the dominant religion of India was Buddhism. So, when this hindutva narrative, you hear all the time on the news,

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that India is a Hindu domain, it has been so, since

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recorded history this is a lie This is a misconception. At one point India was Buddhist. And then Buddhists were simply systematically wiped out by Hindu kings who came to power in particular the Brahmins. The priestly caste

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instigated these massacres and murders. And, you know, genocides in some cases of Buddhists and Buddhists were systematically wiped out through

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about India. And because Buddhists believed in a peaceful way of life, they found it difficult to fight back.

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Even when the Muslims came with Mohammed bin Qasim primarily during the Omega period, they found Buddhists in India at that time, but later on

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the influence of the Buddhist

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religious class was diminished. So, Hindus came to power and different dynasties ruled the land of Kashmir up to the 14th century. We're talking about 1300s c 1300s. And I am fast forwarding this history So, that we can get to the the main issue, the conflict and what was what caused this conflict, which we find find in Kashmir today. So, Hindus more or less continue to govern, there was a Mongol invasion of Kashmir. By the way, Mongols went everywhere Mongols attacked not only Syria and parts of central Asia and Mongols went as far as hungry you know in Europe. Mongols came to Pakistan and India as well. Mongols came very close to Lahore Mongols even invaded Kashmir. So there

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was a Mongol invasion of Kashmir. And as a result, a Buddhist monk came to power in the 14th century, precisely speaking, and after this book, Buddhist monk was allegedly converted to Islam or he converted to Islam himself. So says the legend. His Vizier, was called

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Shah Mele.

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His name was Shah Mead, and he ousted his ruler, who was a Buddhist monk or an alleged convert to Islam. So Shammi became the first ruler of Kashmir, first Muslim ruler rather sorry, first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, and his descendants and his dynasty. The Xiaomi dynasty lasted for almost another 200 years.

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And one of the reasons this dynasty came to power was heavy taxation

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and oppression that was taking place before this particular period, I mean, when Sharmila came to power

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photon mahamudra resonably in the, in the 11th century, also attempted to conquer Kashmir, just like he conquered parts of

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India. He came from Ghazni, currently Afghanistan Wasn't he was the center of learning, there was a lot happening, he wasn't he at that time, even some famous epics were written at his court, for example, the famous Shan ami or that epic point, the epitome of Persian literature was written at his court and Abou rayhaan al biruni, who wrote a first systematic

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treatment of the geography of India or the culture of India in his book is called Kitab al hynd. The Book of India, abou Rehan Al biruni, was a scholar active at the court of or in the court of Sultan Muhammad was NaVi and he was sent to gather information from India

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on India, so, he came back with gettable hint is a very, very excellent treatment of

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what was happening in India at the time, Indian religion, Indian culture and all that. So, my mood was when we tried to invade Kashmir and he did not conquer it, he wasn't able to conquer it. So he focused elsewhere, the days alternate period, the Muslim rulers who were ruling the dailies alternate starting from photon miser Dean Java bean warry, or Mohammed Gauri, also known as Mohammed Mohammed bin Salman, his name was Mohammed bin Salman. He had taken large territory in northern India. In fact, the city of Delhi was taken by him. It was at that time or by that time ruled by a Hindu king called Prithvi Raj chohan. The Daily solterra Sultan's who governed or ruled this

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Sultanate after him, which governed large parts of northern India, and this was the first time in Indian history where Muslims came to power in northern India. Previously, Muslims are only in power in the south, or let's say, a Southwest, currently Sindh province of Pakistan or close to the territory of Moulton or southern Punjab. This is how far the Muslims or the Arabs had come, so they govern the small territory within India.

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And even this territory was called hindered by the Arabs at the time.

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But it was a fraction of Hinde the real powerhouse or or the real power of Muslims was established in India in the north through the daily Sultan's.

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So, daily Sultan's also attempted

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to take Kashmir but they were not able to do so. So after this dynasty in the 14th century was established by Shah Mira man called Shah Mira was a Muslim. He basically took power. And for the next two years, his children his descendants ruled Kashmir.

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And this dynasty was called the Shah Mir dynasty, right. And then the Mughals came to power. How the Mongols came to power is very interesting as well. But before I talk about that, just want to mention that during this period of Shami dynasty, a lot of Sophie's preachers, wanderers, they came into Kashmir and they started preaching Islam. So Christian in Kashmir, Islam started to take hold. So first the population was Buddhist, Buddhism was wiped out, then

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the cult of Shiva or shave ism was introduced by Hindus. So people started to worship Shiva in the Kashmiri territory, so shave ism. Okay, was the dominant religion before the Muslim started to emerge on the scene? So after shammies dynasty, or is taking a power, the people started to accept Islam from the 14th century onwards because a lot of movies and preachers

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and these kinds of characters were coming in and they were teaching their version of Islam whatever the version of Islam was, because that was not really, strictly speaking. You know, the Quran and Sunnah the Quran and Sunnah Islam. They were teaching a mixed Islam to the people of Kashmir at that time. So that's why people followed a mixture of Islam and some Hindu traditions and some other ideas, right. So this wasn't Strictly speaking, later on no doubt. When people had become Muslim, they started to take knowledge from scholars, orthodox scholars who started to come in who started to teach, especially during the later more Mughal period, and the dharani period, which we'll talk

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we'll be talking about in due course insha Allah. So after the Xiaomi dynasty, the Mughals came to power, Mughals to Kashmir

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during the reign of homayoun, the Mughal Emperor the second Mughal emperor of India, homayoun during his reign, Kashmir was taken by one of his generals and coins in his name were minted in Kashmir for us to find coins minted in the name of Emperor homayoun in Kashmir. But then,

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that rain didn't last long because homayoun was ousted by Shere Khan.

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This is not the Shere Khan of Jungle Book, right? I'm talking about share Khan

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was his real name was Fareed Han, he was an emperor. He was the ruler of India for almost seven years. And

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in the Indian history of Islam or the Islamic history of India, share Shah Suri. He was known as share Shah Suri famously known later on as share Shah Suri, The Lion King Suri, right. His real name was Fareed Khan. He was also called share, Han, Share, share, so Don shares your story. So he was known by different names, so he ruled from

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1538 1539 to 1545. About six to seven years. He had ousted he was a general for the Mughals. He was an Afghan originally, he had ousted the second Mughal Emperor homayoun and the Mughals had almost lost the empire in India, which was initially carved by the first Mughal Emperor, the hirudin Baba.

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So here's your took power. And after Harrison sons came to power, so because homayoun was ousted,

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Kashmir was lost.

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Then, long story short, the series after Shah was killed in a battle, the deposits of gunpowder exploded and he was burnt as a result in a battle when he was trying to conquer a very, very difficult fortress fortress in western India, for eastern India, rather Western eastern India near Bengal. And he was burnt as a result of his son came to power and he couldn't hold on to power Islam Shah so he couldn't hold on to power I mean, he ruled, but after him his successes, they started to fight each other. So

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homayoun saw his chance again. He was taking refuge in Persia at the time he came back and he conquered India, India again.

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And then he died soon after himself. After taking power back. He died he fell from his library. He fell from the staircase in his library and he died. His son Akbar gelato Dean Muhammad Akbar, the famous Akbar came to power and then in 1580s, Kashmir was taken by him to remain in Muslim hands for the next 300 years. So Kashmir was ruled thenceforth for 300 years, once the Mughals had taken Kashmir for Muslims again. So this happened in the 1580s when jelibean Muhammad Akbar had sent his armies and coins in his name were minted

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in the city of Srinagar, I have some of those coins in my possession from my personal collection, where Muhammad uppers coins were minted in Srinagar in the City of Sydney never. Right. So thenceforth Mughal emperors continue to govern Kashmir

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effectively and these emperors loved the territory of Kashmir. It was paradise on earth for them. And no doubt Kashmir, the territory we're talking about is mountainous. It is absolutely beautiful. Anyone who has been to any parts of Kashmir because Kashmir has a lot of variety of landscape. You will if not forget Switzerland, you will do a comparison between Kashmir and Switzerland. This is our beautiful Kashmir is you know people talk about natural beauty in Switzerland. We will talk about Highlands in Scotland, we will talk about North Wales, Kashmir is no less light. When you look at the natural beauty in Kashmir. And the wildlife as well is very very rich. People hardly know

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about the virtues of Kashmir how beautiful and how healthy a territory it is. So the Mughal emperors, when he would get get to them, they would simply pack the bags and they would make their way to Kashmir. It would take them a year to get there because mobile entourage. You know the mobile caravan was a moving city. So Emperor Jang Yi was very fond of Kashmir, so was Shah Jahan, and other rulers as well. Of course, orange there was a lot busier than the previous emperors because he had opened many, many fronts for himself. So he, you know, didn't enjoy Kashmir as much. But the previous emperors were very much involved in Kashmir Kashmir remained a Muslim territory throughout

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the Mughal period. It remained a Muslim territory, and Mughal governors were appointed in Kashmir and in this period, Kashmir became a pioneer of many, many artistic

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How can I put it trades? artistic

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excellence, when it comes to, you know, artwork, in calligraphy, for example,

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shows Kashmir shawls are very, very, very popular even later on during the British period, these shows would be brought to Britain. And during the Victorian period, the British people loved these shows that came from Kashmir, you know, this cloth called Kashmir, have you heard of it? Even today, even if you go to one of these big shops to buy clothes or designer clothes, they have this type of substance of this fabric they call it cashmere. This is where the word comes from, by the way, it's from Kashmir. Right. So Kashmiris, they pioneered production of shawls, they have pioneered

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decoration of manuscripts, if you collect manuscripts, if you look at books, some of the best

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artwork came from Persia. Persian artwork was beautiful Persian calligraphy was beautiful. And Hirata, which is currently Afghanistan. manuscript production from Iraq was beautiful and Kashmir was also on top when these locations were people who would,

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you know, decorate Islamic manuscripts with gold illumination. So if you go on Google, this is your homework and type Kashmiri Quran manuscript.

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This type in Google Kashmiri Quran manuscript, you will see some wonderful artwork from the Mughal period and beyond. So you will be blown away by the beauty of art you will see so Kashmiris became excellent expert

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artisans in many, many different fields, you know whether it's fabric whether it is construct,

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construct construction of palaces and mosques, and unfortunately tombs as well, and other things and they were writing books, book production is very, very popular. You will see many, many Islamic manuscripts written in Kashmir, Kashmir during this Muslim period right. So, Kashmir

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very, very, very fast. During the Mughal period, you can call it the golden age of Kashmir. The Mughal period was generally the golden age in India, although hindutva goals and thugs will deny that, you know, so called hindutva historians you will see on Indian news channels, some of them you laugh at them, when you when they open their mouth, you think, who gave them the master or the PhD, first of all, and how did they even manage to get it these people, one guy recently had the audacity to come on TV and say the Taj Mahal was built by the Hindus. It is a Hindu shrine. Okay.

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It's unbelievable, the kinds of things people are coming up with you know, so, these hindutva activists, they are the ones who will deny things like this, but during the Mughal period, generally speaking, India, especially the peak period during the reign of Jahangir, it started with Akbar, but during the reign of jagi, shajahan and Aurangzeb, India was the most powerful when I say India, I mean the Indian subcontinent, I don't mean current day India, right, I mean, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka put together okay, all of this was India. Today, India is of course, is a country with borders with defined borders. But during the Mughal period, India meant all of

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this land. So, the Indian subcontinent was the the most powerful territory in the world economically, militarily,

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in some cases educationally, intellectually, there was a lot happening happening in India.

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A lot of atheistic and you know, these hindutva goons,

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they claim that what happened during the Mughal period What did the Mughals do for India.

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So, if you pick up serious histories written by a serious historian, Western and otherwise, you will see that this was the most prosperous period in the history of India, not only Kashmir, Kashmir, of course, was a beneficiary as a territory, but generally speaking, this period was the most prosperous period in Indian history when productions,

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trade, military technology,

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schools, colleges, Modarres, religious institutions, even Hindus prospered.

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You know, they call it the renaissance of the Sanskrit language. The reign of Sha john and orange is a Sanskrit language it took off. More literature was produced during this period than ever before, in Sanskrit language. There is a historian called Audrey Trask, he has written a book on this very topic, culture of

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I forgotten the name of the book.

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The subtitle is Sanskrit at the Mughal court Sanskrit at the Mughal court by old read trashed culture of encounters. Culture of encounters Sanskrit at the Mughal court, she talks about it in her book.

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And because she is writing history, not favoring the moguls, not painting the moguls as heroes or angels. She is simply writing history. She does history, because he's simply writing history. She is the biggest villain or one of the biggest villains in India today. She gets pestered every single day, day and night she gets.

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What's the word?

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trolled. She gets trolled by hindutva as if they have a team of hindutva employees just to pester her on Twitter.

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And she's a very strong lady. She has produced a lot of good works on history. And she doesn't favor the model. She doesn't paint the model as if they were Angel. So Kashmir, prosper during the Mughal period benefited immensely from the Mughals and they effective governing after the demise or the death of orange Zeb Alinghi Rahmatullah Lee, who govern for nearly 50 years.

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alum gear

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passed away in 1707.

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After his death, the Mughals couldn't hold on to power. Our exam had created a large domain in India.

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largest territory ever conquered by an immobile King for 95 95% of India came under his rule, he went as far as Tamil Nadu you know, Tamil regions in southern India, and he was fighting the martyrs and he also conquered to Shia dynasties. In the south, he felt threatened by them vijayapura and golkonda because both of these dynasties were threatening orange zaev and his domain

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by using the Persian Emperor as a threat, so, he removed them from power and then he took hold of southern India also. So after his passing away after he died, his children his descendants could not hold on to power because they were not as able or as dedicated or as

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effective as him as rulers. So his son rule for another five years from 1707 to 1712, sha Allah the first he died, and after he died, all hell broke loose in India, okay. You had the Persian invasion of 1739. During the reign of Mohammed Shah, a weak Mughal emperor who spent more time smoking hookah watching dances, and, you know, playing with hawks and hunting, you know, then he governed then he had time to rule. And then later on, it was a disaster. It was a grand catastrophe and the Mughals became a laughingstock. Unfortunately, politically speaking militarily, the Mughals had lost the influence the Sikhs rose in Punjab. In the Punjab region, the Sikhs started to rebel in the Punjab

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region. The Murat has came from central India and they started taking large territory in the north and the Persian Empire, the Persian ruler at the time, another shot of shot he invaded India from Persia, because allegedly he was influenced or encouraged by some of the Indian nobles to invade India because of sectarian divide because there was some local door Shia in India and Mughals were Sunni, predominantly, right. So, some Shia nobles from India invited

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the Persian king to invade India, this is the time this is the time to strike. This is the weakest period in the Mughal history. So billions of pounds worth in jewelry, manuscripts, furniture, pottery, you name it, Delhi was a center of civilization. Okay, for almost 500 years, no one could look at Delhi, let alone touch it. I will repeat politically militarily. Okay, the daily the city of Delhi from the year 1200. Remember the year 1200 in your minds, right from the year 1200 to 1700 500 years, no one could even look at the holy or think of daily, let alone touch it or invade it. But unfortunately, that robe or that

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powerhouse was compromised in the latter, or sorry, the latter part of the first half of the 18th century. When the Persian ruler Nadia Shah invaded in 1739 and it devastated the city of Delhi. This is when Kohinoor the famous diamond was lost to the Persians.

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The Mughal throne the peacock throne, the famous peacock throne was broken up it was taken by the Persians and the Mughals lost their power. Obviously that would affect Kashmir as well as a territory because Kashmir was Mughal territory.

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So subsequent emperors continued to rule Kashmir and nominally at least in name

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and some rulers or governors, they announced the independence so many different dynasties were born due to the Mughal weakness at center. So you had the Murata as the Sikhs and then his arm of Hyderabad, his arm as of Jah. He announced his independence because he had no choice because the center was weak. There was no powerful general or ruler to bring everyone together. Right. Now, GORANI is coming to seen the Ronnie's were

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rulers who came from avani Stan their head or the founder was

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mucha abdali. I'ma job daddy was a soldier in the Persian army when nada Shah invaded

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India Hindustan at that time in 1739.

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I'm a child with a young man at the time. Right? And don't forget the pashtoon tribes in this region in the tribal regions of Pakistan and bordering areas of Afghanistan, or wherever the pustules exist in Afghanistan. What are the famous occupation of the stones at that time was to become mercenaries to offer the military services to anyone who paid okay, but at the same time for stones were Muslims, Sunni Muslims. And they had a hero for Islam as well. At times, they did fight for Hindus. They did fight for Sikhs. They fight fought for other moguls, they fought for Mughals, Mughals would take their services. So these are stone soldiers from the time you will see them walking around in

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the market markets of India offering the services as gods. Okay. A lot of people will argue nothing much has changed even today, you know, most jockey does most gods in Pakistan, yet they are pustules because the tough people, you will see most gods. I'm not saying the stones are only for that work, because our prime minister in Pakistan is a stone as well. You know, Imran Khan is over stone, right? So a lot of people they think are stones or that kind of hard work, you know, hard labor, but this is what they were known for. They were they were a martial race. Right. They were good in military. So Amma Cha, he was a stone

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who was serving nada Shah, but then he separated himself after nada Shah was killed in his tent in 1747. In 1747, Naga Shah, the ruler of Persia was killed in his tent, and Ahmed Shah, who had become very close to now the Shah. By then he occupied or somehow got his hands on the treasure. He basically he was able to capture the treasure of knowledge. Now there are parts of it at least, and because of that treasure, he was able to raise an army of his own. Cut the long story short, he announced his independence, and he became the ruler of Afghanistan.

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He became the ruler of Atlantic Stan and his capital was Kandahar. He ruled much of avant istan if you look at his coins, his coins were minted at cobble his coins. Actually he even ruled parts of Persia, even parts of Iran were ruled by him. You will find coins of amateur of Dali minted and much.

00:37:34--> 00:37:38

Much had a mocha Deus, which is a holy city for the Shia.

00:37:39--> 00:37:52

I have a child with a Sunni his coins were minted at Mashhad in my head, I have them in my possession, by the way, in case you're thinking I'm making these things up here. So I'm a child ruled a large territory, and he invaded India

00:37:54--> 00:38:09

many times for the same reason, to gain wealth to take advantage of the weak situation where he was a king. Kings are usually scavengers, you know, they they go into other territories when they want to get rich, they want to get wealth, but one time

00:38:12--> 00:38:15

he did something great for the Muslims.

00:38:16--> 00:38:34

And what was that to break the back of the rising Murata power I'm coming to Kashmir by the way in case you think I've gone into another history now the history of di history of the Ronnie's is being told. Now, the Ron is directly relevant to Kashmir. That's why I'm just giving you a very quick background to that. So

00:38:35--> 00:39:20

when India was invaded by the Persians in 1739, the situation of Daly was made very weak. Now the mahratta are invading. Murat has captured the city of Delhi. So Murat has from central India, they started to come to the north and they were devastating villages towns cities burning, pillaging, raping, you know, they were the most devastating force in the history of India, by the way, okay, today nowadays, bollywood, bollywood glorifies them as heroes as angels as some sort of heavenly heavenly divine beings who landed from the heavens, and they made India a beacon of light and civilization. In fact, to the contrary, the martyrs are the most devastating, dangerous, deadly

00:39:20--> 00:39:59

force India ever witness witnessed for Hindus, for Sikhs, for Christians, and for Muslims for everyone. They didn't care. They didn't care, the red pillaged destroyed with impunity without mercy. This is what the martyrs were doing. Right? When you watch bollywood movies, you are shown a completely distorted version of the martyrs. For example, in the movie called panipat, which is what I'm going to talk about the Battle of panipat, the third Battle of honeypot in 1761. Why did it take place because the mirages were coming to the north, whenever they felt felt like pillaging and they were

00:40:00--> 00:40:28

A lot of money or something, they would come and they would charge a jolt job is basically 1/4 of the wealth or the income of the people. So, if you have a harvest, they will take 25% of it they were very, very, very harsh with people. They went as far as Bengali they came in to Punjab, they even occupied Lahore, they went as far as attack Pakistan, near the shower, the Murata took attack right. So,

00:40:29--> 00:40:39

to deal with them, amateur was invited by the Muslims of India, in particular Chava EULA was a scholar in Delhi, he is given credit for this.

00:40:40--> 00:41:12

This is another history. I will stop here and I will address the backlog party part and the Ronnie's in eliciting, but now I will move on to the issue of Kashmir. How Durrani is irrelevant to Kashmir. So amature defeated the Murata has in this battle which took place in 1761 near Delhi in a place called Bonnie but and the Murat has a broken, destroyed decimated for the next 20 years the Murata has not returned to pass to the northern people of northern India.

00:41:13--> 00:41:42

When Amma cha had defeated the morass, naturally, his domain had increased within India, so he occupied Kashmir as well. The neuron is occupied Kashmir, so amateurs coins were minted in Kashmir, Kashmiri territory from moguls, it was shifted into the hands of the Ronnies. So the Ronnie's were very, very harsh on the Hindu population of Kashmir, no doubt, they imposed heavy taxes. And

00:41:44--> 00:41:45

this caused a lot of resentment

00:41:46--> 00:42:39

within the Hindu population, the majority of the people in Kashmir by now by the duranie period, close to 80% like they are today. I mean, the ratio survives to this day amazingly 70 to 80% of the population of Kashmir, occupied Kashmir, to this day is Muslim. The majority of the Kashmiri people are Muslims, right 20 to 25% are Hindu, mostly Brahmins, Hindu pundits, they are called and they have lived together with a Muslim since then. So the Quran is came to power and Iran is ruled for the next three generations effectively, amateur after him came his son de Lucia, in whose name coins were minted in Kashmir, again Kashmir, loosely speaking territory between the dark and parts of

00:42:39--> 00:43:25

northern India is a huge territory, it's a huge turn in Jammu and Kashmir both territory Jammu was of course, at that times seen as separate later on, it was united with Kashmir, why I will be discussing that inshallah. So, the Ronnie's ruled for three generations. And then in the 19th century, due to the weakness in the Durrani ruling system, because it was a tribal type of system, you know, because bronies were tribal protons by stones, right. So they are ruled by the tribal system. So amateur died is Sunday, Moshe came to power he was able to keep them united. But after the Moose Jaw died, his sons fought, and different tribes supported different sons. So there was

00:43:25--> 00:43:59

Shazam. And there was Moo cha. And there were other children of amateur who were involved. And they all wanted a piece of the pie, right. And that caused the weakening of power at the center, right. So Kashmir was compromised. at this same time now, we are moving very close to the current conflict and why it was caused and how did we get here? How did we even get here where they were Kashmir is today where the situation is today.

00:44:04--> 00:44:06

In 1819,

00:44:07--> 00:44:34

a Sikh ruler who had taken large parts of the Punjab as I mentioned earlier, when Mughals declined, the Sikhs, they started to rise and they started to take large territories. So Punjab, loosely speaking was governed by 10 groups of six. They called the missiles. They call them missiles 10 missiles of the Sikhs governed

00:44:35--> 00:44:59

most of Punjab. And they also call them Jota. Jota means a collection of people. Okay, it's like a jaysh is like a Jason the Arabic language or Alaska 10 lashkars or 10. Military groups of Sikhs ruled Punjab, so a man called Ranjit Singh was born in Gujranwala current de Gujranwala in Pakistan near Lahore

00:45:00--> 00:45:18

This territory was ruled by the Sikhs at the time and cut the long story short he came to power when he was nearly 1920 years old. He took the city of Lahore from one of the Sikh groups that was notoriously cruel. The population appealed to this.

00:45:21--> 00:45:49

This leader of another group, to come and help us so Jeet Singh took Lahore, and when he took Lahore, he became more confident he started to take territory throughout Punjab. He took territory as far as a shower from the shower to Milan, believe it or not, was ruled by Sikhs for nearly 50 years for nearly 50 years. From 1799. To 1839, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ruled territory from the shower to Milan

00:45:50--> 00:46:42

and Kashmir was also taken in 1819. In 1819, Kashmir was taken from the Iranians because the raw Ronnie's by now were wavering and very, very unfortunate for the Ronnie's two of the Grand sons of amateur Dali took refuge with Ranjit Singh in Lahore and he brutalized them. He treated them very badly. He imprisoned them. They were under house arrest, they couldn't leave. And Raj Singh was told that the dharani family the royal family has the Kohinoor diamond. He was a very greedy ruler. Most rulers are greedy, no doubt, okay, but he was excessively greedy Maharaja Ranjit Singh, he wanted the Kohinoor in his Treasury, so he forced the Iranian royal family. He searched the apartments,

00:46:42--> 00:46:52

they private chambers where women were, the Sikh soldiers went in there and they searched the whole house or wherever the family was kept in Lahore.

00:46:53--> 00:47:46

And they found the Kohinoor Okay, so the Ronnie's were themselves taking refuge with the Sikhs at the time from Rajahmundry Singh took advantage conquered the territory of Kashmir even though the majority of the population was Muslim. So he appointed governors after governors and after the first Anglo may Sue sorry, Anglo Sikh war, which took place in 1846 1846. After Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839. His son's could not hold on to power they were killed one after another, okay. And in 1846, the British decided that they will annex Punjab Punjab is a rich territory, the land of five rivers very, very fertile, only second to Bihar, Orissa in Bengal. So Punjab must be taken as a breadbasket

00:47:46--> 00:48:06

for the Empire. For the British Raj and its survival. The Punjab is absolutely must we have to take it by hook or by crook, and Sikhs were very much trained by now. They were organized as a military. So it was not an easy task to take the territory of Punjab from the Sikhs. So the Sikhs were defeated in this battle.

00:48:09--> 00:48:52

called the first Anglo Sikh war. There were two. There was another one later on, two to three years later, but this was the first 118 46 and as a result of this battle the British they signed the treaty with the Raja of Jammu who was a Hindu Dogra. These people were called dog Ross. Okay the caste or the nation was called Dogra, the Dogra Rogers of Jammu who were active at the court of reducing they were vessels of reducing now because when do you think is gone is dead and the situation looks grim. So the Raja of jumbo gulab Singh bought bought having paid money,

00:48:53--> 00:49:41

7 million rupees. Today 7 million rupees is nothing soccer locker PR right is nothing you can't even buy a plot in Islamic law there are already with her kind of money, right? Right. But that that time 70 million rupees was a lot of money, a lot of money. So the British sold the territory of Kashmir not Jammu, the territory of larger Kashmir to Maharaja gulab Singh, the Dogra family, right. And they were Hindus, and they were very active in the court of Ranjit Singh. In fact, they were involved in many, many court intrigues as well. So now, Kashmir was given to a Hindu Raja to rule from six from the Ronnie's it was, it came under the Sikhs from Sikhs. It came under the Dogra

00:49:41--> 00:49:59

family and then the dog grass. They started to oppress the Muslim population severely because they felt threatened by the Muslims of Kashmir because they were the majority and the duggars were Hindu who were ruling a large Muslim territory. So to

00:50:00--> 00:50:42

Do away with the threat, they started to impose heavy taxes upon the Muslims to keep them poor, to keep them subdued, to keep the miskeen so that they don't rise. They don't even think of rising. They are so worried about the stomachs and the kitchen and the food. They don't even think of rising. So the Muslims are systematically marginalized politically educationally on all fronts by the dog grass, they oppressed the Muslim masses. Fast forward to the British period. Now, the duggars by extension because the treaty was struck between the duggars and the British after the Sikhs had been defeated, so that that territory was given to the dog grass. Maharajah collapsing. So

00:50:42--> 00:50:43


00:50:44--> 00:51:19

the dog grass effectively became vessels of the British, the British were now basically the overruling power, you know, the British were supervising the dog, the dog has had their semi independence with his with him Kashmir and Jammu. So this state became the state of Jammu and Kashmir, the state of Jammu and Kashmir ruled by a Hindu family. So the British were obviously supervising the dog Ross and the dog grass were allies. And during the mutiny of 1857, when the Indian

00:51:20--> 00:51:46

soldiers within the British Army, they rose in rebellion and the mutinied and the British almost lost their power. It has also called Jenga, Azadi, the War of Independence 1857, or from the British perspective at that time, it was called the Indian mutiny. It's also called a rather rather means rebellion, basically, right. It was a huge rebellion, which almost completely

00:51:48--> 00:51:57

diminished. The British Raj. You know, they were Hindu soldiers and they were Muslims. And all of them, they united under

00:51:58--> 00:52:02

all be weak leadership of

00:52:03--> 00:52:29

boggle shall suffer the last nominal Mughal Emperor, who was only a nominal Emperor. By then he was just a puppet receiving a stipend monthly stipend by the British by them because the British had occupied the city of Delhi in 1803, having defeated the Morales because the Murata has had the city before the British came to power and the Muslims thanked Allah that the British came to power and the Murat has gone because there was so impressive. So,

00:52:31--> 00:52:35

long story short the British had given

00:52:36--> 00:53:17

the territory of Jammu and Kashmir to this family and when, in 1947, the time for partition came one of the grand, great grandchildren of Maharaja gulab Singh who initially took the land of Kashmir from the British. He was ruling his name was hurry sink. Hari Singh was ruling the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, albeit as a vessel of the British, he was very close to the British. And at that time, Gina, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, engaged him and advised him to surrender Kashmir to Pakistan. Now, we are coming to the current conflict, how we ended up in this situation today.

00:53:19--> 00:53:30

So he advised Maharaja Hari Singh Dogra to surrender Kashmir to Pakistan, because the population is 70% Muslim.

00:53:31--> 00:53:39

It only makes sense for Kashmir to come to Pakistan, because Pakistan is for Muslims. And the rest of India is

00:53:40--> 00:53:43

technically for Hindus, and others.

00:53:44--> 00:53:54

So he was not too sure. He was in two minds, and he wanted to wait and see what happens. Because India

00:53:55--> 00:54:09

had his independence on the 15th of August 1947, or the independence was announced then, and Pakistan announced its independence for the British rule after a rule of nearly

00:54:12--> 00:54:13

almost 300 years.

00:54:16--> 00:54:30

And then, a lot of princely states semi independent princely states were one after another annexed by either Pakistan or India for example, in India, the state of Hyderabad was a Muslim state ruled by

00:54:32--> 00:54:44

the family are the children of Islam, right. That state was annexed by India, Sardar Patel, he sent his armies and the military of Hyderabad was defeated. He was the richest man in the world.

00:54:45--> 00:54:59

In his arm of man, he was the richest man in the world and all that Treasury came to India. Likewise, the state of Baja will pour in Pakistan was eventually annexed by Pakistan. So the state of Kashmir was a similar similar prints

00:55:00--> 00:55:18

These days semi semi independent, Jenna engaged, and it was very likely that harrassing would have agreed. But our rebellion started in Kashmir. Muslims started to fight some stones from the tribal areas of Pakistan. They ended up in Kashmir and they fought.

00:55:20--> 00:55:21

And when they fought

00:55:22--> 00:55:50

harrassing he started to fear for his position. He didn't want to lose the territory to these persoon tribes or a mixture of fighters coming from a Pakistani different Pakistani terrorists even some Punjabi were there. So, a lot of Muslim volunteers. They ended up in Kashmir fighting the dog Ross, dogs are hated anyway by the population. So hurry Singh felt pressured. So he quickly in a hurry, hurry sing in a very, very hurry. You know, he signed a treaty

00:55:53--> 00:55:53


00:55:55--> 00:56:08

who was the ruler of India at the time, narrow, Jawaharlal Nehru, who was who became the ruler of India. So Mountbatten agreed with this

00:56:10--> 00:57:01

idea, and Kashmir was basically given against the wishes of the people of Kashmir to India. So, some territory was taken from the dole grass, which is today called Azad Kashmir. So your mere pour your Allah code, your Muzaffarabad was basically Dogra territory before the partition. It was taken by volunteers. A lot of this territory, which is current day Kashmir in Pakistan or the independent Kashmir, Azad Kashmir was Dogra territory, and it was taken by the volunteers. So you can say the third of Kashmir was taken at that time. And the third of Kashmir belongs to Pakistan. The rest, two thirds you can say or more than half the territory is occupied by India against the wishes of the

00:57:01--> 00:57:50

people. So the Kashmiri territory was given a special state status due to his controversial circumstances. United Nations got involved in 1948 and 1949. A lot of discussions took place. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, he said we will do a referendum and let the Kashmiri people decide. But the volunteers have to leave the territory they have occupied, but the volunteers and Pakistan was refusing why because what is the guarantee that once they leave, this territory will be also occupied. So let's do a referendum without so this back and forth of ideas, this back and forth of argumentation, it wasted a lot of time and Pakistan and India had three wars due to occupied

00:57:50--> 00:57:54

Kashmir. The first war was in 1965.

00:57:56--> 00:58:31

In Nigeria, in 1962, China invaded Ladakh, and took a large territory in the dark and China was encouraging Pakistan to do the same invade Kashmir and we can together take this land, India is pressed against the wall. China was fighting India already in 1962. So China advised Pakistan to do it and Pakistani leadership decided not to do it, but the war still went ahead three years later in 80. So in 1965, there was a war between India and Pakistan. And then there was another war in 1971. As a result,

00:58:32--> 00:59:03

Ben Gaul which was East Pakistan, currently Pakistan was called West Pakistan and Bengal of Bangladesh was called East Pakistan. Although this divide between the two parts of the same country was not advised ideal situation because between Bangladesh and Pakistan or currently Pakistan, there is India. Right? And it was going to happen eventually.

00:59:04--> 00:59:50

Okay, sooner or later, this divide would have taken place, this breaking apart would have taken place, but India took advantage of some of the community issues going on between the Bengalis and the West Pakistanis because West Pakistanis were seemed to be discriminating against or that was the perception in Bengal at the time in Bengal people and some politicians, of course took advantage of that sentiment in Bengal or Bangladesh, currently Bangladesh, and they aroused the sentiments of the Bengali people that West Pakistan discriminates against you, politically you are marginalized and you will not get your way. So break apart. So, a movement was started in 1971. India took advantage

00:59:50--> 01:00:00

of that movement and Bangladesh broke away from West Pakistan. So West Pakistan became Pakistan and East Pakistan.

01:00:00--> 01:00:43

band became Bangladesh as a result of 1971 war. Another war took place in 1999, where Pakistani military had captured a very strategic point in a place called Cargill, very, very close to a dark territory. And it would have been a successful as far as the Pakistani military was concerned, it wouldn't it would have been a successful venture, but it was fought by the politicians at the time, and they had to leave territory, they had to basically leave that territory and as a result, many many casualties occurred. Many people were killed from both sides, okay. Pakistan, of course, took a heavy losses as

01:00:45--> 01:00:50

the retreat was taking place. So, Pakistan and India

01:00:51--> 01:01:02

are To this day, seen as enemies of each other, they are both nuclear powers. And the reason they are nuclear powers is Kashmir

01:01:03--> 01:01:24

conflict. Sometimes conflict makes nations strong or stronger, right? If you look at human history, you will see that those nations who got involved in conflicts, they started to make fast progress. Look at the Greeks and the Persians. Right. Look at the Romans, For example, later on,

01:01:26--> 01:01:46

look at the Muslim Empire, how Muslims, when they were in conflict with the Persians, and the Romans, they made very, very fast progress. militarily speaking, of course, the Muslims had the Quran, and they were teaching to the Prophet behind to inspire them, but conflict has something to do with it. So the reason why India and Pakistan are nuclear powers is because of Kashmir.

01:01:47--> 01:01:58

They felt the need to build these weapons so that they can defend each other sorry, defend themselves against each other. So,

01:01:59--> 01:02:01

this is the long story short,

01:02:02--> 01:02:19

the history of Kashmir and the current conflict. There are many, many, many more details I could have given. Unfortunately, the time doesn't permit me to do so. This was a very, you can say brief or a short introduction to the history of Kashmir and the current conflict. It is there

01:02:20--> 01:02:45

and Kashmir is occupied. The Indian military is occupying Kashmir against the wishes of the people. The people of Kashmir the occupied Indian side Kashmir I'm talking about not Pakistani side, because there is no occupation there. The people of Madeira bog or the people of millport are the people of Ramallah court or the people of other cities on the Pakistani side, I'm not fighting the military.

01:02:46--> 01:03:28

On the Indian side, the people of Kashmir they hate the Indian military, they hate the Indian politics and they hate the occupation. Why does India need to keep close to a million soldiers in a small or relatively small comparatively speaking territory, why? because they want to maintain this occupation. It is costing hundreds of millions of dollars to the Indian state for keeping the soldiers in this place. Why there is a rule in human history, that if you are not loved by the people, you will never occupy them.

01:03:30--> 01:03:34

Sooner or later your occupation will

01:03:35--> 01:04:03

face defeat, you will have to retreat. You will have to go home you will not be able to occupy unless you make friends with the people unless you treat them justly unless you give them what they want. Look at the Muslims. When Muslims took land between China to Morocco, Muslims are still there to this day. People accepted Islam they were not forced into Islam.

01:04:04--> 01:04:16

They were not the Muslim civilization open door for Christians, for Buddhists, for Hindus. for Jews. The Jews say that their golden age was under the house of Islam.

01:04:17--> 01:04:21

The Jewish golden age was in Al Andalus.

01:04:22--> 01:04:34

Precisely speaking, the best scholars in Jewish history. The best points the best intellectual the best theologians were produced in Spain under the domain of Islam, when Muslims ruling Spain

01:04:36--> 01:04:44

and likewise, other nations and other people. So how is it that Islam still survives from Morocco to China?

01:04:45--> 01:04:48

because Islam, immersed people,

01:04:49--> 01:04:59

even the Mongols who came out to break break Islam and Islamic spirit. Even the Mongols were defeated by Islam, not by the Muslims. No doubt the Hmong

01:05:00--> 01:05:02

rules were a very powerful devastating force.

01:05:03--> 01:05:21

Mongols were unstoppable for some time. But later on they themselves became Muslims, they became the defenders of this faith, the Mongols in many cases. In fact, some claim that the Mughals were direct descendants of Mongols through a mu

01:05:23--> 01:05:27

A mu A mu A mu was ruler, a Central Asian ruler who had some Mongol descent.

01:05:28--> 01:06:14

So, long story short, what India is doing in Kashmir today is going to end sooner or later. You cannot unless you commit a genocide unless you nuke the people of Kashmir and kill them all you can't do that India cannot do that, you cannot sustain an occupation like that, economically, culturally, historically, India and her generals and politicians, not the people, India is a beautiful place. India has some amazing people in it some amazing intellectual scholars, just people, upright people model people in India. So, when I say India, I don't mean the Indian people, I mean those politicians and those generals who are brutally occupying a territory against the

01:06:14--> 01:06:15

wishes of people

01:06:18--> 01:06:28

and this occupation will be lifted sooner or later. So, in 2019, the current government, the BJP government of India,

01:06:29--> 01:06:33

the terrorist extremist and

01:06:34--> 01:07:24

the destructive government of India, which is bent upon breaking India apart into further 10 pieces, you know, because they are messing with the Sikhs. They are upsetting the Muslims. They are upsetting the Christians. They are upsetting almost every Indian, even their own followers now have realized that this is a bunch of terrorists and extremists who have come to power. Some of them are known criminals who have come to power they have made speeches, encouraging their followers to commit a genocide of the Muslims. Right, this government has imposed a lockdown on the Kashmiri people. And since 2019, Kashmiri people have been under this severe lockdown. And we pray that Allah

01:07:24--> 01:07:33

subhanaw taala liberate the people of Kashmir and we pray that the the government of the current government of India, the current government of India,

01:07:35--> 01:07:55

is brought back to senses and this issue is resolved as soon as possible. We want peace for the world, not injustice and destruction. So we ask Allah subhanaw taala to keep this world peaceful and allow the people of Kashmir to live as they wish is a common law kind of listening was Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen