99 Years After The Collapse of the Ottomans
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
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99 years ago, this week in early March of 1922, the Turkish national assembly officially abolished the earth money Khilafah. This is the 99th year this very week in March, the earth money Khilafah had been in existence for over 600 years, and the last Halifa abdulmajeed. The second was forced into exile, and the position of a Khalifa was never reinstated either in Turkey or anywhere else in the world. The halacha had existed since the time of Abu Bakr, Siddiq, radi, Allahu Taala and 630 to see up until 1922, fairly consistently, there were some minor issues here and there, but always the falafel was revived sometimes in multiple locations we had sometimes more than one difficulty for at
one time, but we had the office of the philosopher for around 1300 years. For the last 99 years. There has been no actual Khalifa. In today's brief lecture, I want to do a summary of that particular incident and some of its causes, and especially some of the impacts that happened as a result of the loss of the Khilafah. The Ottoman Empire it reached its pinnacle, its zenith in the 16th century. At the time, the Muslim ummah was the superpower of the entire globe. And why would it not be it had conquered the capital of Eastern Christians from Constantinople, it had converted Constantinople if you know your history, Constantinople and Rome were the two big cities and the
Ottomans had conquered in 1453, Constantinople change it to Istanbul, of course, they're gonna rise from power to power to power, and they laid siege to the city of Vienna, not once, but twice. The Ottoman Empire, the Muslim ummah, without a doubt, was the only global superpower of its time in this face, but it is the Sunnah of Allah subhanho wa taala, that everything rises and falls, except Allah is Al bhakti. Everything else rises and falls. And so the earth money philosopher began its long and slow decline. One small lecture will never explain the causes and the reasons and the political decline, the military declined the economic decline, the internal fragmentation too much
to explain, in one short caught it up. But one thing we should be aware of, there was a lot of internal pressure and external pressure, internal dissent, there were forces inside of the OMA that didn't want to see the Khilafah. Some of them fellow Muslims, okay, we all know what happened with Lawrence of Arabia, and what he wanted to do in some regions to revolt against the Ottomans. And some of them, you know, even within the OMA but they're not doing it from within the Muslim paradigm, a secular paradigm. And there were also external factors, the Allied Forces, the British, the Russians, they had their eyes on the prize. So make a long story short, in the 19th century, the
slow and long decline finally reached its conclusion with the catalyst, the wrong catalysts, the incorrect catalyst of the Ottomans joining the wrong side, in World War One, they joined the side of Germany against the allied forces, and what really hurts us. They didn't need to have gotten involved hindsight 2020 They didn't need to have gotten involved in this war. It was not our war, the Great War, as it was called back then World War One, you could have remained neutral as the Middle East. You didn't have to get involved. For reasons again, beyond the scope of our lecture. The Ottomans did get involved, and they got involved with the wrong side. But see, this was the
catalyst for over 150 years, the decline had already begun. This was just the final catalyst when the OMA when the Khalifa sided with the German side collas. This gave carte blanche authority to the allied forces to England to others to attack directly, the Ottoman lines, which is exactly what they did. They marched into Damascus, they marched into Philistine. They marched into Baghdad, and they marched into Instanbul Constantinople, and they conquered one land after another in perhaps the greatest tragedy since the invasion of Cengiz Han, perhaps the greatest tragedy, actually, really it is the greatest tragedy after the Mongol invasion. It is the greatest tragedy what happened around
World War One with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Now, today's lecture is not about that I've given other lectures about that. We're talking about the end of the Khilafah. Now the defeat of Germany and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire is happening, not out there in a vacuum. Internally, there is a strong movement within
In Turkey, that called themselves, the Young Turks, the Young Turks, you should know this term. The Young Turks were extremely popular amongst the educated elite who wanted to copy Europe, especially France, they loved France. And France, his version of democracy is very different than American version of democracy. France is democracy is anti religion, you know, they have a notion called de Sitter, you should look it up. And the Young Turks were enamored with the French, they loved this notion of separating Dean from politics. So the Young Turks from the 1860s onwards began fomenting a hatred against the philosopher, and they called for a new democratic republic, secular in nature,
Turkish and identity, not Islamic. And they invented this concept of nationalism. And these ideas resonated with many people in these lands that were looking for a change. So with World War One coming to an end with the Allied Forces invading with the Ottoman sofa and essentially having to give up power. This gave the opportunity for another force to rise up. And this was a force of the Young Turks along with a very charismatic general, you know, Mustafa Kemal, known as a torque. Mustafa Kemal was not exactly a part of the Young Turks, but he jumped on the bandwagon. And he had similar visions to them. Mustafa Come on, took on charge of the army make a long story short, and he
expelled the allied forces, he reconquered Turkey, he expelled the allied forces. And initially he did so under the command of the Sultan. But as soon as he gained power, well, then what do military generals do, right? What do people with power do? He realized isn't he doesn't need this hold on. So he created another parliament. Now that he's gotten rid of the British, and he has now control of Turkey. He declares the Republic of Turkey, a new nation state, and he brings in a complete new parliament. And in November of 1922, Mustafa Kemal abolishes the office of the soul pond listen carefully abolishes the office of the Sultan and he makes a nominal Khilafah like the Queen of
England just a figurehead because before this time this will find was in charge before this time this will find is in charge of power in 1922. This is more than 100 years ago. Mustafa Kemal I will not call him a tattoed. I don't consider him the father of the Turks but he is Mustafa. They call him a total Mustafa Kemal abolished the Ottoman Sol THON and he created a shadow puppet, a empty figure like the Queen of England. And he said this is now a Khalifa not the Sultan, and he deposed the actual Sultan. And so upon Muhammad, the six was his name. He deposed the suit on the sofa and fled for his life, first to Malta then to Italy and he died and he chose some random cousin that he
knew he could control that cousin abdulmajeed The second he was a noble man, but he had never had any power. I've been muddied. The second was put in charge for two years, by the way, Abdul Majeed daughter married married who guys go back
then his arm of Hydra, but this is Abdul Majeed daughter, okay. So either Majeed is put as a nominal Khalifa with zero power is just like a figurehead and power is in the Republic. This is 1922. But you see, this person was tougher command. I mean, no, no doubt he is very charismatic, but he's also very cunning. I'm not going to take away from him. He is a leader, but I will say he's an evil leader. Right. And he is long term leader. Look at the stages. He didn't depose the philosopher. He didn't want to take on the entire ummah. He gets rid of the Ottoman sofa on he creates a shadow Khilafah two years. And then in March of 1924 99 years ago, this week, literally March of 1924. He
abolishes the Parliament, the National Turkish parliament, abolishes even the nominal figurehead. Khilafah. And he tells abdulmajeed You and your family get out of here with nothing. And so they fled and I gave their story in another, you know, hotter. But of course, this is just the beginning of his reforms, quote unquote. Eventually he's going to abolish all of this
Dr. Cortes, eventually he's gonna ban the Arabic language. He's going to change the script of the Turkish language from Arabic into Latin, which is what it is. Now. He shuts down all of the madrassas, he bans hijab, it is illegal to wear the hijab. And the first cap, you know that fez cap, right? This was the symbol of the Ummah at the time.
The symbol of the OMA, it was common in Indian Pakistan, there was no Pakistan, it was common in India, it was common in Egypt, it was common across the globe as the symbol of the OMA. He bands, the wearing of the fez for the men and the hijab for the women. He says the Adnan must be called in the Turkish language. You do not say Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, you translate into Turkish by the way, and YouTube there is a video from the 1930s of the Turkish a then put it in Turkish Adan and you will hear really sad your heart breaks. You know, somebody's trying to say the Yvonne and Turkish according to the melodies of the Athan, because I told band, the Advan in Arabic, he wanted
to ban the Quran in Arabic, but there Allah ma, at least managed to preserve that one aspect. And He abolished all of the Sharia courts and he made turkey into a modern day France, he made turkey into you know, that type of secular Republic. So this is clearly an enemy to Allah and His messenger. And of course, as we said, as part of all of this, his goal clearly was to abolish the philosopher. So he first abolished the assault on it, and then He abolished the philosopher in 1922. Now, what are some of the effects of the abolishment of the Khilafah? Again, much can be said this is a brief quarter after Isha. So please, brothers and sisters, this isn't a PhD dissertation. Every time I
give a talk like this, look at some of the comments. You forgot this. You didn't mention this, my dear brothers, I'm just preaching generic after Isha. Of course, I can go much more, but cut me some slack. I mean, the point is to raise public awareness, you know, and just to start reading more and more, if you look at some of the comments, you're like, brother, I only have 20 minutes, how much can I cover? But anyway, I'm going to summarize in the rest of the 10 minutes, I have seven immediate effects of the abolishment of the Khilafah seven immediate consequences that we still feel to this day, the first effect
the concept of the Ummah, becomes weak, and the concept of the nation state becomes prevalent.
It is difficult for me to impress upon you the reality that we as Muslims didn't understand nation states 100 years ago, really, it's difficult. I am Pakistani, he is Bengali, he is Egyptian he is Lebanese, he is Syrian hit this notion of these arbitrary nation states. We didn't understand them. We didn't understand languages, ethnicities, cultures, but we understood OMA and we understood within the OMA Yes, this person speaks Hindi or Urdu, this person speaks Arabic, this person speaks Turkish, no problem. We're all one broad family with cousins and uncles and aunts, no problem. But we didn't have this concept of passport of these arbitrary divisions, World War One, and the
collapse of the Ottoman Empire. And the carving up of the OMA by the Western countries is what created these nation states, the site's pico agreement, and the Treaty of Lausanne and all of these treaties post World War One, all of these divisions are not coming from within the OMA. They are coming from negotiations taking place in Paris, in Berlin, in London, these divisions that we now pride about our national flags are on them, right? Frankly, even the Division of Indian Pakistan who actually did it, who actually put those lines, it wasn't us it was the Brits arguing amongst themselves with the map in front of them. So number one, the rise of the nation states and the
creation of artificial divisions, and these drawing of imaginary lines that are supposed to divide us segregate us make us hate one another because our mothers happen to be on one side of the line when we were born and that mother was on the other side. So we're two different nation states. This as a consequence of the of the collapse of the Khilafah. Obviously, number two is a logical reality to this. When you have the nation state, the nation state must teach you a new ideology, that ideology is nationalism, that ideology is false patriotism. Now, there is something called generic patriotism. I want good for my people, no problem. But to believe my people my
I recall my nation state is the best. And the other nation state is the worst Wallahi it's so childish. Think about it right? Every nation state thinks this is we are the best based on what? So nationalism began creeping into the OMA. And you have to realize brothers and sisters, nationalism serves the purpose of the governments, you have to understand this point. It is useful for the governments that you have a false understanding of nationalism. It's good to have healthy
patriotism, you get my point here, we want good for our home, we weren't good for our people. But the minute you start looking down at other people, because they carry a different passport, the minute you think your nation state is the best in the world simply because, you know, you happen to be in it, because really, that's what it is, you are getting into problematic areas. So the rise of nationalism, and this became extremely common footnote here, really deep point. I hope I don't get in trouble for saying this. But a manifestation of this is the federal Salini cause.
Look at philosophy resistance in the 60s and 70s. It was purely nationalistic groups like the PLO and Fatah and whatnot, there was no uma notion, they realize this is going to fail, they realize it's not going to work hamdulillah they woke up and they connected to the broader ummah. So now, the fettucini cause has become OMA based, you see the difference between the two, right? But throughout the 60s and 70s, who was fighting on behalf of this one nation, primarily, it was those who are only interested in the nationalistic cause. And that's not going to go very far. And it has problems from within. Okay, so this is a second reality to the collapse of the philosopher. A third reality to the
collapse of the Khilafah is, of course, the decline of a power base for the OMA, you know, I mean, I'm not somebody to wax romantic about the past. But there's no question in my mind to have a power base based upon our values to have a region that the Islamic ethos is manifested. Of course, it's bet is good. Of course, it's positive. This is gone with the collapse of the philosopher. I'm being very honest here. It's not that the club has solved all the problems. It's not that the Khilafah was all glorious. We had many negative times many bad Hola. Many, many wrong things. But overall, is it better to have a society based upon the values of the *ty out? Yes. Is it not healthy to have
some base that they own McCann turn to a times of need? Yes. Well, obviously, this is now gone. And point number four then, with the collapse of the Khilafah. We had a flurry of intellectual movements of Lonnie Of course, while he does have clapper still live in upon is a contested figure. I'm not praising I'm not criticizing, I'm just saying somebody like him. I'm doing of course has achieved through the in particular, the rise of movements that are based to bring about the clapper back. And again, I'm just being factual for this talk. I'm being academic. I'm not endorsing. I'm not criticizing the Muslim Brotherhood, Jamaat e Islami his buta Hadid, all of these Islamist movements,
right, call them whatever you want to call them. Their goal is power based upon the values of Islam, and perhaps the revival of the philosopher. Now, these movements, why did they come about? Because the philosopher collapsed? If the financial hadn't collapsed, there will be no need for these movements. Right. So the collapse of the Khilafah brought about a type of intellectual, you know, rethinking, again, for today's purpose, I'm not taking sides, I'm just telling you, whether you like them, or whether you don't like them, they saw a problem. And they attempted to solve it in a way, effects are still around to this day, the largest religious based parties in the world today, are
the parties that started at the results as a result of the decline of the philosopher. Do you understand what I'm saying here? The largest global religious movements beyond just Muslims, the largest faith based political organizations in the world are organizations that are still around, but were founded when and how, because of the collapse of the Khilafah. You get my point here, right, and you are a sandwich organizations I'm talking about, again, for the purposes of today's lecture, I'm just being factual. I have lots of ideas and views about them. But I'm just telling you, this is a result of the collapse of the Khilafah. You now have entire movements dedicated to
the revival of the Khilafah. You have entire organizations whose goal in more than 40 countries is to bring about a return to the soft power or maybe even hard power or maybe even soft movements militarily. They're doing it right an entire spectrum.
From we find, and again, I'm being factual all that disclaimer, I'm just telling you like it is, this is the reality, because there is no paid offer different thinkers have different stances, should we prioritize? Should we make it the number one priority? Or should we work with status quo and have soft power? Or should we ignore the philosopher and just do the sphere to be, which is what one should have said? Or should we just go back to Vicodin, whatever. So people have different responses to the collapse of the philosopher. And no doubt one large strand attempted to revive power from within or even from without the sixth effect, which I have spoken about many times, is,
of course, the rise of the
Palestinian conflict and issue because there was no power base, because the British invaded Philistine and were able to take it away from the Ottomans, what happened there happened there, a new state was created. And all of the drama, all of the problems, all of the issues happen because the British invaded Ottoman lands, because of the collapse of the Khilafah. They took over fell asleep, they carved it out, they gave it over to European people have a certain background, and the rest, as they say is history. This is a direct concepts, consequence of the collapse of the philosopher and the rise of this entire conflict. And the final point, really interesting,
especially for those of us who have a DC background, the rise sorry, the collapse of the philosopher in Ottoman lands, brought about the rise of the Khilafah movement in Indian lands. The collapse of the Khilafah in Turkey, sparked something that all of you Indian Pakistani Bengalis know the Khilafat movement, the Khilafah movement, so called because they wanted to revive the Khilafah, the Salafi movement, so called because they were interested in protecting the philosopher. It gained widespread acceptance amongst Indian Muslims. And they in fact, began to rally up support for the Ottoman Khalifa, even though ironically, there were subjects of England who was the enemy of the
Ottomans. This was an awkward balance, right? The British were controlling India, technically, Indian Muslims were supposed to side with England against the Ottomans. Some of them did, by the way. But by and large, the Indian Muslims have Hamdulillah, I will say with pride, they did not abandon the Khilafah. And, in fact, they attempted to revive the Khilafah, they sent letters to the socon. Before 1924, they sent money, they sent aid trying to revive the Khilafah. But of course, all of their efforts were not able to stop the Khilafah, of course, did cease to exist in 1924. And so the Khilafah movement in India, then helped spark a local resurrection. If you like insurrection
against the British, it sparked a sentiment of political independence upon Indian Muslims that eventually led to the creation of the All India Muslim League, which eventually led to the creation of
So we can factually states, the creation of Pakistan is directly and causally linked to the collapse of the Ottoman philosopher, frankly, because it was his direct series of events that led from the collapse. Not that I'm saying it's a positive thing because of the collapsing sometimes a positive thing happens from a negative thing, right? Literally the real effort movement, which is of course, you know, the show could brothers, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, all of them, they're all members of this, the Hannaford movement led the way to the creation of Pakistan. And that movement was sparked by the collapse of the Ottoman Khilafah SubhanAllah. An interesting quirk if you like, was that the first
and only nation state created in the name of the religion was in fact the direct consequence of the collapse of the Ottoman Khilafah. Bottom line 99 years ago, one of the most momentous and important momentous meaning of significance, I don't mean in a positive manner, things or incidents are crude on our ummah. It is important imperative that we all study it, we're all aware of it, and different ways to interpret why how consequences but nobody can deny that would happen 99 years ago, still has consequences to our lives today. It's literally shaping directly our lives as we speak. Now, the fact of the matter is, we would not be here we would not be doing what we're doing. We would not be
seeing the types of things we're seeing if that hadn't happened. And Allah azza wa jal always has Hickman what he does our job
was to make the best of every situation we're in. We ask Allah subhana wa Tada to allow us to be instruments of clear and good. We ask Allah subhanaw taala to allow us to see a day where there is and glory in this ummah and we ask Allah to allow us to be instruments to bring about that reason, Glory until next time, just like Kamala Harris and I'm running from rahmatullah wa barakato
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