Introduction to Fiqh Part 2
Channel: Sajid Ahmed Umar
File Size: 12.27MB
The definition of the fic is an Arabic term. And the Sharia came down in the Arabic language. So by default, had a meaning before the revelation of the Sharia. It had a meaning because the Arabs spoke Arabic before the Quran was revealed. So when the Arabs used the term fic, they meant by it, as taught to us by fayrouz, Abadi and alpha Umi and these are scholars of the Arabic language fayrouz Abadi, he has a famous book known as a moose and alpha Umi has a famous book known as Al Mustafa, Al Mooney and Misbah alimony and for those who are students of knowledge, budding students of knowledge, then if you ever look for books that sort of deal with the definitions of terms in the
Sharia, and the meaning in the Arabic language at the same time, then these are books for you to purchase our most of Pharaohs Abadi and Al Mustafa al Munir of alpha Umi, they say that in the Arabic language means to understand something it means to understand something and they cite as evidence for this Allah subhanho wa Taala has ayah in the Quran where Allah subhanho wa Taala says to submit hula hoops somewhat.
Well, woman fee in one minute A u sub bihu be handy while I can let our hoonah test be home. In the Hakuna Shalimar hora and this ayah is in Surah Surah number 44. So Allah subhanho wa Taala says here, let us Kahuna to be home Allah subhanho wa Taala says that the seven skies and the earth the earth and everything in it, praises Allah subhanho wa Taala everything praises Allah subhanho wa Taala. But you cannot understand that be well, let us who let us be home you cannot understand. so thick in this ayah doesn't mean that which is the science of the Sharia which we will dive into just now. When you translate here you don't say this is the Islamic rulings which teach us yg vindman
Duplo This is talking about the linguistic Arabic meaning Allah says Latifah Han he means they don't understand you don't understand the praises that are observed by the creation of Allah subhanho wa Taala Is that clear? Is that clear? It means to understand, right? Allah subhanho wa Taala also says in Isaiah number 91 in Surah Hood, all we are sure a man who kathira metal bar we actually a blind Africa who can hear me man cool. They said yes. We do not understand a lot of what you saying we do not understand a lot of what you think so 50 refers to the linguistic meaning of check, which means to understand, is that clear? Okay, so in the Arabic language means and understanding and
understanding. Now, some of the allameh have said that is not entirely true. That is not entirely true. Yes, it does mean to understand something, but rather, it means to precisely understand something. So they've added an extra objective to the meaning of this. It's not a general understanding of something, it is a precise understanding of something. And they say that they evidence is the fact that in the Arabic language, you can't say for to kalama Saku to Osaka to do all of this is correct. Right? All of this is correct in the Arabic language is pure Arabic. So they say you can't say forget to Al McCann. You can't say forget to Alma Can I understood the place? You
can say that. Because when we say when we talk about understanding a place, it doesn't mean it doesn't mean that we know the intricacies of this place. Right? For example, somebody gives us directions to a place we say oh, I understand what it is. Does that mean you understand every intricate detail between you and that place? Now you have an overview, understanding of where that place is? Does that make sense? Right? So they say you can't say *a? He told McCann in Arabic language don't make sense. Or you can say forget to sama have understood the sky using the word. Yes, you can understand the sky. But does it mean you know the intricacies of the skies? No. But you
can say the two column or two columns or two columns. You can say I've understood your speech. Because now when a person says that he's referring to a precise understanding that I've understood what you said in its complexity, the words you've used and the meanings that you intended behind those words. So they say that in the Arabic language doesn't just mean a general understanding rather it means a precise understanding is that clear. So according to the linguists, in the Arabic language can either mean a general understanding and to some others it means a specific understanding. And while Haarlem the alemayehu say it means a specific analysis.
Planning. In my humble view, this is the preferred view this is the correct view means a precise understanding of something. Now let's look at as is in the Quran and the Sunnah. We're just talking about the meaning of look at the intricacies, we haven't even gone into the reality of it. Right so this should humble as real humble as really and make us understand that Pamela, we have a long way to go. Allah He we we we are who we are today because we stand on the shoulders of giants Allah He of Muhammad Abdullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and the fuqaha from the Sahaba and the fuqaha. From the tab you're in like Abu hanifa Imam, Abu hanifa, Imam Malik and Imam Shafi and mmid been humbled
and others are him of whom Allah who Jamia we stand on the shoulders of giants, that's why we are able to fathom some a percentage of this knowledge we will never reach the level of understanding and inshallah will appreciate this as we go on. Now, in the Quran, Quran and Sunnah. Now we're talking about it in the context of the Sharia, right? When somebody says fifth, and they talking about it in the context of the Sharia, it has a different meaning than the linguistic meaning, although they are related, but we're talking about a more specific meaning to the word just likes fala. Salah in the science of fear can be first to the Salah that we know when we stand facing the
Qibla and we raise our hands and observe that we wrote to him. And we observe a specific set of supplications and invocations and and actions and it ends with the idiom that's the definition of Salah. But in the Arabic language Salah means before the Sharia came down when the Arabs use Salah they meant by it. Right? So this is just to teach us that in the Arabic language it has a meaning and in the context of the Sharia it has a meaning. So what does it mean in the context of the Sharia? Well, in the context of the Sherry has a general meaning and it has a specific meaning when we use filk loosely, we mean all the knowledge of the Sharia, having an understanding of everything
that is considered from the sciences of the Sharia, whether it's Akita, whether it's the fear, whether it's fear, and so on and so forth. And then we have or basically what proves this, that fifth refers to all the sciences of the Sharia, is the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam he said, My ob Hara if I did, that, if Allah subhanho wa Taala was good for you. He gives you the understanding of religion, what understanding what does the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam mean by fifth here does he mean, meaning the Islamic rulings only know he gives you an understanding of the correct aqeedah and the correct Islamic rulings regarding the worship of Allah subhanho wa
Taala. Is that clear? So Phil is encompassing and that is why Imam Abu hanifa when he wrote his book in Akita, he named his book Allah, Allah be greater. So generally, in the context of the Sharia can be encompassing, and include all the sciences of the Sharia. But then we have a specific meaning to write we have a specific meaning to check just for your notes for ice machine lemania. Writing if we also drop down at 122 in soda to tober 122 in soda to Toba? Allah subhanho wa Taala says, Americana millenarian Pharaoh Kapha Leon Phu Kapha follow Lana for me, Kolkata moomba to leota COVID de Allah subhanho wa Taala uses the word in this ayah. Right, Allah subhanho wa Taala is saying, if a group
of people went and attained the fic of religion, what is Allah subhanho wa Taala intent by the intent by the fact that we know or understanding of the various sciences of the Sharia? What did he mean, the general thing he meant by the general fit and this is what I use as evidence to prove that I can also mean understanding of the other sciences of the Sharia. But then we have a specific meaning a specific meaning. And this is the precise technical definition. Now, we'll be talking about the science of physics as we know it today. And because of the science, we call the specialists of the science, the fuqaha. Right? We talk about the fuqaha. We're talking about those
who understand the science precisely. And the reason why we have this definition, or we say it's a precise definition is because when we release this definition, by default, we exclude all the sciences that are not considered fit in this precise context. Is that clear? And no, this is not the normal talks that we're used to. Right. This is more of a technical academic. Lots of pauses kind of talk, and that's how it is right? That's how it is. And that's why to learn, you have to be patient, right? You have to be patient. So basically, we're talking about, as we know it when we talk about what's the ruling regarding ruco. And what's the ruling regarding sapan saying Super neurobiol are
the main Salah what's the ruling regarding Hajj, what's the ruling regarding a particular contract this is this is fit as a science. So what do we mean by
We mean by it a little bill cam a sherea Amalia Alamo Stan Baba mean a diletta. A tough Celia. I know some people thought, Oh, we switch to Chinese. But it is the Arabic language. But it's very technical, or victims coming together. In a Sharia law Maria al Mustafa mean at the lady had tough cilia. In a loose translation, it's loose. It means knowledge of the rulings of the Sharia did use from specific proofs, knowledge of the rulings of the Sharia deduced from specific proofs, right knowledge of the rulings of the Sharia, deduce from specific proofs. So let's go through this definition. What is knowledge? knowledge in this particular definition is known in the Arabic
language as Elgin's Elgin's meaning it's a type, it's a type, it makes us understand what what's the type of the science? is a tree? No. Is it a car? No. Is it a human being? No, it's knowledge. And therein is this part of the definition that tells us the reality of the science? What is the reality of the science? It is what I'm gonna say that again. When they say that is a little vague is knowledge. What are they telling us? They telling us that it's not a tree, it's not a car, it's not a human being? It's not a business. It's knowledge that falls under the category of knowledge. Is that clear? This is what this is why the LM I have said earlier, when we talk about technical
definitions in the Sharia, every single word has a purpose. Every single word has a purpose. If it doesn't have a purpose, we kick it out. And if the definition is not inclusive of all the words that make us understand its reality, as a science, we say this definition is incomplete. So when the LMS said that film is first and foremost knowledge, that the purpose behind it to teach us that it is knowledge, it's not anything else. Now, knowledge has two categories to it, I'm going to give you the Arabic terms and explain it to you, rather than giving you the English equivalent, because I think it's easier to understand it in its Arabic form. There. Whenever I say that knowledge has two
branches to it. One is a word, which is imagery to have an image of something in your mind. And the other one is a stick by the sower. So right at the top, right, and then branch it out, put two, two lines coming from this one to the right, one to the left. Exactly. So that's
one branch of aim is known as a solver. So right at the solver, the solver and then the next one is the
the solver is knowing something without it ruling, knowing something without its ruling. So write that down. That is the meaning of the solver you have an idea of it, but you don't know it's ruling, that is possible. And Atlas D is knowing something with its ruling. So if somebody says, Do you know what ruku is? You say? Yes, that is the soul? And if somebody says Do you know what ruku is with its ruling? And you say yes, that is.
Right. So knowledge is inclusive of these two entities. And this is important for those who become who study. And this is why I'm saying it. It's important, because the LMS a and who can fish a foreign Antasari for you to give a ruling in something you have to have an idea of what that thing is, if somebody comes to you and says, What is the ruling regarding limited liability companies? Now you don't have an idea what on earth? an LLP is a limited liability company? How would you give a ruling? So the first stage is having a Tazawa, this is part of knowledge, then the next stage is applying the ruling appropriate to that particular aspect that you've understood. Exactly. That is
the slip. So first comes to silver, and then comes does the NSA they say I'm so confused a foreign and that's a worry. Whenever you want to produce a fatwa for a new contract or for a specific situation, it's incumbent that you understand exactly what it is the intricacies of it. For example, somebody says, What is the ruling on changing one's gender?
Understand what changing one's gender means and then apply the ruling. If somebody says, What is the ruling on test tube babies, for example, or surrogate mothers, for example, understand what it is when you understand it, then you know what the Sharia has said about it. And then you can apply so it's not enough for you to just have knowledge about the Sharia. complete knowledge is to have the software as well as does the Okay. Then the hook is a lm lm so it is knowledge about what they say it's knowledge about
its knowledge about a cam. So fic is the knowledge of Islamic rules.
That's what it is. So first we said that is knowledge. And then somebody said knowledge about what we said knowledge about Islamic rulings. Right now Islamic rulings means we have knowledge about what is wajib? What is men? dubh? What is mcru? What is mobile? What is haram, as well as having knowledge about those aspects that bring about certain acts of worship. For example, the sun crossing its zenith teaches us that selective door has entered, or a person who possesses the nisab. If he possesses that wealth for the course of one year, then zakka now is incumbent upon him, he's also a camp. Right? So what is its knowledge, knowledge about what Islamic rulings? Then the LMS
said, A Sharia law, Sharia means Islamic ruling, so it would be incorrect for us to say it's knowledge about rulings? No, it's knowledge about Islamic rulings. So if somebody says, What's the route? What's the ruling about in the statement?
and other Hebrew? Anna, the Hebrew? I am going what's the ruling about that Hebrew? Is it more for? Is it moku? Is it mfu? For those who are studying the Arabic language? Is that a ruling based on this definition? Is that a ruling? Don't be shy, we are here to learn, you can make all the mistakes you want here. Right? So unfortunate that people talk outside the lesson. They don't talk in the lesson. Talking the lesson make the mistakes here. It's no problem. When somebody says what's the ruling on another HIPAA, the HIPAA? Is this a fine? Is this a federal Is it a verb? Is it the duty of the verb? That question that they asking us? They asking us about the rule? What is it? Is that a
ruling in the science of hip? No, that's an that's an Arabic grammar ruling. So what is his knowledge, knowledge about what rulings which rulings Islamic rulings? Are we following? How important every word is? Then the LMS a Emelia they say Amalia meaning rulings that cover the practical side of our faith, like Salah it's practical and Zakah is practical. The reason why these are practical to exclude knowledge of Akita. So if somebody comes and asks you about the names and attributes of Allah subhanho wa Taala Is that considered in the precise form that we discussing now? No, in the general form of it, it is, but in fifth as a science if somebody asks you about the names
and attributes of Allah subhanho wa Taala is absolutely not Mashallah. I think we return certificates for them. Now they're paying attention by then the alumni say Alma Stan, bottom in Adelaide, Australia. These rulings, somebody asks what is fake? We say it's knowledge, knowledge about what rulings which rulings, practical rulings? Where are these rulings derived from?
We say from specific evidences. Now, why did the allameh add this here? The allameh added this here for us to differentiate between fifth and ossola.
Because as soon deals with general evidences, and fifth deals with specific evidences, so if anybody asked you What's the difference between the two? We say, oh, Sunil fick teaches us what is evidence? And fic is the study of that evidence to deduce rulings. So for example, also teaches us where we can go to derive rulings of the Sharia so that it will tell us the Quran is a source of evidence. The Sunnah is a source of evidence. The consensus of the dilemma is a source of evidence is analogy evidence, can you produce rulings of the Sharia from analogy? Yes, you can. Okay. Now the fourth he knows he can use analogy to to deduce rulings of the Sharia that will surely told him what he could
use the fact he now opened the Quran and delved through the specific ayat in the Quran and started deducing evidences that clear. This is why the lemma said that, as a science is the study, or is his knowledge, which is related to specific evidence is not general evidences. And by this we differentiate between the foci. And that was really, are there any questions? No questions? Right, let me ask you questions. So we will pick randomly and you stand up and share with us some answers, isn't it? Is that okay? That's fine. hamdulillah. So at least I know that we're not sharing half knowledge here. No, we're not sharing half knowledge. Here. We're sharing full knowledge five, who
can tell me what filk is in the Arabic language, the linguistic form, or be kind and say, Who can tell me rather than picking people? Now alhfam general understanding, is that entirely correct? In the Arabic language? Yes, it means to understand is that the only thing said about it? What else has been said? That is a technical in its technical meaning won't fit in the linguistic meaning for him.
Thank you. So Baraka, I think you are correct, but we said that the allama have two takes on it. One is general understanding woodloch alhfam and one is alpha madaket. The Dalai Lama said in the Arabic language could mean a general understanding or precise understanding, right. And we said that we can't say to sama, I've understood the skies because you haven't precisely understood the skies. That's a lie.
But you can say 42 kilometers, meaning I understood your speech, which teaches us that you've understood the intricacies the words that the person said, as well as the intended meanings because remember, sometimes when people speak, they speak something but what you've understood is not what the speaker intended, right or wrong, like the Sudoku Baqarah, the Jews, when these two scores call to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, they say, rah, rah means our guide, but it also has an evil connotation. They intended the evil and Rasulullah, sallAllahu, alayhi wasallam, what they meant the good, right? So it's possible, someone can speak to you something and you've understood
something else, and they've understood something else. And it happens, it happens with the students of knowledge with all of us, when we study the books of fiction, that's why it's important to learn with a scanner. That's why it's important to learn with a scholar, sometimes it can be a mistake in the print, sometimes it can be that you've learned something, and you think you've understood, but you haven't. And it's happened, right? Like, for example, in the books in some of the HANA few books, they say that a specific type of water, which is considered impure, you can't water your land with it. You can't use it for Wazoo, but you can sell it to the shareholders, right? in pure water,
the specific type that they're talking about. You can you can't make blue with it. You can't water your plants with it, you can't feed your animals with it, but you can sell it to the chef ears. Now, obviously, everyone here is thinking SubhanAllah. What kind of a statement is that? What's going on man with the fuqaha? Is that how much animosity they had between themselves that you can sell dirty water to them?
There is an understanding where you've understood something, but that didn't mean that what it meant is that according to the shaffir, is that type of what is considered pure. So if you did sell it to the Chavez, that sale would be correct. So Pamela, do you understand? Because we know that there are different in the categorizations of water? what's true and what's impure? Right? So this is what the author meant when he wrote that, but you who thought, you know, but you didn't know for something else. And then what happened, you might have spread a whole lot of information about the Hanafi madhhab and about the scholar in Morocco. alfalah. And he says the sun, basically is predicting
jehlen occurrence, we Allah forgive us, by so clear, and I think the brother told us what it is we'll stop at that question. And we'll save the questions for later on. Right? What is the ruling regarding the study of is it wajib? Is it Mr. hub? Is it for the key fire? What is the ruling? There are an MSA that has a few ruling straight at times, it can be an individual obligation, meaning each and every one of us have to learn it. And if we don't we sinful. And this individual obligation pertains to those aspects of the Sharia that concern each and every one of us, like how to observe Salah, and how to observe Hulu, and how to observe zecca and how to observe Hajj. These are things
which each and every one of us have to know how to get married, right? How to do trade, or maybe the other one would test the traders in the soup, you give them an exam. And when they pass the exam, you let them go trade today with the opposite we go and do and do and do them from the scanner. SubhanAllah This is what I did was drooling. We jumped from the bridge and now we freefalling and bushkill. Right? So what we're saying is that there are certain aspects in the Sharia that each and every one of us have to know if we don't know we sinful. And then for the other parts of the Sharia, these are things that are not specific to individuals knowing them. However, if individuals in
society know them, the obligation is lifted off the rest of the society, it's 45. So there's some knowledge that each and every one of us have to learn, that's for growing. And there's some knowledge which is a communal obligation for a communal obligation in that if some members of the society landed, Allah subhanho wa Taala lifts the obligation of the rest of society. Why? Because now you have an avenue to go get that knowledge when you need it, you have an avenue to go get that knowledge when you need it. So for example, it's important that you know, the ruling of going to miss Delica because that is specific to everybody. But then there could be certain intricacies like
what happens if I missed going to miss Delica because of a situation that I had no control over, for example Alhamdulillah then you have the scholars who have the intricate details about that particular circumstance that can produce for you a fatwa that Allah subhanho wa Taala said, First Allah, Allah Vicar in control, let me ask the people of knowledge, if you don't know and the scholars of Tafseer said that when Allah subhanho wa Taala released
This ayah it taught us that, that societies exist as two entities, societies exist as two entities, the first entity or the our, the general public who do not know the intricacies of the Sharia and the second entity or the dilemma, those that know the intricacies of the Sharia and when the I don't know a ruling, they go to the people who know the rules. Is that clear now, okay, so let's break there and inshallah we will continue after Salah I pray you will stay and don't leave because there's some so there's a chain that we're following, and inshallah, what we will learn after the break will complement what we've learned now. Heather Allahu Allah. sallallahu wasallam. Mubarak,
Mohammed Ali Hassan