Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 50
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 40.59MB
Let's do with the smaller 100 Ema and the mean or salatu salam ala Ashraful MBO almost saline and be offered what Tina Mohamed Allah here for sought out as Qatar slim Allahumma Island that'd be million foreign oil and fat that'd be my island Anna was in there and then the other banana Amin Soleimani coming off to live with the cattle everybody Welcome to the Getting classical Arabic Saturday morning. Let's do it.
So, we have an exercise that had us recall that we were focusing on feminine forms, okay. So we have feminine forms of nouns, right at the time of buta and we have feminine forms of verbs with time off to her.
And we have feminine forms with possessive pronouns. Okay, so this is kind of what this lesson is trying to bring it all together. So when it comes to a smack, when it comes to names or nouns, we have balibo tune, right modal Risa tune Mohan DISA tune, Bobby Batroun, right the Tamar Bucha is the sign of it being feminine. When we have verbs, we just learned. We have Isla, if we want to make it third person, singular feminine that I let that had that cat had that Raka. That's right, all these sorts of things. It all is coming back to the TA nuff to her.
And finally, we have possessive pronouns. Okay, so when it comes to the possessive pronoun for you translate it as your it's going to be key, right instead of cat. When it comes to her instead of his it's going to be ha. And those are the only feminine possessive pronouns that we've learned so far. And that'll do us for now.
So, what we're going to do here,
check the example, from the instructions change the pronoun meaning the possessive pronoun in the following sentences to feminine, as demonstrated in the example Aina color Mocha, yeah, Abby, we are speaking to a man. And so the, that masculine person is going to possess the pen, which makes it Aina call mo care. Care, instead of
instead of key, right? Now what they want to do, they're going to spot you, the feminine person and all you have to do is change the question to reflect the feminine pronoun so instead of Aina on omocha now it's Aina called Mo, Ke.
Yeah, on me.
Right. So all of these Yeah, it'd be Yeah, Mohamed? Yes. AED. Yeah, Ali. Yeah, he Yeah. Khalid Yeah, Holly. Yeah. Amelia Hamad right. All these are going to be addressing men, and then yet only Amina to yes at NFL Fatima Tula. Yeah, okay. Yeah. 32 Yeah, ha, that's right. All of these are going to be addressing women. So all you're going to do is be using the exact same question. Changing the possessive pronoun from masculine to feminine and just be careful because they're not always going to be questions with aina. We have an indica. Right. We have a laka. We have min aina. Right. And Maria Bon aina. Right. So we're going to see a lot of different questions. And this is going to be I
think, a really, really good exercise for where we're at. So going right down the list number one, read the example and then change it to feminine. Go ahead. Sorry,
I'm Decker Carla moon. Yeah, Mohamed
Mohamed, do remember that now now. Yeah. Use Yeah, this drops, don't we? Yes, but what's it going to be feminine?
I in Deki, quarter moon yeah. Yeah. Mina two. Very good. Excellent. And just translate that for us for good measure. That was very well done.
Do we Do you have a pen? Are you Mohammed Omaha?
And for the feminine version. Do you have a pen? Yeah, I mean, do you have a pen? Yeah, I mean, it's very good. And Sarah did a great job putting the 10 ween on column right and the calf column because he's asking for a pen any pen. Right. Very good. Excellent job. Number two Saha.
Bay Touka. Yeah. Say yesterday.
And the feminine
Aina be two key.
Yes, the ye the T. Fantastic. Very good. and translate that for us.
I know. Where is your home? Oh, sorry. Where is your home?
Sir master sir. Yeah, something like that. We would say sir, Masters a little data than in English.
And for the feminine will be where is your home? What is your house?
For so you did that's going to be
however we write my lady. Maybe.
Very good. And I'll that's fantastic. Great job. And I'll just point out an additional little thing that why is b two with a BOMA because it's not a four. Why is it not a four because it is part of a Joomla Isthmian Aina beta, straighten it out? Beta Kappa aina. Right. So they to QA or B to key. It is moved to that? It has moved to that and that's why it is metaphor. And it is with Obama because it's a singular noun. Great job. Okay. Next up. Someone from the shake family number three.
I had a hazard. Dr. Rowe. Dr. Rule, aka Yeah. Leon. So I have the rule. Lucky. Yeah. Liam.
Yeah. Faulty motto. Yes. Yeah. Yeah. Fatima to? Yes, very good. And interesting. I guess you guys have the older version, because here in mind, they have a laka had def tattoo. Yeah, early on. And so in yours, it says,
I have the def tattoo laka? Is that what it says? Yes. Okay. Very good. And we've explained before the the slight difference in emphasis, right here, we're most concerned about, like the notebook is given. And we're wondering whose it is? Is it yours? Right? We're emphasizing yours. Here with this construction. laka had the death tattoo. Yeah, honey. Right. Whereas if we had flipped it, then we maybe have multiple possessions. And we know that they are IVs. And we're, and we're kind of narrowing down maybe something for Ali. How did that through luck? Yeah, Ali, maybe there's multiple sorts of sorts of objects that are that. Good. And the switch to feminine was nice and smooth.
Lucky. Yep. Straightforward. So we've only dealt with possessive pronouns. Up until this point, right. Ca, key care, key care. Key number four is going to give us something a little bit different. Dr. Z. Go ahead. She does have a good question. Oh, yeah, please.
So on the feminine I
don't, I don't know. Do we? Don't we change harder to Harvey or we just fantastic question. Fantastic question Who wants to answer somebody else answer that question. The book itself is not feminine. And
there you go. Right. What is how the refer to thank you. How that does not refer to the person we're speaking about how the refers to the object. The object in this case is masculine. Right? So this is this is really the whole, the only difficulty when it comes to keeping track of gender in Arabic. Being able to differentiate and keep track of who am I speaking to? What am I speaking about? Right? There might be a situation where we're talking to a man, and we're talking about a feminine object. There might be a situation where we're talking to a man and we're talking about a masculine object. There might be a situation where we're talking to a woman, and we're talking about a masculine
object. And there might be a situation we're talking to a woman and we're talking about a feminine object. So there's four, there's four possibilities, and we have to
it's a little bit tricky to keep track. So how the refers to desktop. Desktop is a notebook. It's a masculine object or a masculine noun. So that's what how the refers to, whereas luck
The lacquer is about the person who possesses that notebook, which in the first example is male. And the second example is feminine. Very good question. Because that really, really is the heart of what this whole lesson is about.
So, Dr. Zia, can you do number four for us? We'll see something a little bit different.
Three, very good. Mean.
The yo T translate that for us?
Where are you? Oh, brother.
Same thing. Where are you or sister? Yes. Fantastic. So why was that different? Because previously, one through three we had been dealing with possessive pronouns calf to key calf key. Right now we have a subject pronoun. Right. Anna. Now who, who here and TA and T. Right? Mean Aina and T. Because it's now the it's actually the subject.
And, and then empty. Very good. Was not fooled.
That's a really poor job of penmanship. There, but that's okay. Number five going down to Brother Mohammed.
Ina, a Buka. Yeah. Hi, Lynn.
Can you do? Yes, good.
In a boo, boo Ki. Yeah. For teacher two. Very, very good. Excellent work. So see how now we're back to our possessive pronouns. Ka Ki. So here, who's possessive? Whose father is it? It's a man's father,
father of the men. So it's kept here. Khadija? Whose father is it? It's a woman's father are talking about? And so it has to be key. Okay, bonus question. Bonus Question. What happened? What grammatical case is a VUCA? And how can you tell?
The five No, no,
that's not grammatical case. Now, is the part of speech. It is a noun? Correct? It's one of the five nouns That's also correct. But is it metaphor isn't much role? Is it? Monsoon? And why?
Is it in the nominative case? Is it in the genitive case? The accusative case?
okay, what's your what's your evidence? You told me?
I asked the questions
What would it look like? What were the rules for the five nouns? What What does? What does one of the five nouns look like when it's meant so? What's the sign of that being minzu?
Everybody agree with that? Right?
Well, how many agrees with the shake families? We're there?
Okay, we have some dissension here. system startup mistake family say no, no, no. Okay. Let's hear it.
Opinion number two.
Yes, yeah, it's cool. Because it hasn't well. Okay. So you're saying it's not a follow up because of the well? What about this this pets? Hello, listing photo?
that's because of harlot. Okay, so you're telling me that this is fixed?
It's not depends on who the
the person is. Right? As far as grammatically like for grammatical case, it's fixed with me, even if it's going to change due to who the pronoun pronoun is referring to. It's fixed in the sense that it's not going to change based off of the grammatical case whether it's medical or mental or measurable. And so system Assad says that this is more for because of the well or at least the sign that we can tell that as medical is because of the well okay, that's different
you have anything to add?
No is the same thing because of the Wow. Yes, exactly. So we talked about we are very, very kind of brief intro about how different words or different types of words demonstrate grammatical case. Okay, up until a certain point, we were only working with words that showed that they were metaphor with a Bama Okay.
This was called an LM ously. This is like the default or original
sign or indication that something is not for. Just like you learned that the cassava is the sign of it being the drawer, just like you learned that the feds hat was a sign of it being monsoon. Those are called Isla Matt ously. Right? They are the default.
Indications of grammatical case, but they don't apply to all types of words. They apply to
what well, I'll just stick to the simple ones that we've learned. They apply to singular nouns, and broken plurals. Okay. Which we haven't dealt with plurals really yet very much so don't worry about that. But singular nouns and broken plurals they demonstrate grammar like that's okay Bama customer, that's and those are going to be you know, honestly the majority of words that you deal with however, there are different types of words that demonstrate grammatical case somewhat differently. Okay, some of the and these signs are called
a federal either Allah minutes, but uh, yeah, they're basically secondary. Oh, that's even better than than default or primary indications of grammatical case and secondary indications of grammatical case. So these Bama customer data are our primary signs of grammatical case. And secondary ones include Well, yeah. And Elif.
There are certain types of words where well, is the sign of it being much more? There are certain types of words where Yeah, is the sign of that being measured and alief? Not Fetta? is the sign of it being unsuitable? Which types of words are these? We've only learned one type of word so far, and that is the five nouns. Okay, let's map the
families, the five nouns
and you have to be Italian to get that job.
The five names okay. What are the five nouns we are asked? Let's see if I can run a run out space here. We have
Those are the three you can pair them as three. They're easy to remember because they're all on the same phonetic pattern. I book a hookah Hammacher. And then the two weirdos are femme which can be done Fuka and Xu.
Like we say Lulu column name, right? One who possesses those Jalali? Well, it's wrong, right for a last minute.
So those are our
and it's typical to forget him, okay, because it's not very often used, you know, like, you're gonna use a Buddha and a cougar a lot.
And even though he'll use a lot Fuka a little bit less time we'll go even less than that.
If we're looking at these five nouns, we can group them according to different ways. So we're looking at phonetic patterns, we have three and two, okay, I Buka Fuka. Her muka are all in the same phonetic pattern. Fuka is different because it has one less letter.
And that indicates that it's a little bit special. Because Fuka you have the option of
two potential ways to write it. You can write it
oops, with the mean time, okay? In which case it does not, it takes the primary signs of demonstrating grab grammar, with the ball not on the mean. Or you can drop the mean and use the well or Fuka. So you have an option there to do one or the other.
The other peculiarity is blue, right. All of these words, a book a hookah handbook and Fuka. Four out of the five.
This rule, demonstrating that it's not fought with a well and a that it's measurable with a with a Yeah, and that it isn't consumed with an elite only apply when they are possessed when they are part of mode off mode off eBay, either with a possessive pronoun or a word after it
that possesses it. However, though, doesn't come doesn't exist in Arabic, except that it is part of a mobile philadelphi. They like construction, right? So where it's possible to have Eb, right
as a standalone word, and that's going to have your primary sign of being loved.
or measured or not so, because it's not possessed by anything, you can't use glue
in a sentence without it being possessed by something. Okay?
So that's a little brief review of the five, the five nouns is that is that clear? Everybody's good on that.
Think questions related to the five nouns? So, back to SR Sahaja if it were monsoon, it would be a backcap with an ally
when it is possessed or part of a possessive construction demonstrates the accusative case with an ally back or if it were major or it would be a beaker mean a beaker
or a to America Oahu or Abu Bakr
any questions about that?
Now we're good.
Okay, let's roll down to System. We'll start off for number six. This is a nice little different one.
Hey, my hope is different.
Marie, listen and see.
Okay, so you caught right to the answer. Right. Very good. So the example was
I'm sorry. Yeah.
And II? Yeah.
Very good. Okay. Do you want to translate that for us?
Are you sick?
Fantastic. Okay, great job. So this is an interesting one, because it now has two things that needs to be changed to reflect the agenda. Right. Previously, the only one that stuck out was the one that Dr. Zia did over here. What was it? Ain't no no, no. Oh, mean? Aina. And, right. Everything else was dealing specifically with possessive pronouns. Here we have a subject pronoun. And so we had to go into and see. Now we have two things you have to account for. Okay? We're asking, Are you sick? Okay, so we have to now change the subject pronoun. And we have to change the
the descriptive word, right? The hover, right and maroon and T. Murray the tune, right, which is the cover of the sentence.
We have to change it in order to reflect the gender so I'm sorry, the tune we have to add a Tamil Bucha because this is a noun isn't.
And then we also change the subject pronoun and T.
Yeah, ha. Let's see. Oh, my maternal aunts.
Great job. Everybody see that?
Okay, back to the top. Sisters. Haha, number seven.
laka laka number seven. Oh, sorry.
Am I gonna be Touka Yeah, me.
Are you gonna be to Kenya? Um, I'm mighty. Very good. Um, translate that for us?
Where is your home? Uncle? Very good.
And raise your raise your home?
on G. Very good. Yes. Okay. And then we remember that the difference between on and fall is that I'm is a paternal uncle from your father's side. And Paul is a maternal uncle. Very good. Next up number eight brothers that
home. Yeah. Mohammadu. Good. Very good.
And it's going to be a lucky
Yeah, so I had, yeah, so I don't know. So I do. Yes, I do. Fantastic. Very good. I'm really happy that you resisted the urge to make everything feminine. Right? Because we're asking about a brother, a butter knife. Right. And it would have been tempting to go lucky often. Yeah, so I do but that's not the exercise. Right exercise.
Okay, we have some discrepancy. Bins versus bait. Oh, you're right. This has been. Yeah. So bait bent. It's the same sort of principle. That was the last question. Thank you for pointing that out.
For this one, yes. So the exercise is not about changing the gender of the object we're talking about. It's about changing the gender of the person that we're talking to. So rather sad to that very well. Lucky Athlon Yeah, so either good
shape Family School. Oh, you know, no, you can want to someone from a safe family, you know, my
mother in the coffee
in the key tea, very good. And that's a very general question. What do you have? Right maybe you'd ask your, your toddler that, you know, they have something in your mouth that you have something behind your back like what do you have?
Very good. Mother. What right very open ended. Not a yes or no question and open ended question. Good. And Sister Asmat. Can you do number 10?
assalam wa alayka. Be?
Salam o Allah key. Yeah. Omi. Very good. Excellent work.
As salam ala Leakey. Yep. Very nice. So we see and this is common in the Arab world, right? In non Arab world, we just say Ali comb and be done with it. Right? We'll use the taglib. When it's called in grammar, where we just say you plural. This is the possessive pronoun for you poor, I'll give you a second set.
You pour oil and we just leave it like that. Right. But in the Arab world, you will find people will use the corresponding possessive pronoun to who they're talking to. They will say salaam Malik, I'll just say it to one person, masculine or on a key to one person feminine. Yeah, brother. Sorry, the question.
Yes, I just did. Just a quick question regarding Yes, yes. So I do. Is there any indication to tell us that that's the feminine name, or that's just something that you have to know that. So I do is a feminine name? Very good. You're right. This one we just have to know. Because if not,
it is not feminine, or I should say it does not have the usual sign of being feminine. Okay, so there are some names that are clearly masculine, like masculine linguistically, and masculine in meaning like handmade. And there are some names that are feminine, in meaning and feminine linguistically, like Isha or Febi, IJA. Right? Because they have the,
the Tamil boots on the end, so that's easy. Then there are some names that are masculine in meaning, but feminine linguistically, such as Hamza because Hamza too,
has a Tamil buta or Oussama to write these types of names Malawi or two. And then there are other names that are feminine in meaning, but appear masculine, linguistically like so I do.
Okay, so, which one do you go with? Do you go with?
If we're talking about changing pronouns and changing this or whatever, do we follow the linguistic markers? Or do we follow the meaning? And the answer is we follow the meaning.
Right? Even if it has a terminal Ghouta This is a hokum, Avila V. This is a general rule that let's say that's, that's
not well, I guess we can say that well. So with Tenma buta the vast vast vast majority of words with Tamil huzzah are feminine, both in meaning and linguistically.
Whereas a small minority a few exceptions are not
a good question.
Okay, awesome. We have some more time let's move on.
And an alpha Isla, we call in mineral Juma lil TRT.
That's a really nice sentence. Okay. Okay. Can I diverge a little bit? Let's take a little diet. So recall recall just because it's relevant to what we said before.
With the with morphology, okay, we're talking about forms of the verb we said that form one represented by Roman numerals in English of the verb is Bala
are on the phonetic patterns that are there
And this by the way, by the way, extra little thing for you. This does not mean that in every single case, it's going to be fatter in the middle, right? It's more about, are there any extra letters? Is anything doubled? Right? That's more of what we're talking about here. There are like,
Kavita, right? The verb for to lie. Okay. veba.
Right, the middle letter can have a guesstimate. But it's still considered on this pattern, because we're talking about the data. Right? You hear it? That's like the rhythm. That Allah right, that's still form one.
that was form one. Okay, form two. We doubled the middle letter, right, bow isla.
And we talked about the three meanings that that can connote it can talk about intensity, it can talk about something that's done repeatedly over and over. And it can make something transitive that was not transitive before. So make something take an object, whereas before, it was a verb without an object. Okay?
If we want to make
a command from form one verbs? Well, we have to do, it's a little bit more complicated. We have to go to
present tense. So let's say if I do, we haven't learned this yet. So don't panic. We will learn this in due time.
Okay, yeah, follow.
And then from the present tense, we derive the
command, if I
and there's some phonetic rulings that apply to that, that we won't go over now. If I Okay.
When it comes to making connect commands in the second form, we don't have to go to the present tense at all, we just go right to
this is the pattern of commands from the second form verbs file, double middle letter, oops. casserole on the middle letter wrote about this sorry about that.
And ends with a spoon.
Right. So n NIF
is a is an example of this, okay? And if we take
the root, Hamza
stuff has to do with feminine, something being feminine, right?
adecuada Well, Onza, right, sort of laying on the Halacha dakara well wounds the wounds that is from this root.
In form two, let's put these three letters on form two, and Natha.
to make something feminine,
right, so Annika is to be feminine, intransitive verb, and data, w the middle letter is to make something feminine.
Now we want to make a command. The instructions are commanding us here to make such and such a thing feminine.
So now we get an F.
And the original word has a sukoon on it, it only has a casserole on it to break up
the consonant cluster with the lamb that's coming.
Okay, so if you're looking for a bit of something to chew on, and digest, there you go. And, and it will fare Isla de colon Mina Juma in Altea. Make feminine, the doer of the verb or the subject
in the following example, so we have the example called Raja. Look, we're in Joomla fairly ill and so look now, the previous exercise was mostly doing the Isthmian. They're bringing us along with our corresponding doing the philia kata Janmohamed, el Amin, el Beatty.
And then this is a prepositional phrase that's in the place of
okay, Paul Raja, he left Mohamed dune he's the one who did it mean al Beatty from the house Mohammed left the house. Now we're going to change it changing the subject.
hard objects are feminine form. And you know to bear in mind for Meenal Beatty
or prepositional phrase Okay, let's do it
we had left off with Brother Mohammed
there is so good
so hub the hub to another hub but yes the hub
the hub the hub button watery soup
firstly yes fantastic nice work you struggled through it and you did awesome. So what has to change two things here because this is not a proper name. This is a title teacher that have been modality so becomes the habit till Modere Risa to
muda Risa to.
Right, because it is feminine. Good that you said that so fantastic.
The normal or or default form is the habit but because now we have the whole consonant cluster thing with LEM, we're going to have to put that casserole here also Brother Mohammed did that, that had that to Modere visa to Hillel. Firstly. And notice here that this file is on form two. Getting back to our sort of lessons. Okay, so we make we know how to make the command. This is the command here back.
How do we make the back
the let's see, how am I gonna run out space here. So this is the command if we want to make the doer try to line up things here.
All right. If we want to make the doer of the verb and form one it's usually on the wasn't of
With an Alice added after the first letter, and the second letter having a castle. What is it going to look like in form two, it's going to begin with a meme with a dama on it.
Move fast and
yes, move fast.
Now you can make the file for any verb in the second form.
More underneath. Moodle Reese, more fetish. More Kassir.
Move on lib.
Anything you want to do. If you take a verb here, this is form one, the doer of that verb is that if you have a verb form to the doer of that verb is more fat.
more deadly. So one more that'll reset. Is that clear? We're seeing how the software is being
mixed in with the
with the battery modality so the word is the rasa. Der rasa? Yeah, oh yeah, let's thank you. Thank you, thank you. Let's go back from an extract that so that that raw scene means to study
does a lesson
that also if we have it as a verb in the form one means to study and that was to I studied.
If we put it on verb on form two, we double the middle letter data rasa means to teach to make someone else learn something that was intransitive now became transitive something without an object now has an object
and so now all we have to do is add the moon
and change it to a Tesla and now we have the one who teaches or the literally the one who makes someone else learn with Aris
famous more Eileen right Alima to know something intransitive, I lemma, our lemon Quran. Allah says Surah Trotman, he taught before and
our lemma to make someone no more lean. The one who makes someone else No. Yeah. Oh yeah. Now we're getting in the Arabic, masha Allah.
Okay, fantastic. Let's go number two. I think we're down to System was talked about
left the hospital, my mother.
Fantastic. Very good. And that one's way more straightforward than the last one. Because we have. We don't have to worry about breaking up the consonant cluster.
As EBI and only as proper, right? There's no consonant cluster here. That only we don't even have to worry about most tesfa Because it has an LF at the end which means it's going to hide all changes in grammatical case 11 Moustache BA and mustache, but is technically FEMA Hollinger. It's technically yes in the genitive case, but it won't demonstrate that because of the type of word it is and then with a an addict, let's try to finish this exercise and we'll call it a day back up to the top brothers. Sisters. Haha sorry, number three
Jealous? jealous? Jealous?
Bali but don't feel very good. So she went right for the answer. No problem. Jealous. Sad. Okay, and she was pronouncing that word by word. And that's correct the jealous sets with us with a certain
Paul Lieber to
write because we have to make both of them agree with the gender space here
at Bali, but to notice how Bali and Bali about are the fan on form one form one verb, bonobo to seek for lieben or barley. Batoon is the seeker literally which they use colloquially for students.
So that adheres to that morphological pattern.
I suppose supposed to be just a dumb mom, but I kind of stood up there. And if we're going to read it together, we're going to have to break up this consonant cluster by saying jealous, a tip for LIBOR to we're going to go this time to the ball because of it being a shrimps letter. Because of being a son letter. We're not going to pronounce the lamp. We're not going to pronounce the hands of colossal jealous at Da da libre too jealous a tip for Libra too. So we're going to double the bar and get there with a customer. Fantastic and the last one brother said before
ha ha Raja Aki Meenal Beatty.
Hora jet or T Mina al Beatty. Fantastic. And that's a nice, nice easy one to end on. Caught a jet
of the no consonant cluster to break up. So we can give the guy the full sukoon
right off into the sunset. Any questions? Very good, everybody. Heavy stuff today.
Good, be going in deep. Yeah, that's right. That's right. You know hamdulillah
trying to cover a range of stuff, right? So if you're just hanging on, there's going to be you know, just change the thing and do exactly what they say. And, and that's good enough for now. But yeah, if you're looking for a challenge, if you're looking to see some things that are deeper, you know, this is the stuff that's that lies ahead of you. So I tried to have something for everybody
and the questions
okay, great job, everybody. Excellent work and effort. And we will see you next time sha Allah. I mean, we are
yes, the immersion thing that forgive me for the delay with the immersion class, or the enrichment class. There's been some discussion back and forth between me and other students over in Medina about how best to proceed. It doesn't look I thought I was going to do kind of two birds one stone thing where I