Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 42
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 37.54MB
Well give everyone just another minute and then we'll get going a lot.
Alhamdulillah Hara hiragana Alameen wa salatu salam ala shuffle MBI almost saline Nabina Muhammad Ali he offered a Salah was good this lien a lot on my island that'd be my insight on that one fact of the matter I left and I was in Edmond your anatomy so now Monica to everybody welcome to beginning classical Arabic picking up right where we left off in sha Allah to Allah
Okay, so let's have
SR Esma if you are there and SR, a sub rod, if you both can read one of you being Mohammed, the other one being athma it might be helpful to start with just the previous line from Hamad. He asks Mohammed a question about his language and then he goes from there
so let's have masala tea can be Hamid and sister ESMA. You can be Mohammed
Moldova Tikka Yong Hamad yeah Mahamadou
a yellow button, sir Latin
num here logo
here logo Selatan very good stop just for a second, I'm just going to point things out as review.
For all those some people are following the live stream. So the question was my logo Touka? Yeah.
So we have two things going on there. The first thing is that it is we're adding the possessive pronoun to logo tone, logo tone meaning language. So logo to care would be masculine second person singular, what is your language? And then we also had the Mohamed, do remember that if we are if we have a name like Mohamed Dune, if we call out to it with Yeah, then it's going to drop it's 10 Wien, it's going to simply go down to yeah Mohamed do and then the answer you had to change the the possessive pronoun accordingly. So, it would not make sense if Mohammed simply spit back the same exact phrase and said Luca Tolka L or D or two that would not make sense because that would mean
your language right he has to change it to reflect the answer which is talking about his language. So now he has to say Loga T and SR Asmat did a good job adhering to the rules of Hamza tawassul. When she said logo till or the two. It has to run smoothly right into the answer or D two because it begins with a Hamza to Lhasa. And all of that is Joomla s Mia
Which is why it's all over the to Lova. To care. Right? They have before. Before the possessive pronoun, we see that the grammar is demonstrated Loga. Let me go up here for a second
Lova Touka. Right, the task, or the marking that is going to be the vowel that's going to be on the task is going to show us is mark for is it measure? Or is it min sube? It could be in other scenarios, Min Lova Tikka right, or RA E to Lova taca, right or something like that, depending on where it is in the sentence. Here, we're all talking about Joomla is Mia, what is your language? And we said before, if we were to say a sentence, that means your language is what not so Gemma Estonia, so both parts are going to be more for in this case for the government logo T L or the two.
One could say well wait a second, according to that then Shouldn't it be logo toy?
Right? Shouldn't the TA in Liga have a Bama and then you add the to indicate the possessive pronoun. And in some sense, theoretically, you're right. However, this phoneme this packet of sound is extremely disliked, in Arabic, anything that is only they consider in Arabic phonetics, they consider the llama and the Fatah
and the Khasra to be on like a continuum. Right? And so going from one end of the spectrum to the other is considered not permissible in most cases. And so that's why you find an Arabic there's rules to avoid that. So here the Dhamma gets dropped, and it's simply logo t
then we had a question of follow up question about it here. Look out on Seth Leto notice how everything has to agree for grammar pardon me it's allergy season was
here logo tone satin
the Hamza here is Hamza told SDF ham that's how we make a question here is referring to in English we would translate it as it however what it's referring to is language which is a feminine noun logo attune sir Latin, easy satin has to agree with lower tone which is singular feminine and everything's marked for because it's Joomla Esmee up to that hover now I'm here logo turn south on very good. Ladies. You can keep going
well Hamza to Marla what?
Lower to yerba Nia to
where he lower Toulouse sat I bought
a book I am Hemudu
are be Phil Kuwaiti, who are the Biba don't? Special he? Shahida shahidul.
Party here on Yeah.
Well, Aina omocha.
Here I hear Aiden, Phil, Kuwaiti Ma, Ma. OB are like my father here. Moodle, Moodle reset to punakha. Very good pause. Let me just point out a couple things. So starting with anaa. Now we have another thing to keep track of, we have certain words like AB which is father, and which is mother. And we are also attaching to them. Now possessive pronouns. And EB has specific rules. We're going to get into them later, we're learning them separate. And that will come very shortly. So I won't go into it now. But just take it on faith that it is a buco. We add this little while here, Abu omocha. And for English speakers, it can be a little bit tricky to keep in mind that the possessive pronoun
is kept masculine. Because it's who we're talking about. Right? It doesn't matter that the mother here is feminine. We're talking about whose mother is it. In this case, it's Mohammed's mother and Mohammed is masculine and so will cap masculine also we see here
And majeure, we see how we use prepositional phrases which is a nice little review. Fee. Feel Kuwaiti right so we learned B, we learned a man. We learned Li, we learned several others men, right? And we learned that the noun that comes after any preposition has to be matched role.
The in the genitive case and in this scenario and many scenarios, it is demonstrated by a customer so that's why it's feel Kuwaiti and not feel Kuwait to
me. Very good. Okay. And then Avon, recall that Avon means also not be here. Moda recession. Very good. Okay, keep going.
Ill Kuwaiti young Mahamadou
now the hub the hub
was near Lucca I aina. A Boo.
Boo fill your burning.
Fill philia Benny who was dodgy rude be
dodgy run cubby run. He added her 10 We good job. So
I like a phone. Yeah. Muhammadu. Okay, pause one second because this is a lengthy response. And I just No, no, that's fine. Just pause here for a second before Mohamed answers. Just to point out, we're going to be soon getting into verbs. Okay. And this is your very, very, very first taste of verbs.
When we change the end of a noun to reflect grammar, that is called declension. Okay, that's called Arab in Arabic. That's what we've been doing so far. Does it have a Bama because it's one four, does it be have a castle of because it's in the genitive case majeure, etc, etc. When we change the ending of a verb
we are changing it. And that's a different process of change. That's called conjugation.
And conjugation is changing a verb to reflect who is doing that verb. So we take a base.
In Arabic, our base root word for verbs is and is a past tense verb for he, okay, so that have that he went, that habba he went, that's our bases. That's our foundation, that's our default. And once we learn the patterns of conjugation and the rules of conjugation, we're going to basically manipulate this form right here to change it to reflect other people doing that same action. So if the hubba is he went, if we
add to it,
a TA with a TA.
And this changes, this loses its that's hot and become sukoon that have to, that means you singular, went past it. If we did the same thing, but with TA and a Bama
then it would be the have to and that means I wins. It's conjugated for the first person singular. So we're going to be learning all of those conjugation patterns very, very soon. And that is extremely important. Because everything up until now has been for the most part Joomla Isthmian, with a little sprinkling of Joomla philia in here, now and again. But Arabic much more than English relies upon Joomla theater Lea sentences that begin with verbs and in fact, the default sentence in Arabic is the Joomla thelia sentences that begin with verbs and not Joomla Isthmian. So, that's on your radar, and we're going to be getting into that very, very soon. Just wanted to point that out.
Okay, so now Mohamed can give his long response to the question
I think Muhammad responded right?
Now Li upon what hidden is more Esma who was awesome to where who were who are
Who am I
gonna fill mud
when I fill Yep,
moody Medina, maybe Medina to
Phil Medina because of unity, Muna water. Yes. Wali tune, WA hidden is smooth.
Xena boo. We're here Phil Irati. My Zol jika Zoji ha.
Xiao Zhu Xiao Zhu Hua Ma. Mohan This
is so true, though Duhamel on this one. Very good. Okay, pause, I'm going to point out some things. So this is a very, very important part of the dialogue. So, the first thing we have is that preposition can
have added on to them. possessive pronouns. Okay? If we have not, which means with, then we can add a possessive pronoun to say with you with him, with me, with us. Right? So here, Mary is with me, Matt, aka with you, my who with him, my home with them and so on and so forth. And every single preposition is the same fee cut in you.
fee and me, fee him in them. Right or Minka from you, mini from me, and so on and so forth. So prepositions can have possessive pronouns added to them.
Notice one thing, and this is a correction, but it's an important one, where we have Mohamed is talking about, he has one brother and one sister, and notice the gender agreements in everything that he has to say. So he says, at home, wow, he dude is Moo hoo.
Okay, so masculine, masculine, masculine, and then he has wali turn off, there's a sister, wow, he did tune extra Tamil Bucha here that indicates that it's feminine Wahida or the number one has to agree in gender with both is Smouha
because the possessive pronoun gets her name, right. And so it has to agree with agenda as well. Zain.
Then the last thing I want to point out is how xojo changes its grammatical position due to what comes before it so we have well here, Rafi, Ma, with XO Jia. Right? There's a casserole on xojo Because it comes after math and that is a preposition. And then the very next sentence ne the very next word, it has a dumb XO Juha Mohan be soon because this is your classic Joomla is meow. This is looked at this is a very, very, very simple sentence. And so because it is moved to that it will have to have
a llama or it will be metaphor, in this case with Obama.
Why am I putting this out? Because when we add
possessive pronouns to words, which is everything that we're doing in this lesson, it's added after the normal ending of the word which which demonstrates the grammatical case. Right we see that how Zhou Zhi Hua Zhou Juha the has the same, the hat is not going to change because of grammar. Rather, what is normally the ending of the word xojo is going to change due to the grammar and then whatever else comes after it that's attached is fixed is my money. So Juha my XO G here.
Very good. Anyone have any questions up until this point?
Okay, and then Hammond,
You want to translate?
Can you translate it? Can I translate? Hmm. Okay, so the question is laka Do you have Okay, and we'll learn this very, very soon. They're gonna point it out for us to use lamb. And to use the Ender are two ways to ask about possession, we're talking about possession. One is used for things that are essentially yours and the other is used for things that are on your person. Also, one is used for people, often things that have
whatever we want to call it.
I don't I don't like the dichotomy of animate, inanimate, but something like that. And then ENDA is usually used for things that are typically considered as objects.
So Leca would mean you have adding the Hamza before it. laka Do you have a con? Yeah, Mohammed do. Do you have this as Nikita? This is indefinite. And so the meaning or the translation is do you have a brother?
In colloquial English, we would say, Do you have any brothers?
If we want it to literally say that we would translate it, we would put it in Arabic somewhat differently, but that's the meaning. And Mohammed says, Yes, Lee. I have Athlon why don't I have one brother is Mugu Shama to his name is Salman, well who are married guna Kona is here
feel like we've learned that but maybe we didn't spend a while so he is with me here feeling Medina till Mona Watty. So we learned now that Mohammed is a student in Medina, right?
Like everybody else who studies this book over there in the university. So he's talking about he is in Medina and so as his brother who um that are you gonna feel more feeling Medina to know what it was he often Washington and I have a I have one sister. Israel has a Naboo Her name is Xena. Well, he affiliated Rocky Mount as od her and she is in Iraq with her husband.
So do have a hidden missile. And no and her husband is a an engineer. So in case you were worried about Xena, whose hands she was in, if she's being taken care of for he adds here martial arts Avantika law that her husband is a an engineer, and we know in the Muslim community, we love our engineers. And so mashallah, we have no fears. She's doing good. Is that husband or is it spouse is very good. The precise meaning of xojo spouse,
contextually here, it's husband.
That's good, though. Because Allah subhanaw taala in the Quran, he doesn't use xojo
ever. He uses just simply xojo. And he assumes that you're smart enough to play with data to figure out whether he's talking about
a husband or a wife. That was literally means pair, literally, right, because along with the other also uses the word zilch as wedge to talk about how he created things in pairs.
I mean, cliche in color finance, oh, Janie, alcantara karoun. Right, that's
sort of a thought, I believe or that he is one of the two.
And so those literally means pair. When it's applied to humans, that literally means spouse. And contextually here, because we're talking about the woman's spouse, we can translate it as implicitly meaning husband, but that's a good question.
Any other questions about anything?
Okay, let's finish this off. Go ahead.
Find the Casa yada, yada ahi
LA, my in my in the car a tune my in the car. In the, the the raw tune
comes to in the
in the who say You're very good. Excellent work. Okay. And so now what they're doing is they're showing us a different way to talk about possession or ownership. So when we were talking about people, we were asking Mohamed about his brothers and sisters and siblings, we use lI right we use the possessive they call it Lam and Malkia. Because we're talking about people, we're also talking about something that's essentially his, you know, whether even if they were to pass away, they're still the sibling, right? That's something that's an unshakable bond that can't really be revoked or or destroyed. As for objects, no right objects, you know, they can be on your person or not on your
person or they can also be yours today and broken or gone tomorrow, someone else's. And so here we use a different word to talk about
whether he has a car handmade once arrived, basically, after all that talk we see he was all coming around because Russia along Saudi Arabia is a very polite culture all these niceties all of it, maybe was driving to the fact that hammy wonder right?
And so he asks Mohammed and they say are rotten? Yeah. As he affectionately calls in my brother come on, my brother hooked me up brother.
is another way to talk about with
It usually means something that is on someone's person.
Right. And it also is used for objects, as opposed to,
usually as opposed to people and these are general guidelines and not like absolute 100%. Now, you know how to um, how that sort of rules,
the responses, and we conjugate it right. It's a preposition, so, excuse me, not conjugate, we add a possessive pronoun to the end. As we do with all prepositions. The response is that no
matter and they say, Otto,
I do not have Matt and knee and we'll talk about this in a second say auto tune a car. And indeed the Roger two and I have a bicycle.
In Saudi Arabia, this would be no problem. That means Hammonds going to ride on the handlebars.
But he points them to somebody else he says hands it to her in the who say auto tune. So Hamza is the one who has a car with them. If you're looking for a ride, we see that and is, is added a possessive pronoun on the end to indicate mine.
And we also see for the first time negation, and all up until this lesson, we have not dealt very much with negation. Okay, so we're going to negate Oh, okay. Bird's Eye View, bird's eye view, if you are saying anything,
in any language, it's usually going to fit into one of three boxes. There's a statement, which is an affirmative statement, there is a negation. And then there is a question.
Right? That holds true for all the languages I'm aware of, which is only a few. So if we're going to look for an example in English, and say, you know, this is a ball,
negate that sentence, this is not capitalized it for emphasis, not a ball. And then the question mark, is this a ball? And previously we had discussed and this is something that vexes English language learners because this is not very intuitive. Look at how we change the order of the sentence in order to achieve these different things. This is a bowl what do we have to do in English to negate it, we have to add a negative particle not
the subject and the predicate, or after the verb to be more precise. How do we form the question? Even worse, we have to take these two words, and we have to switch the order. We have to flip them. This is a ball is this a ball? And that's why English is an analytical language, because it's the order of the words that gives meaning as opposed to things actually on the word. So just by switching the order of those two words. Now we've made a question, is this a ball?
Okay, Arabic doesn't work like that.
We have? Let's use their example in the SAL
you have with you a car.
And the car, say Allah to
pardon my funky writing. Okay, so this is a affirmative statement. You have a car with you right now, in the QA, say, if I want to make a question, excuse me, let's go first in there in the order I already have set up. If we want to negate that sentence, all we have to do is add something to the beginning math.
That's how we negate a Joomla. SME with math.
There are many, many different types of math, this is only one of them. But if we want to negate a Joomla ischemia, we do it with Matt, Matt, and the say, auditor, or Matt and the conservatives. And in this case,
you don't have a car with you,
or you don't have a car.
Okay, and then finally, if we want to ask a question,
do you, we simply add something different? Other than that we add the hands, it'll just depend
to ask a question in the console. And we can also add help, which we haven't done a lot with yet. But these are two acceptable ways to form a question and the cassiar.
And so we've kind of just
doubled everything that we have learned by learning how to navigate it. Everything up until now we've almost been exclusively dealing with
affirmative statements, a couple of questions here and there. But now, now we know how to negate everything
very good. Any questions about this?
Before we continue on, I just thought that saying Hamza, he has a call. That sounds so awkward. We wouldn't say that in English. Is there no other way of saying that in our
Big. Like, couldn't we just say Hamza has a car?
Oh, yes, yes, yes. So you're saying that the addition of the Hamza here is awkward?
Or that although the Hamza who is redundant, like one of them are redundant? Yes. Here it's called, what's it called? It Bravo. In Arabic, it's called Iran. So it has to do with a something that's contrary to expectation. Right?
So if someone asks you, it's like, Hey, do you have five bucks? It's like, No, I don't, he has it. Right. It's an added emphasis that's responding to an expectation that you had that you had it. That expectation was wrong, but you have another solution. Right? So you're right, in a vacuum in a vacuum, this would be super awkward. You wouldn't say 101 and the wholesale Team USA in this end 102 and say, All
right, or something like that. That gets to the point. But it's because Hamid first asked, shoot me it's because Hammond first asks Mohammed with the expectation that he has a car and then Mohammed says, Look, buddy, no, sorry. I don't have a car but Hamza Hamza, he has a car. Right?
Does that makes sense?
Yeah, it does. I think I think just that in English, we would probably manage that by tone. We wouldn't use the extra word. I guess that doesn't happen in Arabic. Maybe? Yes, you're right. No, you're right. That would be a little strange. And we said Hamza he has, you know, we don't generally it's much more of a no no. I'm in English to mention both the proper name and something that implies that name such as a pronoun. I think that's what we're what we're discovering here. Like we wouldn't say Hamza He has a car. No, you're right. That's redundant. But in Arabic this is not considered redundant. It's more of a emphasis thing.
Good stuff. Okay. Let's get to our gentleman which we've been who have been languishing by themselves edgy en se that's an add deity answer the following question.
Are they okay
this is a reading comprehension exercise. Mostly. I think we're going to skip this. Because we've done it we did it before and it's not super. I'd rather get to the other stuff in the lesson. Okay, boss Phil farabi. Pema Jelle a balmy rock, who are her?
Who are have so here we have now questions, we're going to have to add the possessive pronoun his or her
okay, and you're going to have to distinguish what we're talking about and remember what I said earlier about his or her it might be counter intuitive. His mother you hear mother you're thinking feminine but no, it's actually his mother. So the gender is going to be determined by the thing that's possessing the object and not by the object itself. Let's start with Mohammed can you do number one for us? Sure.
The hill the hill
the neighbor tune
is smooth ha. Xena excellent very good smell ha because it's talking about her Next is Dr. Xia there are to
No, have new
cool yeah, this one very good. Excellent.
Number three a smart
has an Roger loom has a Roger Lu 30 through the bureau that you don't have your own
Amina tufin. Lahore Fatih. Well, Omaha the most common
right Phil not Buffy
with a sukoon but very good. I don't think we've I don't think you've heard that word before. The buck is kitchen. Kitchen. We've done it before. I mean, no. Okay. So here's a little quick morphology lesson. So if we're breaking it down to its roots, the roots is Baa Baa Baa and this means to cook. Okay, so Baa Baa as a verb, past tense verb means to cook.
Oh bah ha. So the buck to
I cooked Baba, aka you cooked if I want to make it into what's called isum McCann
the noun of place, meaning the place where this sort of activity goes on. Okay, I just add a meme to the beginning not and this becomes
with a sagoon and this is now has turned into an ism. And now so we add a 10 lien or something on the end Melchizedek masjid or must mark Yeah, exactly.
Exactly there's many of them at once you learn the pattern, you start to see them everywhere. Okay, so MACBA is the kitchen. Literally the place where cooking happens. Masjid is from sujood right the place where prostration happens and so on and so forth. madressa madrasa the place where does happens lessons here.
Number five, back to Muhammad.
The Schatten the B button
we're off to Oak to her to who? Which one? I should
talk to her
Okay, finish the sentence. Oh my memory that good and we remember that Mama read that one is nurse is a nurse.
How did you know it was up to her and that doctor who diagnosed Aisha
her yes I should system good.
Okay, and Dr. Z a financial soft number six you
join me Now firstly, what was her job?
ME, Lou. Very good. Wow, this was tricky. I'm glad you did that. Well. How did you know that? There was a bummer on the lam in zoomy aloo. Why wasn't it zoomy? Allah Who or is Amelie? Who was Amelie.
Going with Muhammad.
Okay, good. And well, Hamlet is what in the sentence? Is he the one who does the action and see the receiver of the action? Is he part of those?
Those the action? Yes, exactly. So here we have different room entirely when we talked about Arabic was like a room, like a house. One room is Joomla is meow. The other room is Joomla. Leah, and each room has different furniture. Right? The furniture in the room that's doing that till it's Mia is will turn up hover. And the furniture that's in Joomla fair LEA is fair, that I left the room. So here we have our there. This is our verb. Now we're looking for the doer of the verb. And it is Mohamed. Okay. But this is we have a conjunction here. Well, hello John. Now who so we have Mohammed does the verb leaving Mohammed leaves? And then we have Okay, again, someone else's leaving Who's
the other person that's leaving with him? zoomy Lu who, right so his colleague has classmate is also the doer of the verb, which is why it has a llama is me, Lou. And once it has the bomber, that means that the hat also has a bummer. Wait a second. Mmm. Didn't you say that the hat was fixed? For who?
Yes, mostly, there's one scenario in which this changes. And that's only for phonetic reasons and not for grammatical reasons you guys have probably learned or figured out by now that in the Koran, other places. If you have a cassava or a year before the HA, then we don't say be who,
right, we say be He.
And this comes back to the same principle that we talked about earlier in Arabic phonetics, where Obama and the Feds ha and the Castro are considered on a spectrum on a continuum. And Arabic phonology does not permit in almost all cases jumping from one end of the spectrum to the other. And so instead of making it the who they made it be he just for ease of pronunciation. It has nothing to do. It has nothing to do with grammar. It has nothing to do with prepositions. It has nothing to do with any of that. If the kestra or a yak comes into the who, then you just change it to he just to make it sound nice. But here we have zoomy new and so it stays on what it normally is. Very good.
Anyone have any questions about anything? We'll stop here for today. Thanks.
Okay, good stuff everybody. Excellent work in sha Allah. We will see you soon, along with the other item listed on Monday coming off the lucky winner.