Channel: Taimiyyah Zubair
Al-Baqarah 282-283 Word-Analysis and Tafsir 282
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Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim.
Lesson number 38. A little abakada i 282. To 283. To a a.
Why? Because the verse that inshallah we're going to study today is the longest I have.
How long is it? It covers an entire page of the most have. And what's the name of this ayah.
What does they mean alone?
Now we see that the longest day of the Quran it's not it. It's not an either tells us to praise Allah, how to perform hajj, how to give the cat but what is it about
financial matters, financial issues.
When we think of our Deen, we think that the deen only teaches us, Islam should only be limited to the Muslims. Do my hijab, do my do my job, and that's it. However, Allah subhanaw taala also guides us with regards to our financial issues with regards to our financial matters.
And the longest I have the Quran is about.
If you look at the context of this verse, The context is of financial matters, spending in the way the last panel data was mentioned. First, which is the culture that allows a penalty promotes and the opposite of that, which is a deba, is then forbidden, it is condemned very severely. And those who still involved in Riba, they are threatened with a severe punishment, which is a war with Allah and His messenger.
And this I in particular, talks about loans,
that if a person wishes to take a loan, then what should he do? What should be done? What's the proper etiquette? What's the proper manner,
without further call, is to give something for free
river is to charge a fee on the loan, isn't it? Now there has to be a middle way between the two. Because it's possible that a person needs something but he doesn't want this other from the other.
And it's possible that a person is a Muslim, and he doesn't wish to pay a river or he doesn't wish to receive any River. So then there has to be a middle way. If he wishes to borrow something, then what is the proper manner of borrowing something in Islam? How should it be done? What is it that must be taken care of.
So this is going to be explained in this ayah.
And remember, that this matter, this issue of taking a loan, and returning a loan, and how alone must be taken, what's the proper manner of taking the loan. This is so important that if a person dies as a Shaheed if a person dies as a martyr, what happens when a person dies, and the moment that the first drop of blood falls to the ground, all of his sins are forgiven, except for a debt that he owes a debt that he has to pay back to someone that he has to return to someone.
We also see that in sort of the Messiah, clearly it has been stated about the shares of inheritance. And we know that when a person dies, then his estate must be distributed within his heirs as soon as possible, as quickly as possible.
But so many times and that's why it has been said that it will only be done after the Dane has been paid, after the loan has been returned. Once the loan has been returned, only then his estate is going to be distributed only then.
So for example, if a person has borrowed some money from the bank, and he dies, then his money, his wealth, his property is not going to be distributed amongst his children unless and until that money is returned to the bank first. Once the debt is returned, only then the inheritance is distributed. We also learn from a hadith that is mentioned in say Buhari in which sadhana is acquired. He said that once while we were sitting in the company of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam, a dead man was brought. The Prophet sallallahu wasallam was requested to lead the funeral prayer for the deceased person. He said, Is he in that the profits or loss in question, Is this man in debt? Was he in debt?
The people replied in the negative that No, he doesn't have any debts on him. He said has he left any wealth? They said no. So he left his funeral.
Another dead man was brought and the people said Oh, Allah's Messenger. lead his funeral pray. The profit sort of honors Adam said, Is he in debt? They said yes. He said, has he left any Well, they said three dinners. So he led the prayer. Then the third dead man was
Brought, and the people said to the Prophet, please leave his funeral prayer. He said, has he left any? Well? They said no. He asked, Is he in debt? They said yes, he has to pay three dinners. The Prophet sallallahu Sallam refused to pray his janazah.
Because he still had to return his debt.
And how much was the debt?
3d now, for us $3.03 is something very insignificant, but the profits that a lot of them refuse to pray the janazah for that minute. And he said, then pray for your dead companion. Abu Qatada said all of the puzzle, lead his funeral prayer, and I will be his dad.
And then he led the prayer.
So we see that it's the responsibility of the family, it's the responsibility of the heirs. And then it's the responsibility of the Muslims, in general, to pay the debt of a person who has died. Because until the debt is paid, the prophets are allowed to sit and refuse to pray the janessa. It's against the Sunnah, to pray the janazah of a person who still has to give money to someone.
So we see that financial matters, financial issues are very serious, when it comes to everything very, very serious.
So therefore, a person must keep a record of what he owes to other people. And what is owed to him.
A person must keep a record of that, why? Because we don't know when we're going to die, we have no idea. And if death comes, and nobody knows about what has to be paid from our wealth from our money, then what's going to happen.
Imagine he does not enter then, unless and until his debt is paid.
for the chores to us, that the matter of debts in particular, is something that is very, very serious when it comes to already.
Now, if you look at it, there are two types of transactions. One is that an immediate transaction takes place in which a person buys something, he pays the money for it, and he takes the object, it's an immediate transaction, the transaction is concluded immediately at the spot. You go to the grocery store, you pay with cash, and you bring the grocery home follows. It's over, it's finished. But there is another type of transaction. And what is that it is to purchase something on credit.
And what that means is that a person buys something, but he delays the payment.
Or, for example, he buys something, he pays the money, he gives him money for it. But the delivery of that particular object is delayed. He doesn't take it home with him, but it's going to be delivered in his house a week or two weeks from that particular time.
So we see that there are two types of transaction one is immediate. And the other is that which is on credit, that which is not concluded, immediately, the payment is delayed, or the delivery of the purchased item is delayed.
Now in this case, which is the second case, it is very important to record this transaction.
Because imagine if a person takes something home, he doesn't pay for it, and he dies. And nobody finds out that he still has to pay for it.
So for example, sometimes if we need to just order a book from the bookstore, and we realize that we don't have any money at that time, but the class is going to start right away. What are you going to do, you're not going to buy the book, you're not going to take the book you're going to so what has to be done is that it's going to be written that this person or this group took this book, which costs this much money, and she's going to pay the money on after the weekend or whenever.
So, it is important to write this down, it is important to record this transaction done which transaction in which the payment is deferred, which is not an immediate one a transaction that is based on credit.
And this is exactly what is being taught in the IRA.
Now what is the IRA?
Yeah, you have Latina ermanno or you who have believed
the believers are being addressed, that if you're truly believers, then you must do this. It's a requirement of your man. This is something that will perfect your Eman.
And if you don't do it, it's going to affect your fate. It's going to affect your armor. Therefore do this.
And remember that this ayah that begins with you are you handed in an AMA No. This is the last address that is directed to the believers in pseudo tobacco.
So tobacco is coming to an end
So all you who have believed, either today and when you all contract a debt for how long be dining with a debt either utterly muslimah for a fixed period today and they are from the newsletters, then yeah, noon.
And if you look at the word that then you see the Elif, that indicates that the action is mutual. There are two parties involved in the action of then. So today, and you all are contracting alone, meaning one party is lending, the other party is borrowing. So what is being contracted is a Dane, because Dane is alone.
The word Dane is used for a specific type of car, it is used for a specific type of loan. Remember that every call, every loan is not a day. What kind of alone is day,
then is basically something that is Lent, or its payment is delayed for a fixed period of time. So what differentiates them from out is the fixed period of time. All can be for an unspecified period of time.
For example, you say, Can I please borrow your pen, then you don't say I will return it to you at 2:30pm, Monday morning, the fifth of January? No, you don't do that. That is a stupid, you're borrowing it, and it's understood that you're going to return it. But a Dane is something that is lent or a payment that is delayed for a known and specified and agreed period of time.
And remember, that this day, this loan is not just on money, meaning it's not just monetary, it's not just that I'm lending this money to you. So you will return it to me at this particular time. It's not just on money, it could be on different things, what are they inshallah we'll discuss them in a moment. So, when you contract again, in our agenda masama until a fixed period of time, the word agenda as you know is used for time for a specific moment in time or a period of time muslima one that is fixed with somebody from the room fettucini Well, from the word so move, what does the movement height
from the same root as the word is what does that mean name, because the name of a person distinguishes him, it separates them just as something that is elevated something that is high is distinguished.
And others say that the word masama is from the root letters well seen mean? What does wasn't mean to put a mark to brand.
So masama is that which is marked meaning that which is specified that which is defined it's designated from before. So, actually masama meaning the time period of that loan of that debt is fixed. However long it may be or however short it may be,
but remember that it is fixed and it cannot be general it cannot be vague. For example, a person cannot say Oh, can you give it to me next year? Well, next year could mean anytime between January and December.
So, next year means exactly which month, which date, which day. So, summer means it should be fixed, it should be clear and it should be set from before. So when you are contracting, adapt, and the time is fixed, then what should you do? Back to blue, then you should write it down.
You should write down what
the amount the thing that is being lent or the amount that is owed. And secondly, the term.
So basically do things are going to be written What are they the day. And secondly, the term for example, you return to me $1,000. They're lending you today when January 3, this and this year. So two things are going to be recorded. So back to Woohoo, write it down.
Over here, we see that data is being mentioned that when a Dane is being contracted, then that they should be written.
Now then I told you about the meaning of the word thing. But what is included in the
they basically is a payment that is delayed up to a specified time period. And this payment could be off Theremin Bayer meaning a transaction whose payment is delayed. So basically when something is purchased on credit.
So first of all, a purchase on credit.
For example, you buy something and you say okay, I'll pay you one week from now.
I'll pay you one year from now. So it's something that you purchased on credit.
So if something is being purchased on credit, that transaction should be written down, it should be recorded. Why? Because if you think of it, the long period passes, you might forget, you might forget about the amount you might forget about the date, you might forget about what exactly is due. So to avoid all of these possible problems, therefore write it down. Secondly, then includes what does that mean a wage salary. For example, a person who works for another, when does he get his pay, at the end of the week, or at the end of two weeks, or at the end of the month, or at the end of the contract, whatever it is, whatever has been decided, because if you think of it, as the person is
working, every second, every minute that he works, he should get a wage, isn't it, he should get a wage, but that wage is delayed until the entire work is done, until the entire month is over, and at the end of the month, then the pay is given, then the wage is given. So until the wage is given to the employee, then that wage is a day and on who on the employer, he has to give it to the employee.
So, this must also be written down, that at the end of every month, as long as a person does this, this this his work, he is going to be paid this much money, or these benefits.
Similarly, it also applies to in a situation where a person is renting something,
for example, the person is renting his house, and what happens at the end of the month, he should receive a rent, he should receive a check from who from the person who is renting.
Now should the person for every second that he's in the house, should he be giving him money.
Those are both of them going to live, it's not possible. So what happens is that the decide, okay, at the end of every month, this is the money that I'm going to give you. So until the end of the month, that particular rent money is a drain on who on the tenant on the person who is renting, and he has to give it to, to the landlord. So basically, it's a payment that is delayed until a specific time what is that specific time, end of the month. So basically, then is a payment that is delayed, whether it is for something that was purchased on credit, or it is a wage, a salary, or it is a rent.
Similarly, this data also applies to a cup alone. For example, a person says I'm giving you this money, and you return it to me at this particular time.
So that is also payment that is delayed.
It also includes sadhak, it also includes my
remember that model is to be given at the time of marriage. But if for some reason, it is more agile, it is delayed, there's agile, masama, more agile, more agile, what does it mean? That the payment of the matter is deferred for a month, for a year, for two years, whatever the decided time is, then even that should be recorded at the time of nica at the time of marriage,
that the man is going to give this much to the woman at this particular time because it's the hack of the woman. And it's the responsibility of the man that he has to give that money to the woman. And if he's not able to give it at the time of marriage, then he must specify as to when he's going to give it it's a deferred, it's a delayed payment.
And we could also involve other things. So basically, then is used for any transaction in which one person is owed something, whether it is money or it is or it is rent or whatever. And the other is granted a delay,
the creditor is owed something and the debtor is granted a delay, this is what they miss. So over here law says that when you're contracting again, then what should you do factorable then you should write it down. And before that, we should also remember that they is for a gentle Muslim for a fixed period of time, you cannot be vague, you cannot be general you have to specify exactly. For example, we learn from a basketball they learn that when the Prophet sallallahu Sallam came to Medina, the people were in the habit of paying in advance for fruits to be delivered within one or two years. So in advance, what would they do? They would pay for the fruit that was going to be delivered for them
for one or two years. So the prophet SAW a lot of them said that whoever pays money
in advance, he should pay for known specified measure and wait for a specified date, meaning he should specify exactly when he should receive. So the time must be fixed as well.
So here, the command has been given, do record and preserve such transactions,
even generates that, that whoever borrowed should write the terms and whoever bought should have witnesses. So we see that all of these transactions, they must be recorded.
Why record? Why should they be written down? Why should they be recorded? What's the wisdom behind that?
It says, it's possible that the person who is borrowing does not return the money, the person who has been granted a delay, he makes a delay and eternal delay, for example, the man says, Yes, I'm going to give you the model. It's not written how much it's not written when, and he never gives it to the woman. So is that fair, it's not fair at all. But when it's written, then it's a solid evidence against them, and the woman can take that thing to the court, or the father can come up and say that you promised this. So it's a hedge against the person.
Suppose the person who is borrowing the person who has delayed the payment, he dies, it's a loan on his head, it's a debt that he has to pay. And imagine if nobody knows about it,
imagine, but if it's written, if it's a proper document, then obviously, people are going to find out and the depth is going to be paid. And sometimes it's completely unintentional. It's not intentional at all, that a person is going to make a change later on.
So to avoid problems in the future, write it down. It'll make your life easy, isn't it that sometimes when you have too many things on your head, you're always thinking it was at that point or that much, this much or that much, you're always thinking, but once you've written it down, it's off your head, you can relax, then you're free of doubt, sometimes you have to do certain things, certain work. And if you don't write it down, it just lingers on your head. And once you've written it down, it makes life much easier.
Even for your grocery when you have to buy if you make a list from before, then you're not that lost in the grocery store. And you don't have regrets when you come back home. So write it down, because it's going to avoid problems. It's something serious, therefore, write it down.
When the actor and you should write,
this lamb over here, is off. Meaning it's an imperative. It's a command that has been given when the actor and let him right.
Now, this Lamb of his off is the verb. What does it mean by St. Chabad
is the booster hub, what does it mean was to have an action that is preferred an action that is recommended. So this lamb is a step above meaning of recommendation. So it is recommended that you should rate
now remember that it is extremely important that a person must record such transactions. However, scholars have said that it is not mandatory, it is highly recommended, but it is not mandatory.
But in certain situations, it does become mandatory. For example, if the Dane is a huge amount, it's a whole house, it's a huge amount, then it must be written down. But if you're just borrowing a book from your friend, and you're saying you're going to return it tomorrow, then are you going to sit down and write and call to witnesses? No, it's going to make life very difficult.
So scholars decided this while he acted, Islam itself is bad. So therefore it is recommended to do this in situations that require this. But in other situations where it's not that important, then a person can do without writing it down. But the question is, who is going to write who is going to record this transaction?
Well yet to bainer con and he should write between you all, who does you all refer to the two parties that are involved the creditor, and the debtor, the one who is owed something and the other who has been granted a delay in the payment.
So he should write between all of you who should write get even a scribe? Kathy is one who does Qatada. One who writes a scribe. And remember that, Kathy, yes, it is used for anyone who writes but in particular is used for someone whose profession is writing
doesn't mean writing books. But Kathy is a professional scribe.
Someone who has been trained, who has specialized in transcribing financial transactions.
Someone who has
gain the training, and he has specialized in transcribing financial transactions. For example, you know how to write. But if you were told to go write such a document, a legal document, will you be able to know? You're gonna have to be told exactly what is to be written? Probably you will miss out on something. You won't write something properly, you might write a word incorrectly because you're not familiar with the Spelling's. Why because you haven't been trained. It's not your specialization. So Kathy over here refers to a third person, other than the creditor and the debtor, who is a professional scribe, who has the training as to how to write these documents.
Now, for example, today, we can understand this graphic to be, for instance, a lawyer,
or someone who works in the bank, who knows about these things and who's legally is allowed to make such transactions. So well jacobina compatible. But how should the calibrate video with justice? What does it mean by justice? Justice over here refers to things that first of all, he should write everything accurately,
meaning, he should not increase or decrease the amount of the day. Similarly, you should not increase or decrease the term of Agila Musoma. So he should not increase or decrease the amount or the terms.
Secondly, either over here refers to that a person should write this in compliance with the Sharia,
that whatever he is writing, it should comply with the laws with the directions of the Sharia.
For example, if the creditor says that you pay this back to me, you give me the money after a year, on the condition that you give me this much interest, this much river, he says, as a condition, but what has the carpet been told? No, you're not going to write that. Why? Because it's against other it's against the teaching for the show. It's against what Allah has told you to do. So other refers to do things What are they that first of all, with accuracy, and secondly, in compliance to the Sharia.
And also other can refer to that the Catholics should not be biased, he should not side with either of the two parties. He should not do one on either of the two parties, but he should write everything with complete fairness.
When I buy cattle, and the cattle described, he should not refuse yet but is from from Serbia, and a variable event a means to refuse to do something very severely, very harshly.
We learn about this word in the context of a police other was stuck about what kind of menial caffeine he refused to do such that was talked about. And he became very arrogant. So other eba is to refuse to reject something very harsh to say a no. So let's look at even the cat you should not refuse. And notice the word cat a boon isn't Akira even previously that we read while the octo catchable cat even is Nikita, what does that mean? It could be any scribe any person who writes and he's crying, whether he's a Muslim or not,
for a Catholic, being Muslim is not a condition.
So when I look at one and Yakisoba, come out a lemon law, and that no scribe refused to write, as Allah has taught him, come on lahoma comma, what this can mean?
Just as and secondly, because
so a Oktober comma allama Hola. Meaning just as Allah has given him the advantage of knowing how to write similarly, therefore, he should not be niggardly. He should not be stingy when it comes to writing for other people.
And karma basically gives us the meaning of a law over here that because Allah has taught him how to write,
many times when people have a degree or a specialty in something, or particular skill, they think that they have it because they have earned it themselves. They have acquired it themselves, and they forget the fact that it is Allah who gives the Delphic to us to do something, to learn something to acquire a skill for so many people who try so hard to get a degree. Why is it that they weren't able to do it and you're able to do it. So many people strive to become lawyers. So many people strive to become accountants, many are not successful.
So if a person is successful, in gaining the skill of keytab, then it is the mercy of Allah, it is the favor of Allah. And if Allah has bestowed this favor upon you, then you should thank him.
For this favorite, and how should you thank him for this favor, that you should use this favor to serve people
should is also through actions. So he should not refuse to write, because Allah has taught him how to write and therefore he should benefit mankind with the skill that Allah has given him. A notice the word of Allah has been used at lemma, your unlimited willingness to teach something gradually, nobody can learn how to write in just one lesson. It takes time, it takes effort, and it takes a lot of practice. Therefore, when you're practicing your Arabic writing, don't get stressed out that I have to write the whole page. No, you can only perfect writing when you put in a lot of effort. And when you practice more and more because it's unlimited, you're Unlimited, to teach gradually, over a
period of time, comma Allah mahalo. So we see over here to describe as being instructed that when he is called to write, when he is called to record such a transaction, that he should not refuse to do so.
Why? Because Allah has done a huge favor on him by teaching him how to write so he should show thanks to Allah by using this favor to serve humanity.
We learn from a hadith the Prophet sallallahu Sallam said, it is a type of charity, to help a worker and to do something for a feeble person. And for a person who is weak. So if somebody does not know how to write, and you know how to write, then why shouldn't you help him? Why shouldn't you it's a circle. And remember, that a person may charge, he may take some wage for this writing for transcribing these documents, because if you think of it, if a person is doing this all the time, then how is he going to make money? If he's being called all the time, and he's been told over here that he should not refuse? Then how is he going to get any of his work done. So he can charge, he
can charge a wage, but obviously, it is better if he does so for charity, but he may charge a wage as well. So we see over here, that a Cathy must not refuse when he is called to write.
So if your mother asks you to type something for her, if your father asks you to type something on the computer for him, why? Because he's not that fast at typing, or he's not as skilled as you are, then what should you do? Do it for them, you should not refuse Why? Because it is Allah who has given you the skill, this ability, so you should use it to help other people. We learn from another Hadith the Prophet sallallahu Sallam said, Man, catamaran man, you're a llama, who will jamiyah will piano TV gentlemen, whoever kept knowledge to himself, will be restrained by a brutal made a fire on the Day of Resurrection.
He knows about something, and the other is asking him, but he doesn't know why. To keep his supremacy over him to keep his superiority over him that I know how to type in, you don't know how to type and You're so slow, and I can do it for you faster. But I'm not going to do it, I'm better than you. So this kind of thinking is very dangerous. It's something that will bring punishment to a person on the Day of Judgment.
So we see that knowledge is blessing. And in particular, the ability to write is also a blessing.
For the actor. So he should write, who should write, the scribe should write the command is given again, why for emphasis, that he should not refuse at all he should write?
Okay, now he is going to write, but what is he going to write? Who is going to tell him as to what he's supposed to write? Is he going to figure out everything himself? No.
While human and he should dictate. Again, you see the lamb at the beginning, it is off, giving the meaning of should and human is on the roof that was mean lamb lamb, or mean lamb? Well, and M Lal is to dictate something to someone.
And from him lamb Well, in law in law is to give time to give rest bite, when you're dictating something to someone, what do you have to do? You have to give them time to be able to write something to be able to write what you're dictating to them. Which is why if you talk fast, when you're teaching, it's possible that people miss out on what they're supposed to write. So in land needs in their in land dictation necessitates in law, what does that mean? giving, giving more time? So when you're when he should dictate who should dictate? And levy IE he'll have the one on whom is that?
What does that mean by help? Truth right? And remember how is also used for duty? As we learned earlier? How can I learn more? It's a duty it's something mandatory, it's incumbent upon you upon those who have the code.
upon those who do
so, how means duty as well over here, how gives meaning of the obligation of paying the day of returning the day, the obligation of making the payment that was delayed? So who is he? Who is this person, the one who has been obligated with the responsibility to pay the dame? Who is he, the debtor, the one who is taking the loan. So the one who is taking the loan, the debtor, he is going to dictate to the Catholic as to what he should write, the amount, the quantity, the time period, all of these details, who's going to dictate the debtor, the one who is taking the loan, the one on whom is to have the responsibility to return the thing.
And while he is dictating what does Allah say? Walia, tequila haba, who, and he should fear Allah who is his Lord? Notice while yet again lamb is off, that he must fear Allah who is Allah bow his Lord. So basically, his dictation, whatever he dictates should be correct. And he should fear a lot with regards to it. Because it's possible that a person is dictating and he deliberately says something wrong, or he deliberately says something in a very vague way, or in a way that the other person does not understand. It's possible, but who knows? Allah knows. So at that time, the dictator, the debtor, what should he do, he should fear a loss of data at that time. And out of the
fear of Allah when I have a husband who Shay, he should not produce anything from it, you have a horse is from box and what does buffs mean to reduce something to decrease something, whether it is in quantity, so for example, quantity of something or the quantity of the time period, and boxes also to reduce something in its quality or in its type that everything is not mentioned, all the details are given, some details are left out. So now I have a husband who say he should not reduce anything of it.
So we see over here, that the cat it should right? But if you notice so far, so many words have come from newsletters gafta isn't Fox to Blue Valley, octo Kathy been fairly active? So many times the word Qatada has come in different different forms. What does it show? This shows to us the importance of documenting of writing or recording financial transactions.
It's very important to write about financial matters, not just with regards to them, but with regards to other matters as well.
For example, this is the money that I own. Sometimes, a person owns some money, some property, some wealth, and the family has no idea. The children have absolutely no idea. Okay? If you don't want to tell your children, it's perfectly fine. Because sometimes children are told about these things that become very proud and they become wasteful and they don't take responsibility for themselves. They think that my parents are very rich, and I don't have to do anything.
So if a person has a lot of money, he owns a lot of property, he should have everything written down somewhere, whether it's with the lawyer, or it is with the spouse or it is with himself, but it should be written somewhere or the other. similarity. Sometimes people are living together. For example, husband and wife, the husband has this money, and the woman has her money. It's understood. This is my money. This is your money. But sometimes it's not clearly distinguish. They say, Okay, yeah, we share we share. And sometimes there's an argument. If there's a fight, give me my money. Okay, which money is exactly yours? Which one is exactly mine, it's not known. It's not clearly
distinguished. So when it comes to financial matters, financial issues must always be written down, must always be recorded.
And we also learn from this, that it's not just important to write about financial matters, but also other important things. It's also very important to write other important details are other important dates, or things like that. For example, if a woman is going through divorce, and she does not make a note of when her period begins, and then later on she forgets, how will you know if it does over or not? How is she going to figure out so, these details must be written down.
And the Catholic describe, because the word category is natural. Therefore, any person can be used as a scribe as long as
He knows what to write, and how to write. He's familiar with what is to be written, and which is why the guy that could be Muslim, he can be a non Muslim. And if in a particular need, you can also be a woman.
Many times families are completely split. To the extent that even grandchildren are not talking to each other. Why? Because of financial issues. Similarly, sometimes that happens with children, even this is my book, or this is your book. When you come to school, make sure you write your name on every book that you own. Because it's possible that the other person claims that it's their book, how can you prove it's yours? You can't you recognize your book, but how can you prove it. So it's always better to write these things down to avoid any further problems, because these problems lead to this unity.
So we're being told to be careful from the very beginning.
There, we see that almost every person can write. But a few years ago, from 20 years ago, some 2530 years ago, there were still quite a few people who didn't know how to write. And even in some cases, there are people who don't know how to write. So a person who does know how to write he should benefit others. And we can really apply this in ourselves when it comes to typing stuff on the computer. Because our parents, our grandparents, maybe our uncles or aunts, maybe they're unfamiliar. Sometimes they own a machine, maybe that's much better than yours, but they need help with the computer. So at that time, don't refuse to offer any help.
For example, if there's a transaction in which the payment was deferred, and it was not recorded, and the person who was supposed to pay, he does not come, he does not show up to give the money, what's going to happen.
Obviously, the person who is not giving the money to the other, obviously, he's done.
And he will be questioned about that. But the person who did not record it, who did not have this transaction recorded, when he had the opportunity to do that. And when Allah has clearly said, right, then he is going to suffer, and there is no pity for him. Really, there is no pity for him. Because if a person suffers loss, because of this reason, he didn't have it written down, then it isn't his fault. Because Allah has clearly said fuck to do write it down. If you don't, it's your fault. Now, over here, we see that lay the husband who shy he should not reduce anything of the day or off the time period at all. Remember, this reduction could be first of all in quantity, in
respect of time, or the amount. For example, instead of dictating 25, what did he say 20.
Similarly, instead of saying two months, he says one month or two years, he says two months, or two months, he says two years. So changing the quantity of either the amount or the time
these two should not be reduced. Secondly, the quality, for example, if it's not money that is being Lent, but let's say an expensive product is being Lent, or the payment of that is being deferred. So what does a person do? He says something else which is lesser in quality. Now for us, it might not make any sense. But in places where we have different types of grains, different types of crops, they are taken. And I mentioned to you about the Hadith where the Prophet was on when he came to Medina, people would pay for the dates a year or two in advance. So they're different qualities. So if a person reduces the quality and you mentioned something other than what he's actually supposed
to pay for, then that is also incorrect. And thirdly type as well. What does he mean by type, that if there are different types of things that are being Lent, then he should not cancel out he should not leave out any type at all. So basically, you should dictate every detail of that loan that has taken according to reality.
For in Canada, Dr. Lee can help then if the one upon whom is the hukou is under the IRA can help the debtor on who is the obligation to pay. If that person, the debtor, what is he supposed to do? What do we learn? He's supposed to dictate if this person is happy when he is foolish. The word Sophie is from seen for her and you know that the fee is used for someone who is not competent, someone who is foolish, who is less when it comes to understanding what is the mean by Sophie? Sophie is someone of limited understanding. Why is he have limited understanding it could be because of different reasons. For example, He is ignorant with regards to money, financial matters, property, business,
he has no idea about it. He doesn't even know how to pronounce certain words because he never studied
business. So he's completely unaware. He's a poor person from the village, for example, he is not aware of these things. So he is unaware, he is ignorant with regards to financial matters, or he's ignorant with regards to dictation, he doesn't know how to dictate.
For example, He doesn't realize and he just stays the whole thing at once. He doesn't have that ability, he doesn't have that sense.
Secondly, Sophie also refers to someone who is much new, someone who is insane, or someone who suffers from a mental illness from a psychological illness, but he needs to borrow money. Let's say he's living alone and he needs money for something. He doesn't have any family. He needs money for something.
Thirdly, the word surfy also applies to Moodle, man, what does he mean by that? Someone who wastes money? Someone who wastes well. a spendthrift person is squander.
And his business partners or his family does not trust him.
People who waste a lot of money, their business partners or their friends, they don't trust him anymore. So this is what he refers to. And others say that's a fee. We also refer to a child, someone who is very young, but they have to borrow money. Remember, Sophie does not mean stupid or foolish, literally, as we understand that word in English, but what does it mean? Someone have little understanding when it comes to financial issues.
And others have also said that it may also apply to a woman. Why? Because generally, typically, women are unaware of financial matters.
Some women are very good at this stuff. But overall women are unaware, which is why mostly we see that in typical average household, who is it that takes care of financial issues? The man, the woman doesn't do that.
And sometimes the woman has not even studied in university does not have a degree and she's completely unaware of these issues. And because some reason she has to take a loan, and if she's supposed to dictate, how is she going to do that? She doesn't know much. Thanks to some I've also said that it may also apply to a woman. But remember, not just a woman, not just a child, but anyone who is unaware when it comes to financial matters, who is not that intelligent, who is not that smart, who is not that careful, when it comes to financial matters, even if it is a person who has a degree knows about everything inside out, but he wastes money, still he will be considered a Sufi,
oh very funny or he is weak. nalbari is someone who suffers from birth and birth his weakness, what kind of weaknesses it it can apply to physical weakness, and it can also apply to mental weakness.
So for example, someone has a weakness and his memory, he begins talking, but he forgets halfway through he has or she has a short term memory loss, they had whole discussion on what was going to be borrowed and what was going to be lent and how much the time was going to be. But what happens the person forgets by the time he has to dictate or she has to dictate.
So weakness and memory. Similarly, birth, this weakness can also be an age, for example, a child is too young, or a man is too old,
too old, or too young. Similarly, this nerve could be weakness and health.
So for example, a person is weak in his physical body, he's unable to speak loudly. Or in his speech, he stammers a lot. Or he is much noon, he's insane. so in this situation, he's not going to dictate
or lay us the theory and human law, or he's not able to dictate himself. Meaning
the other cases that the debtor ality or legal help, he's not able to dictate himself. Yes, the theory is from his guitar, and what is the star to have the ability to do something? So why is he unable to dictate? It's possible that he's mute, he's unable to speak.
Similarly, it's possible that this particular person speaks a completely different language. And he doesn't know the language of the scribe, or the language of the other people who are there.
For example, he goes in a foreign land. I, for example, we see women who are a bit older, or even men who are a bit older, and who have immigrated from a different country to another and the language is completely different. They can get by when it comes to normal conversation. But when it comes to legal issues, when it comes to big matters, then they're not comfortable talking on their own. And what do they prefer that a translator comes with them? Or their son comes with them or their daughter comes with them, isn't it? It happens. So Elias the theory and human law who is not able to dictate himself, so what's going to happen for human so he should dictate who should dictate
in his place while he you
His well he who's really the Valley of the debtor and that era? And now who is only going to be and how is he going to dictate whether either with the Justice
now the question is, who is the Wali of this person,
this one, he could be his relative could be a family member, father, mother, son, daughter.
And secondly, this one could be someone whom the person trusts. So, for example, a translator, a professional translator, similarly, could be a lawyer.
So when he can be a relative, and secondly, he can also be someone who is reliable, someone who is trustworthy, but again, what's the condition? How should he dictate the law with the Justice
if you notice, we learned that when a person dictates he cannot leave out anything, he has to dictate the contract properly with all of the details, but if a person is weak, if a person is stuffy, if a person forgets, if a person does not remember, if a person is unable to speak clearly, then obviously How is he going to dictate properly? He won't be able to and it's possible that the candidate misunderstands or the candidate misses something because the dictator did not say it properly. So obviously, then the contract is not going to be written properly. Therefore, if the person himself is unable to do it properly, then somebody else is going to dictate in his place how
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we have learned that if a person is borrowing something, or if the payment is delayed, for something that is purchased or something that is decided, then in these matters in these situations, such contracts should be recorded.
It is highly recommended to record such contracts because otherwise it would lead to future problems. And who is going to record the contract a third person other than the creditor and the debtor, and that third person is a captive a scribe who is aware of the financial matters financial issues, which are necessary to know when writing such legal documents. When he writes he should write with justice and who is going to dictate to him the debtor The one who is taking the loan
One who is going to pay
for this is one thing that we have learnt and if the one who is taking the loan he is unable to do so because of foolishness or because of Dorf or because of lack of ability, then in that situation he is well, he is going to dictate the contract.
So we see that one important element in this contract is the key tab. It is the key tab of the writing the recording. And the second very important element in the contract of Dane is Shahada testimony witness, which is what is going to be discussed now.
Especially do anyone call to witness especially do is from Shin hadden from the word Shahada. And if this hat is to seek witnesses, meaning call people to witness, so especially do bring witnesses to what
to witness the death to witness the contract that is being made, that is being dictated and that is being recorded. And how many witnesses should you call shahidan two witnesses doula Shaheed, and these two witnesses should be mitigated come from European region is a Florida module. And module is used for a man who is barely being was mature, not a young boy, but a man who is past the age of puberty
and rigidity come, your man has been said, to clarify that the condition after witness is first of all, that he is bad. Secondly, that he is a Muslim, because it's your own men from among you, one of you. So secondly, he has to be a Muslim as well. For the Catholic we learned that it's not necessary that he should be a Muslim. But for a shy hit for a Shaheed, he has to be a Muslim,
and others have set another condition that region equal your man means that you should also be a free person. Because a slave does not have that much authority or ability. Therefore, reject equal means baniel. Secondly, Muslim, and thirdly, free
for illa mucuna. But if they were not allowed to lay any human, meaning the witnesses are not human, why?
For whatever reason, for example, you can find two men to witness over there. Or, for instance, you don't want to men to witness, you want your sister to be a witness, you want your brother to be a witness, you want a woman to be a witness, or the people whom you can find to be witnesses. There's something wrong, meaning they're not trustworthy. And the woman on the other hand is more trustworthy. So what are you going to do? You're going to stick to two men. No. If you don't want two men, then what are you going to do for agilone than one man? One more attorney and two women in law attorneys, a doula Emma, and Emma is used for a woman, not a young girl.
So who is a woman who has passed the age of puberty?
So in a case where you don't want to men witnesses to male witnesses, then you will have one men and two women? Why two women in case of that one man?
Now why do you inshallah we'll discuss that just when we finish this particular sentence.
So one men and two women, and these witnesses that you're going to call to witness are going to be mymind, from who? The loan Amina Shahada, you all approve as witnesses. As you heard, that is a foreigner Shaheed. And Bona is from Colombia. What does it mean, to be pleased to be happy satisfied with something or someone. So these witnesses, you should be satisfied with them, you should approve them. Now, Bona, you all over here refers to Muslim oma. And it doesn't just refer to the creditor or the debtor.
Because it's possible that the creditor says I like this particular person do bear witness. But the debtor says no, I don't want this person. So if it is left to the personal preference of the creditor and debtor, then the matter would never be resolved. So the donor you refer to the entire room,
meaning it should be those people who are trustworthy, and they are acceptable. They're competent, they are well known in the community.
So remember, that river over here does not mean personal preference, but that these people are acceptable in the community. There's a hadith that we learned in Bihar in which even our bass was around he reported he said shahida in the regional Murray youth region, meaning people who are acceptable, they are trustworthy, they are well known in the community. Just as for example,
When you have to fill out your passport application over here, don't you have to have it verified by some people? Who are they somebody else who holds a Canadian passport as well who has held it for the past five years or something like that. It's not your personal preference, it could be anyone. Anybody doesn't have to be a relative doesn't have to be a friend as long as he meets the conditions of trustworthiness. So similarly, amendment of loan administrator that means those people who are competent, acceptable and trustworthy, well known in the community, so they should be called as witnesses.
Now, why do women in place of one man because until Villa, in case and meaningless, that we let she makes a mistake, the winner is from what lamp lamp from Allah wonderful me to make a mistake to go wrong. And over here in particular, the lab gives the meaning of mission of forgetfulness.
straying from the testimony, when does it happen when the person forgets part of it, and you remember as part of it, so what's the result? confusion.
So just in case, the woman who is testifying who is bearing the witness, if she forgets, if she makes a mistake, if she is confused, then what's going to happen to the pillow, then she will remind if they're home and one of them to who is going to remind her Aloha, the other one who is referring to the woman who is bearing the witness. And an Ohio is referring to the woman who has come with her. So basically, we see that the two women are going to be there, why not so that they speak together in a course know that if one is speaking and she makes a mistake, the other one can remind her so that the two can discuss. And they can remind each other if there is a need.
So the other woman is only there Why? Why is she there?
For her support. There are other reasons given as well. For example, if you look at it, women generally when it comes to financial issues, they're very easily oppressed
in the sense that anybody can force them to hide the witness to hide the testimony. And genuinely women because of their position, because of the fact that they're women, they're afraid of their father, or their husband or their brother or somebody or the other one happens. They succumb, they submit.
But a man on the other hand, generally, he cannot be suppressed in the same way that a woman can be.
So therefore, the woman does not go alone. In the court, another woman goes with her, do women and remember that there has to be one man, the Shahada cannot be complete. Without one man,
there has to be one man. And then if you don't want another man, and if you want a woman in his place, then you're going to get two women.
So basically, the Shahada is not complete without one man, if you get four women, no, not acceptable, because it's possible that a person suppresses all those four women and doesn't just be quiet and say only what I'm trying to say. If there's one men and the other women are being suppressed, then the truth is going to be established. So there has to be one man. Another reason is that generally, women tend to be more forgetful compared to men.
It's not something that happens with every woman. But generally, this is what happened. So many times, you come up to me and you say, you know, I memorize the lesson seven times 10 times, we're gonna go to the group, but I'm reading it out to the group in charge. I forget everything. It happens with women. And also, if you look at it, women generally are more forgetful compared to men. Why?
Because the physical changes that a woman goes through all the time, it happens to women. So women generally tend to be more forgetful. Why? Because of the natural changes that they undergo.
This is why the Shahada is not complete without one man. I mean, one man has to be there has to be there. And if you want another woman, then she is going to be accompanied by another woman.
Also, if you see that a court is not a place for a woman,
generally a court or speaking to a lawyer, or something like that this is something that women generally find very uncomfortable. Generally, I'm not talking about every woman I'm talking about generally. So if there is somebody with her, whom, you know, she can speak to whom she can discuss the situation with, she's more comfortable. And if she's the only woman over there, that's also not appropriate. It's
possible that there are men who are Muslim. But it's possible that there are men who are not Muslim fish are going to go alone to the court only woman know, she has to be accompanied by another woman by another friend.
I just want to share my experience could not understand this ayah until it happened to me myself. I had to go to a lawyer for to take care of some cases. And then I went with my friend. And also my friend's brother came. And so we went inside, you have to imagine my friends was older and intelligent than the brother. So I had to answer some questions to the lawyer. So the thing what happened is they asking me, and they knew everything, it was my case to defend. I knew everything but because you know, when woman we get panicked, you forget everything. You don't know how to explain yourself. And my friend was there with me. She knew also, but she could not say anything,
she did not know how to calm me or she didn't know what to say. Because also she panic when one woman panic, another one.
And what you can imagine, also imagine, because my friend, brother did not know anything about me. But she just, you know, like, there is something I felt like the maybe something Allah gave men in like wisdom, which we don't have. And he just said one word, and the logo to the whole point. And we together, we could not put anything. And he said, this is the situation, we want to this resolution. And just imagine so woman, when Allah give these commands, don't think like a woman, we are nothing. We have some motion issues, which
we do have.
And we also see that when it comes to the man, even, he's not alone in the court. If you have a man as a witness, you're not going to keep just one man as a witness how many men are going to bring two men? And if you want to bring a woman, then you have to bring two as well? Why should she be alone.
And over here, Allah says my mentor donor, that it should be those witnesses whom you approve of, we see that in the time of the whole affair. There were non Muslims, who were also accepted as scribes. They were non Muslims who were scribes. But for a witness, he or she has to be a Muslim, which is why even or vassula did argue he said, there has to be mean. And then finally, with Dean, what Dean, meaning it has to be a person have been accepted in the Muslim community.
So over here, Allah says that if she forgets, if the woman forgets, then what's going to happen? The other one is going to remind her now why is she forgetting in the first place, because she's a woman, sometimes, because she's overwhelmed by what's going on. And even when she knows, despite the fact that she knows that in her head, she's unable to say out what she's supposed to testify to.
Now, we see that when the Quran was revealed, there wasn't much research on the differences between a man and a woman, whether it is mental, or emotional, or, you know, any kind of differences. They weren't that well known at that time. But today, this is not something that is difficult to understand with all of these studies that are done, we see that there are less women managers, compared to men manager.
If a man is doing a particular job, and a woman is doing that same job, who's going to get less money? The woman generally, not just in the Muslim communities, it's all over the world. In some countries, women are not allowed to become president, no matter how free of a country it is, no, it's not allowed.
So we see that men and women are different. And this is something that is known and acceptable by all societies. And if people deny there's absolutely no benefit in denying it. If men and women are physically different, there are different otherwise as well. And Allah subhanaw taala is the one who knows us best. Therefore, he has told us that in the court, the woman is not going to go alone. She's going to go with someone. But we see that in different matters in different issues. The witnesses are different. Many times people just take this eye and they say, the woman's testimony is half compared to the men's Have you heard that? And they object a lot to this. Whereas there are
other situations in which only one woman's testimony is enough. You don't even need one man. You don't even need to women, one woman enough, for example, when it comes to family law, with regards to family and lineage, which included ours, but what is what are breastfeeding, another child who is not yours? So in this situation, one woman's testimony isn't.
For example, we learned at the time of earthman ob learn who when he was a woman had cycled had breastfed a number of children, boys and girls. And what happened was
that two of those children, a boy and a girl who weren't actually related, but because they had been breastfed by the same woman, they didn't know of that, and they ended up getting married. And this woman was brought as a witness to testify that she had actually breastfed both of them. And when she witnessed, their marriage was annulled. Why, because the brother and sister even through breastfeeding, they cannot get married.
So we see that in some situations, the testimony of one woman is sufficient.
But when it comes to financial matters, financial transactions, it's an area that is mainly dominated by men. Therefore, primarily, you will bring male witnesses.
And look at the beauty of this one, that even in this situation, if you're more comfortable having a woman as a witness, and you may bring a woman as a witness.
And this was something unheard of before, unknown as before, you're bringing a woman to bear witness, not possible.
But Allah subhanaw taala allowed this because it's possible that you want a woman to testify, even when it comes to financial matters, because she is more experienced, she is more aware. So if she is and you wish to bring her, again, Islam gives respect to a woman, you're not going to take her to court, she is going to be accompanied by someone whom she's comfortable with another woman.
And we see that when the testimony takes place, only one woman is testifying, both of them are not talking at the same time. Right, only one speaks and in the case where she forgets then the other line thing. And we see that if two men are brought as witnesses, and one of them testifies, and the other man says something contradictory, then their testimonies are completely disregarded. But the women, they have been given the chance to discuss and decide and then speak.
And we also see that giving testimonies, bearing witness, this is not a privilege, it's a huge responsibility. When people are fighting, they're disputing about something, they're arguing about something and you're asked what happened exactly. All of a sudden, you're like, what happened,
and you're unable to speak, you're unable to clarify as to what happened.
So, when it comes to bearing witness, it is something that is very heavy, very burdensome. And because a woman, she is different physiologically, mentally, emotionally, therefore, Allah has not left her alone in the situation, her friend can accompany
when I had my Shahada, and the witnesses must not refuse, why, when to give, or to take witness meaning to bear witness at the time of the recording of the day, and if needed, if they're brought to court afterwards. And they are invited to bear witness even at that time, they should not refuse either Maduro whenever they're called.
Now, the smell over here is say that is extra giving the meaning of emphasis. So for example, there was a contract of thing. And you call to witnesses to men, and the bear witness, if they're being called, at that time to come and bear witness to that contract to the debtor dictating the date and the cattle writing the day. So a child a witness, he should not refuse to come at that time he should come. Now, let's say the data, he does not pay the creditor at the right time. Now the matter has to be taken to court. Correct. So if the matter is taken to the court, and the witness is called, he should not refuse, he should go.
So in both the situations
at the time when the contract is being made, and afterwards, if the need arises to go to court, then the witnesses should not refuse.
It has been said that if you're called to be a witness, then you have the choice to agree. Meaning if somebody is calling you to come and bear witness to the contract that is being made, at that time, you have a choice to agree. You can say no, I don't wish to bear witness to this. And you can say okay, fine. But if you have witnessed already, and then you are called to testify, then you have to come forward, then you have no choice, then you must go for it.
Because you are the only person who can testify. And the condition is of two witnesses, or one men and two women witnesses. So if you're one of them, you have to go otherwise the Shahada cannot be completed. The Prophet sallallahu Sallam said, the best of witnesses is the one who comes forward with his testimony before he is asked about it. Before even he's asked about the Muslim
so why should you wait to be called and invited when you know that there is some difficulty in the situation then go for it. If you're the witness, why not assemble and do not feel burdened? Do not be wary. That's always from seen hands me some and some is to get tired
And bored of doing something. Why, because of doing it too much. Because of doing it excessively, because of doing it monotonously this is what settlement is.
So let us know don't get bored, don't get too lazy,
about what and ductable that you write it, write what? Write the day.
Don't be lazy. Don't be wary, don't be tired. When it comes to writing the day, whether it is severe, something small,
or something big, either add until it's done.
So whether the thing is something very small, or it is something huge.
Don't be bored. Don't be tired of recording it. Why? Because if you record it, it's much better for you.
And sometimes what happens is that when people are recording such a document, they leave out the small details. For example, they say, okay, January 15, you're supposed to journal I'll just write January, forget about 15. And then there's a dispute over 15 or 16, the same friends become enemies.
When you write a check, what do you write at the end?
For example, $56 only. So even if it's a matter of only, and sometimes it's not a matter of only, sometimes it's a big amount, and still you're right only. So no matter what the amount is, no matter what the detail is, right? The detail, write everything down, clearly, in detail, record the term, record, the quantity, the number, the date, everything else.
And so I said that untargetable was a lead on Oh, Kabira, you can also go to the extent of writing something like you're writing the number in words, the date, the amount, and you know how sometimes you say, half of which is this much like in a legal document, they'll say $1,000, half of which is 500. In big legal document, this is done. So don't be wary, when it comes to writing details.
Many times we consider these details to be insignificant to be unimportant. And later on it is these details that create a lot of problems for us.
Valuable that Oh, you are? What does that equal refer to this command to write the name and this command of calling witnesses, because what are two things that are important? In a day, the cadaver, the writing the recording, and secondly, calling witnesses.
So their legal doing these two things that is opposite to it is more fair, acceptable is from this. And this is from art scene.
And this is used for justice, for being very just when it comes to dealing with people.
And generally the workplace is used for justice with regards to tangible and physical matters.
For example, others also justice, with other can be in speech, in promises, but crystals with regards to physical matters generally.
So then you come across a color in the law and autopista said that it's to be equal equality. And I believe justice, what is that you give everybody what they deserve, even if that means giving the older person more than what the younger person deserves.
But this is the don't look at who it is, but give exactly equal.
So then you come across suffer in the law. This is more just in the sight of Allah. What is more just
writing and calling witnesses. Welcome, I'm Alicia head and it is also more firm. It is sound when it comes to testimony, what I do know a lot of them and more appropriate and let that not Doctor Who you are without a plumber is from Perth, Wyoming. And Edina is from the new factories del noon. Well.
So over here, three benefits of writing and calling witnesses are being mentioned. But first of all, it is more just in the sight of Allah.
that when you write all of the details, nothing is going to be left out. Nothing is going to be compromised.
And it's going to lead to justice as well. No one's share, no one's right is going to be compromised, everyone is going to get what they deserve. The time is not going to be reduced, it's not going to be increased. similarity, no one share is going to be increased or decreased in any way. So it is opposite it is much more just in the sight of Allah.
Secondly, up along with the shadow, it is more stronger. As evidence what is more stronger is evidence. The document for example, if the document is written, it is recorded. And later on you forget later on the shot hit the witness. He forgets it's possible
That even the one who bears witness he forgets as a human being, she forgets she's a human being, it's possible that the time period was like five years or 10 years.
So it's possible that he or she forgets. But when he or she decided, when they see the document, what's going to happen, they're going to be reminded
that when you see something, and you remember, oh, yes, it was like that I was mistaken for a formula, Shahada. It is stronger as evidence, it is more correct, and more likely to protect the rights of those who are concerned.
And the third benefit of law says is what I do know a lot of trouble and it is more likely that you will not doubt
you will not doubt to
each other, the witnesses, or the debtor, or the creditor or the Catholic. So basically, it is going to prevent doubts between all of you.
So these are the benefits of writing, recording, and calling witnesses at the time of
the day. At the time of concluding are they either today until within the profit sort of all the sudden said that may your ebook,
ebook, leave that about which you are in doubt, for that about which you are in no doubt. So something that makes you doubtful, leave it and take what that which does not make you doubtful.
So if you're not going to record, you might become doubtful. If you don't call somebody to witness, you might become doubtful later on. So if there is a way to prevent doubt, in the future, then you should choose that way, you should go that way. So that you can live your life in peace and contentment with trust.
You see, what happens is that when there is suspicion or when there is mistrust, then what happens it leads to bad relationships. It leads to dividing and breaking relationships.
Sometimes it could be between a husband and wife, sometimes between parents and children, sometimes between best friends, it's possible between business partners, because we're human beings. If we don't completely trust someone, it could lead to problems. And if you have something written down already, then it's going to remove doubts.
So it's going to remove doubts from you, therefore, write it down and call people to witness at the time of concluding.
In that except there is one exception that is the main exception from what from recording the transaction or calling people to witness the transaction. So basically, it is connected with facts
that in this situation, it's not necessary for you to record document the transaction
and that the corner it is the job often a trade have it often when that is present when that is on the spot to the Rona, you all circulated by nickel between you.
The gelatin is from dejima. And tiara, as you know means trade bargain. And Jonathan, how the rotten habit is fun? How about what does it mean to be present. So how little is instant present on the spot.
Remember, at the beginning of the lesson, I told you that there are two types of transactions generally, one that is immediate, one that is concluded at the spot, and the other in which the payment is deferred, or the delivery of the product of the purchase product is deferred.
Now Dana's watch, what is the date
that the payment is deferred, it's the second time, so when it comes to them, it is highly recommended that it should be recorded and the witnesses must be brought. But if it is a transaction that is immediate, it's on the spot, you're gonna go to the store, you're going to go to the cafeteria, you're going to give 25 cents, and you're going to bring us some water. Is it necessary that the people in the cafeteria issue you receipts for every little thing?
What is it going to do?
If they have to issue receipts for every little thing, what's going to happen?
It's going to create a lot of problems.
But when it comes to the bookstore, where the products are more, they're more expensive and more serious than it makes sense to get receipts.
But if let's say you go to the cafeteria, and you say I don't have money right now, but I'm really hungry. I'm really hungry. Can I please take this food? I'll pay you tomorrow. So what does the person do? They write your name and they write what you bought. And tomorrow when you bring the money, they cancel out your name. So when you defer the payment that is then but if it's an immediate transaction, it's not a big deal. And it's not necessary for you to call to witnesses and, you know, to write the whole thing down. No, it's going to create problems for you.
So Jonathan, how to do that how to do that well
And all you do is to, to rotate. So to the owner, meaning that the Jarrah, how do you give and take between you how, what are you circulating that you give the money, and the other person gives you the thing. Exchange is complete. And each party takes its share Before leaving, before departing, to do not have a nickel. so in this situation, Allah says, Felicia, they come to their hand and there is no live upon you a letter to her that you don't record it. There is no big upon you. It's no big deal. The wealth the thing that you're buying, is there, the money you've paid? Finished, it's done. No problem.
However, what I see do and call witnesses, either today or two, when you all trade with one another, to buy items from Bay Area Bay, and what does it mean to buy and sell
beer is to buy and sell to contract to do but in particular, to buy arco? It's different from the Java because the virus on the first two big transactions, it refers to commercial contracts that are major.
so in this situation, when you are making a big transaction, then what should you do? Make sure it is recommended that you call witnesses at that time. So if it's a large transaction and important one, then call witnesses at that time and remember that over here, however, the answer is we'll actually do it at the bottom as we do again is a command, but this command is off
again, that it is preferable, because we see that the Prophet sallallahu sallam,
he did make commercial contracts for commercial purchases without there being witnesses. So it is highly recommended, but it is difficult, then it is not necessary.
Well, and he should not be harmed you blah, blah, blah, who should not be harmed? Kathy will describe well as Shaheed nor the witness,
the Catholic and the Shaheed the Catholic described and the witnesses, they must not be harmed in any way, when it comes to their work with regards to your day
with regards to your contract. Now, how could a Catholic be harmed,
for example, the Catholic is threatened. And he's told you only right? What we tell you don't listen to the debtor, despite whatever he's dictating to you don't write that. So he's pressurized to write that which is incorrect.
Or, for example, the captain is being called all the time and he's not being paid. He set a condition that if I come, you have to pay me this much money, and he's not paid at all, then he's forced to offer his services as charity.
For example, His time is being wasted, you yourself have not decided from before. And you call him and he's sitting there for hours and hours while you're debating. And he's been forced to just sit there and wait until you've decided and then he's going to write for you.
For example, if you've made the appointment with him to come at a particular time, and he's there waiting, and you don't show up, wasting his time.
For the cat, it should not be harmed in any way at all.
Similarly, what happens is sometimes that a catheter stalled at the last moment, half an hour left, just come right away. And he's busy, some important work of his, but You make it sound so urgent, the lawyer is going to go, the more lawyer stays the more money you have to give him to just come right away. Despite the fact that he's busy in some important work of his. So the Catholic must not be harmed. How can the Shaheed beyond
for example, they're bribed or they're threatened to give false testimony in the court or kidnapped or killed. That also happens.
The poor Shaheed is doing your favor and he's kidnapped or he's killed.
What else just as the gap of time is wasted similarity is time is wasted. The Shaheed is time is wasted, so there could be different ways of harming the Catholic or the Shaheed What does Allah say, Don't harm the Catholic or the Shaheed
people usually harm others when they're upset and angry. Or when they want something for themselves when they want something that they don't actually deserve.
But before harming the other, we should always remember that Mum, bla bla bla bla bla, Hubby, whoever causes harm to the other, Allah
who whoever causes harm to the other who harms him, Allah harms him, so therefore don't harm the other.
One interfer you and if you do so if you do what if you harm the Catholic or the Shaheed for you know for tsukkomi con, then it is something sinful on your part. It is a great disobedience on your part for Zuko is from Fisk, what does it mean to cross the limits sin? And notice for Foucault, it's Nikita Nikita why fatale. That. It's a
Great sin on your part, this is not something acceptable at all. They're helping you. They're doing you a favor and you harm them. If you hand them that sinful what Tacoma and fear Allah, where you are limo como la and Allah will teach you.
You fear Allah, and Allah is going to teach you what is in your best interests.
When it comes to financial issues, yes, there are many guidelines that are Lost Planet Allah has given us we find many guidelines in the Quran, in the sun.
But there are also some matters about which we are unaware, which is why people differ about them. One scholar has one opinion and the other scholar has another opinion. So what is it that we must remember, when it comes to financial issues? Who should we fear of loss?
that at the end of the day, I am accountable to Allah with regards to this money? How am I making it? How am I earning it? How am I using it? How am I spending it? Is anyone being harmed in the process?
If there is, I am going to be questioned? How am I earning this I am going to be questioned. So at the end of the day, it's the fear of Allah that leads the person to correct knowledge and to correct me.
It's the fear of Allah to translate knowledge into action. Remember, we learned earlier that so Hekmati, mahathat of law, the foundation of wisdom is the fear of a law. Only then you know what to do, when to do, how to do if you should do it or not, what the law while you're under common law, Fear Allah and Allah is going to teach you will love will be cliche in early and Allah is of everything, he is knowing he is well aware of every single thing. So we see over here that taqwa leads a person to him, and Armand,
when a person fears Allah, then he knows what to do, even if he hasn't really read the text. For example, when it comes to river,
doesn't common sense tells you that you should not take advantage of the other person suffering. He's poor, he's taken a loan from you and you're charging him on that. Common sense tells you the fear of Allah tells you,
even if a person has not read the river, still the fear of a library to stop him from exploiting the other person who is in need. And we also see that taqwa needs to our will, for example, we learn interpolant Allah says, Yeah, you're Latina Amano in that De La Hoya, yet you are looking for foreigner, or you will believe if you have the favela, he will grant you a full con what is for con criteria, something that will tell you what is right and what is wrong.
Remember, we cannot be told in every situation, do this and don't do this. We have been given guidelines we are supposed to follow them, but what is it that will remind you what to do and what not to do in this situation? What is it going to remind you fear of Allah is something that along with like, is this something that alone would be happy with?
So fear Allah and Allah will teach you.
And we also see from this, that the source of all knowledge is who are multiplanetary where you are a limo qumola alone teacher, so nobody can say that I have this much knowledge. I know so much. Because I put in so much effort. I put in hard work. I'm so intelligent. I have such a big brain and have so much knowledge No, Allah is the one who gives knowledge. In the beginning of the ayah we learnt about the Catholic. The Catholic should not refuse to write because Allah has taught him how to write. So there is no pride when it comes to in
there is no pride. No arrogance, when it comes to
a loss apparently is one who knows everything. What are you gonna be shaming me, 11 Masha, but the human beings What do they know?
Hello, hajikko member Ponyo Maha tiecon that Allah Masha, Allah brought you out from the wounds of your mother's when you knew nothing. You were completely ignorant. And now that you have read a few books, fast, a few grades have a few degrees and you think you're the most intelligent person no longer be cliche in writing alive knowing of everything. And so when it comes to these issues, especially financial issues, many times we may question Why not? Why can't I take labor? Why can I not give labor? Why is the woman not going alone to the court? Why does she have to be accompanied by another woman? These questions might come in our minds, but what do we have to think? Well ah who
be colletion Eileen.
Allah is Knowing of everything. What is good for me? What is not good for me?
Similarly, a person might object. Why all this process of writing and calling witnesses I mean, why couldn't life be simple, but Allah knows that we are human beings. So we'll all be conditioned.
We see that Allah serpentine is the one who is aware of everything. And every command that He has given us is based on his wisdom and his knowledge. And we see that when it comes to writing important matters, writing, recording financial matters, people are very lazy. People are very negligent. And what happens, families break up, relationships break friends, they don't speak to each other anymore. Because at the end of the day, people love their money. People love what they own.
A lot, Hunter knows us inside out, he knows us. Therefore, whatever he has commanded us is in fact that which is best for us.
Sometimes we do this out of love, you're my brother, you know, I trust you. It's no big deal, I trust you. But then later on when your brother or the personal trust a lot does not give you your money back, then all that love and friendship and trust goes down the drain.
Sometimes people become very offended when they're told that the issue that the matter should be recorded. They say Oh, you don't trust me. But you can tell them nicely and you can remind them of this island.
It's not about trust, it's about the human factor. We're human beings we can forget
even the non Muslims practices of recording all the details. Because if even one detail is not there or something is vague or incorrect, then the whole document is nullified.
And we see over here that where you are Nima comala, Allah is the one who teaches you. So we should always remember the fact that no matter how much we have learned, still there is someone who knows more than a knowledge should never lead to pride or arrogance because once knowledge leads to pride, then it leads to corruption.
Money is something that is important and can be mistaken very easily. So it's important to document
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